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Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles||Anno Domini 2014||April||Issue No. 100

2014 April 6
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth


Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Anno Domini 2014


Issue No. 100

“That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God, one of our dear defenders thus to die.”

Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon Drive,

Greenville, SC 29607



Editor: Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



Quote from a Confederate Chaplain

“General Walker (himself an ungodly man) gave me clearly to understand that he regarded me in reality the

spiritual officer of the regiment; that he expected

me to

preserve the moral efficiency of the command by correcting and reporting such violations of morals and orders.”

Chaplain A. C. Hopkins



Virginia Infantry


Celebrate our 100


issue with us!

Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:

This is a time for celebration! This is the one hundredth (100


) issue of the Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles. In August, Anno Domini 2005 the first issue of this e-journal was dispatched for God’s glory and to help spread the good news of salvation in Christ the Son of God; and for the purpose of networking with SCV chaplains. Also, there is the intention of providing informative information on the Confederate chaplains for anyone interested. There is a need of identifying as many of the chaplains laboring in the Confederate armies as possible. The neglect of these men has gone on too long.

Perhaps it would be appropriate to repeat the first editorial.

I send greetings to all fellow chaplains from the “Briar Patch” in Spout Spring, Virginia. Our Confederate forefathers had a much greater difficulty communicating with one another than we do with all our electronic gadgets. However, the need for good communications is indispensable. Perhaps at times we can use this chronicle as a method of providing vital information.

Will you participate? Perhaps you have found a way of having a greater impact on your camp or division. Would you share it? Some of you could provide pertinent articles.

Some of the men in the Confederacy have relayed information to me at meetings or reunions. With all of the fanfare that goes on at such times it is

difficult to remember the details of conversations. Would you use the

Chaplain’s Corps Chronicles

to inform us?

We also need the e-mail addresses of chaplains in the Confederacy to add to this list. Will you help? I know we all have hectic schedules. Most of us have many hats that we wear, but if you want something done, they say, find someone who is busy.

Interestingly the first issue had news of a Chaplains Conference which was scheduled for November of 2005 at the same location as the one for 2014—Providence Baptist Church in Harrisonburg, Virginia.

In that issue was the article

The Soldier’s Grave: A Chaplain’s Story

which was written by a Confederate chaplain. We need to honor those men and seek to be better Christians and faithful chaplains in the SCV.

Oh, that this publication would have the blessings of the Lord to continue upon it as long as it remains faithful to the gospel truth which was the same preached by the Confederate Chaplains of the past; also we need to remain true to the history of the South and the Confederacy. The danger is the departure from Biblical and doctrinal truth along with an embracing of the distorted ideas of faulty teachings. Perhaps the

Book Reviews

in this issue will help in distinguishing truth.

There is a danger of imbibing revisionist history with its multitudes of distortions. How can those who renounce and reject Christ as God and Saviour write history that understands the Christian culture of the Old South?


Readers please be in prayer regarding the upcoming Chaplain’s Conference at Providence Baptist Church facility in Harrisonburg, VA. The date to put on your calendar is June 19-20.

Please find in this issue our Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us an article revealing what the Lord does and that is He brings

Light Out of Darkness. Your editor has provided an article dealing with one of the activities of those of the Chaplains Corps, The Confederate Chaplain as a Scribe. This issue as usual includes A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard. This sermon is by Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau on The Discretionary Power of the Church and this is part two of three. Our Book Review is actually an overview of Confederate Theological Writings

and is supplied by your editor.

Soli Deo Gloria,

Editor H. Rondel Rumburg


Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’ Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have their names and e-mail addresses. Also, feel free to send copies of this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it.

If you want to "unsubscribe" please e-mail the editor or assistant editor. Confederately, HRR]



The Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message,

Rev. Mark W. Evans


Light Out of Darkness,

Rev. Mark W. Evans


The Confederate Chaplain as a Scribe,

Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


A Confederate Sermon,

Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau.


Book Review:

Confederate Theological Writings


Dear fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

We are approaching the time of year when we especially remember the sacrificial sufferings, death, and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ. Our ancestors found strength and comfort in the eternal victory that the resurrected Redeemer gives to those who trust in Him. Many fell in battle, but looking beyond the grave, they knew the One who forgives sin, conquers death, and gives eternal life.

Jesus Christ said, “For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul” (Mat

thew 16:26)? In the midst of war’s horrors, the Gospel of Christ’s death, burial, and resurrection drew tens of thousands of the men in gray to believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. The War for Southern Independence brought the greatest revival known in our country’s history and created the Bible Belt. What a privilege we have as chaplains to guard and protect this part of our heritage that goes far beyond the affairs and circumstances of this life. The Rev. Dr. E. H. Myers, in July, 1863, wrote: “God is trying us in a fiery furnace of war; and for the present, the battle seems to go against us. The high hopes for our country and of a speedy peace, which we entertained a few weeks since, have been in a measure disappointed, and we may be doomed to yet greater disappointment. But there is a refuge for the soul in every storm. God’s peace and love, the joys and hopes of salvation, the sanctifying and comforting influences of the Holy Ghost, are not subject to human circumstances; and they may be ours amid every variety of calamity. But these are the fruits of the cultivation of personal religion; and, independent of every other consideration, the uncertainty of all other sources of comfort alone should be an inducement to us to betake ourselves to that refuge, to watch closely, pray much, believe with all our heart, and to cleave the closer to God, the louder the storm swells, and the more furiously the billows dash upon the wreck of earthly hopes.” The Lord’s servant concluded with these words, “

He who, in the dark hour, feels that he grows in grace and maintains soul-communion with God,

stands upon a rock” [

Christ in the Camp,

607]. May the Lord give us many chaplains in the Sons of Confederate Veterans possessing such faith and leading others to eternal victory!

We are looking forward to our Chaplains’ Conference planned for June

19, 20 at the Providence Baptist Church, 1441 Erickson Avenue, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22801. Pastor Lloyd Sprinkle has graciously agreed to be our host. The opening service is planned for Thursday evening, June 19, followed by a day of messages and fellowship, to end around 4 p.m. It would be a joy to have you present. Visitors are welcome. Please pray for the

Lord’s blessing upon this important meeting.

Deo Vindice!

Mark W. Evans



Chaplain-in-Chief’s Article

Light Out of Darkness

Mark W. Evans

After one hundred fifty years,

God’s purpose for the War for Southern Independence is still unfolding. The battles against the Northern invader, the genius of Southern military leaders, the hardships, endurance and fighting spirit of the men in gray, and their valor that repelled overwhelming numbers, remain an indelible testimony to martial excellence. Yet, there were other accomplishments that were of eternal value. It was God’s providential purpose to demonstrate the sufficiency of His grace in the extremities of a fierce war. A revival of immense proportions swept through the Confederate armies, bringing glory to the King of kings. Confederate Chaplain W. W. Bennett wrote, “In the midst of all the privations and horrors of war ‘the grace of God appeared’ unto thousands and tens of thousands in the camp and in the hospital, ‘teaching them that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, they should live soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world.’ The subjects of this revival were found among all classes in the army. Generals in high command, and officers of all lower grades, as well as private soldiers, bowed before the Lord of Hosts, and with deep penitence and earnest prayer sought the pardon of sins through the atoning blood of Christ” [The Great Revival, p. 18]. Chaplain Bennett quoted a report of a contemporary witness: “We cannot express our feelings while we think of them. Glorious fruits of the grace of God are these men that have been ‘born again’ on fields of blood. They left their homes for battle with a desperate foe they entered into associations and upon scenes, by universal consent, the most unfavorable to piety; but the ever-blessed Savior went with them; listening to ten thousand fervent prayers, He revived his work and made the still, small voice to be heard amid the thunder of war. It is a sublime expression of mercy” [The Great Revival,

18, 19].

The work of God in the Southern armies was undergirded by the South’s faithfulness

to the Bible. Philosophies attacking Christianity, the Scriptures and its foundational doctrines flooded the Northland. Chaplain Bennett said: “Itinerant venders of the various isms of the age have found a poor market for their wares among the people of the South. Hence, among the subjects of the army revival there was not found a strange jumble of opinions which had to be cleared from the mind before the simple truths of the Gospel could have their full effect [The Great Revival, pp. 23, 24]. The Rev. Dr. Sehon, who worked among the soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia, recalled a meeting in which he had requested the use of a Bible. A young soldier approached him and yielded his treasured volume. Dr. Sehon read in the front pages a moving message from the soldier’s family, expressing their affection, advice and prayers. The preacher said, “In the course of the sermon, I remarked that they were now peculiarly the subjects of earnest prayer and anxious solicitude. That for them, at this very hour, prayer from many a heart and home-altar was ascending to God that as in the volume I then held in my hand, which had been laid on the table by my unknown young friend, so each had with him a similar silent, yet painful witness of the anxiety, devotion and prayers, as pledged in these sacred gifts of their loved ones at home that they should now pray themselves to their heavenly Father and engage earnestly in His service.” The preacher said, “There was a low and gentle wail which came up from that weeping crowd like the mournful sounds of the passing breeze through the lofty pines of the distant forest” [The Great Revival,

pp. 20, 21].

Such tenderness and hunger for the eternal consolations of the Gospel brought tens of thousands to repent of sin and to believe in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. While there were those who betrayed their profession,

the South’s history records that many remained steadfast to the end. Confederate Chaplain J. C. Granberry wrote after the war: “How grateful then to us should be the story of what divine grace did for those brave men; how it exalted and hallowed their character, comforted them amid all their risks and sufferings, inspired the dying, whatever may have been the issue of the day, with immortal triumph, and continues to be in peace as in war the guide and joy of those whom battle, accident and disease have spared” [Christ in the Camp,

pp. 13, 14].

Rev. James McDowell, Chaplain of the Palmetto Sharpshooters, gave this account of an eternal victory

: “Not far off I witnessed a most triumphant death bed scene; an experienced Christian of the Third South Carolina Regiment. He said, ‘I am weaker, but my way is clearer than ever before. God is my Rock and my Fortress.He spoke of his great love for Christians, and spoke of this affording him evidence of his being a Christian; for, said he, ‘We know that we have passed from death unto life because we love the brethren.’ He spoke of his intense sufferings, but said, ‘Christ is very precious to me.’ Again he said, ‘I hope I will know you in heaven,’ and ‘I believe in heavenly recognition.’ He trusted in Christ alone, and said, ‘We are not saved by works, but by the unsearchable riches of Christ.’ Again he said, ‘No denominations are in heaven; loftier thoughts than these will engage our attention there.’ It was a privilege to hear his talk, and as I looked on his corpse next day, I thought what a glorious exchange his spirit has made” [Christ in the Camp,

p. 502]!

Such was the testimony of multiplied thousands that entered the righteous fight for

constitutional liberty, State’s Rights, and freedom from

tyrannical, centralized government. The Christian faith brought peace to the conscience, faithfulness to duty, and endurance to the end. Our heritage encourages us in our present struggles for

deliverance from what our forefathers knew would inevitably come to pass. The God who kept our relatives has preserved for us the truths of His Word, His Gospel, and the

promise of ultimate victory. The Psalmist said, “The Lord bringeth the counsel of the heathen to nought: he maketh the devices of the people of none effect. The counsel of the Lord standeth for ever; the thoughts of his heart to all generations” (Psalm

33:10, 11).

The Confederate Chaplain as a Scribe

By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

The primary purpose of Confederate chaplains was to present the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. Men are naturally depraved, sinful and lost, thus they need a Saviour and His salvation. Soldiers were facing eternity in every battle and there was the danger of disease, which killed more than bullets. The men without forgiveness with God needed to be pointed to the only one who could save them from their sins. Jesus Christ had lived a perfect life and died a substitutionary death and victoriously rose again the third day.

Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me” (John 14:6). There is no salvation apart from Jesus Christ. “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved” (Acts 4:12). The chaplain had the task of preaching as a

dying man to dying men.

The Confederate chaplaincy was a many-faceted job: besides preaching the gospel there was studying to preach, praying, leading prayer meetings, teaching, counseling, comforting, visiting the sick and dying, distributing literature, burying the dead, directing the building of chapels and many other tasks.

Confederate chaplains had to have the pen of a ready writer. They had a multiplicity of tasks that involved correspondence for soldiers as well as correspondence with churches, families and condolence letters. Sometimes soldiers were injured and could not write for themselves and sometimes they could not write due to a lack of education.

If no one else was available to be a scribe the chaplain became the soldier’s amanuenses. There were also records to keep and reports to write. Some chaplains kept journals or diaries. Writing to their own loved ones was very crucial in the life of the Confederate chaplain as well. A. D. Betts the chaplain of the 30th North Carolina Infantry in Experience of a Confederate Chaplain, which is his diary, was regularly penning such

remarks as: “write to wife” or “write to Mary.” He wrote:

Dec. -

Writing and reading until near midnight. Write to Mary, Keep ‘watch night.’ On my knees at midnight. A New Year begins! Oh, may it be a good year! May it bring peace to my land! May it carry me and my fellow soldiers to our several homes. Sorry for the follies of the past year. May I be able to spend the new one

more for God’s glory! [Betts, 52].

Sometimes the correspondence was almost overwhelming. The chaplain was often a go-between; when a man professed faith in the Lord Christ the chaplain would

recommend the individual to a local church in the man’s community.

This involved corresponding with the minister of the church and conveying information relative to the man’s conversion. The chaplain had to have knowledge of the man’s walk with the Lord

since his profession of faith as well as his grasp of Biblical truth. As has been mentioned the chaplain would write letters for the sick and wounded, but also at times for soldiers requesting their help.

Betts on October 26, 1863 has in his diary, “Prayer in Co. ‘E.’ Write sundry letters”

[48]. Writing was a constant in life for the chaplain. One reads of bad weather on the outside and the chaplain in quarters writing to catch up on letters. One entry in a diary was short and sweet, “Rain all day. Write many letters.” A chaplain described his

situation on one occasion explaining that he sat on his bed made of canvas stretched over two poles with his feet toward the fire writing on his little box desk. On another occasion a chaplain described writing for his denominational magazine until midnight.

There were various kinds of letters that were a part of the writing of chaplains. Take Chaplain William E. Wiatt of the 26

th Virginia Infantry, who wrote a diary. He is an example. Consider the varied nature of the following kinds of letters mentioned. “Wrote a letter to my beloved wife….” “Wrote a letter to Reverend James A. Duncan, Richmond, inviting him to preach in our Regiment….” “Wrote a letter for Foster Hall to his mother….” “Wrote letters to Dr. F. D. Jones and to Brother A. V. Wiatt, Petersburg….” “Wrote a letter to Brother J. W. Courtney, acknowledging the receipt of the $125.25 contributed by Olivet Church for King and Queen soldiers….” “Wrote a letter to Elder A. F. Scott (Gloucester Court House) and to my beloved wife….” “Wrote a letter to the ‘Religious Herald’ (the Baptist magazine for Virginia) remitting $5.00, Major Garrett’s subscription for copies for soldiers….” “Wrote a note to Colonel Knight in reference to the bill of lumber I requested him to saw for the Chapel and got a wagon to go after it….” These various letters were the ones mentioned by Chaplain Wiatt in his diary during just part of a month [Confederate Chaplain William Edward Wiatt

, 36-40].

The saddest part of letter writing was the condolence letters as families were notified of the death of a loved one from the family circle. Chaplain Betts on one occasion considered his Regiment [30

th N. C.] and wrote in bold letters, “Some are gone forever!” [35]. The loss of men who were friends and brothers in the faith was difficult. Chaplain Betts’ first letters of condolence were to wives of men out of his pastorate,

“Write to Mrs. Tedder and Mrs. Hood, whose husbands had fallen” [9].

These letters of condolence were part of the sad but important ministry. Conveying the death of a loved one to a family was an important aspect of the chaplaincy. This needed to be done in a discreet way that sought to be of comfort to a grieving family.

When a son was killed from one chaplain’s congregation he wrote the father a letter of

condolence. Many condolence letters were very personal because a number of chaplains went with members of their congregation to war. The group of parishioners formed regiments or were incorporated into part of a regiment and their chaplain was their former pastor. These condolence letters were very difficult for the chaplains who knew the family members to whom they were writing.

Consider the tasteful example of the following letter from Chaplain A. C. Hopkins of the 2


Virginia Infantry to Mrs. General Elisha Franklin Paxton:

Near Richmond, May 12, 1863.

In the tenderness and freshness of your grief, you may deem me an intruder, though I come to sympathize with you. Esteem for your husband while living, and regard for his memory now that he is removed from earth, prompt me, a stranger, to send you this letter.

I am a chaplain of his former command. An attack of typhoid fever caused me to be removed from camp to a kindly roof in the vicinity some six weeks ago; and from there I was rapidly hurried off from a sick-bed to avoid capture just the day before

my admired General’s death. Of course, therefo

re, I could not be with him on that ill-fated day, and have nothing of his last words to send you for comfort. I know, however, he died as a brave, patriotic soldier, whose home and family are invaded and humiliated by an enemy, would prefer to die, doing his duty for their defence. With all this you have been made more fully acquainted than I have, and therefore I leave it.

I can boast no claim to the special confidence of your husband. What I tell you, you may have learned before from his own pen or tongue. But I am assured that you will be much comforted to learn that in every conversation with me for months past he has given evidence of very serious reflection on the subject of religion; and so great has been his zeal in encouraging chaplains in the religious instruction of his troops, that I am induced to hope that the blood of Christ had purchased his soul, and he is now among the rejoicing saints in light.

During my illness he kindly came to see me twice, the last time but a few days before the battle, and each time he introduced and continued to speak on religious

matters. He always proved himself the chaplain’s warm friend so long as he

endeavored to promote the spiritual interest of his regiment and proved faithful to his ministerial office.

Now, madam, please accept the tender sympathies of a friend, admirer and

member of your lamented husband’s former command, although a stranger to you. May the great Comforter administer to you all the consolation which Heaven bestows on earth, and be so good a Guide and Light to your fatherless children as to compensate for their great bereavement. My failing strength bids me cease. With kind regards and tenderest sympathies for you and your mourning household, I am your sincere friend [John Gallatin Paxton, Memoir and Memorials: Elisha Franklin Paxton

, 110-111].

Chaplain Hopkins

’ letter of condolence touched on the essential areas that needed expression. The letter was written during his recovery from illness. This letter is a good example to any who must pen such words. His letter shows compassion, reveals a reticence to barge in where angels fear to tread, gives an acknowledgment of personal connection to the departed, expresses a reason for tardiness in writing, confides an open honesty regarding the circumstances about which he is writing, expresses the purposed life of the deceased, confides personal observations of the spiritual behavior of the late loved one, personalizes his testimony of the encouragement of the deceased, and desires the Lord’s administratio

n of consolation to those who were bereaved.

Yes, the chaplains needed to be scribes. Their task for Christ necessitated it and their duties demanded the use of the pen.


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

John Lafayette Girardeau

(1825-98) was a Presbyterian pastor and theologian of great ability. His life was devoted to the preaching of the gospel. His heart was deeply moved to work among the slaves of his native South Carolina. Prior to the outbreak of the War Between the States, he served as pastor of a predominantly black church.

Girardeau was once called the “Spurgeon of America,” and many were moved by his powerful Christ-centered preaching. In Preachers with Power, Douglas Kelly describes Girardeau as one who “had a profound grasp of the reformed faith and was skilled in preaching it with unusual power, clarity and unction to the men and women of his own culture…not a few observers expressed surprise at the theological nature of his preaching to the black slaves.”

Girardeau served the Confederate Army as a chaplain of the Twenty-third Regiment of the South Carolina Volunteers. Following the war Girardeau continued in the pastorate until he was called to the chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology of Columbia Theological Seminary. He would continue in that position until retiring due to poor health.

The editor of the Girardeau’s volume of sermons said the following regarding this sermon: “This is not the most eloquent, but it is the most valuable and the most timely sermon in this volume. It was preached before the General Assembly, at St. Louis, May 20, 1875. The author called it a testimony.”


Part II

Matt. xxviii:20. ”Teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I have commanded you.”

Still the question presses, whether the church has any power to develop doctrine. Is there such a thing as its legitimate development? It is necessary that we look again to the signification of our terms. There are certain writers, as, for instance. Dr. Rainy in his recent able lectures on the Delivery and Development of Christian Doctrine, who employ the term doctrine in a subjective sense, to signify the conception which the mind has of the teaching of Scripture, and which it reduces to formal shape. It is the doctrine of the Bible as apprehended by the understanding, and, perchance, modified by it in the process of assimilation. Hence it is inferred

that a real development of doctrine is warrantable. Now, it is perfectly evident that if a doctrine precisely as it is enunciated in the Scriptures is received by the mind, there is no more development admissible in the one case than in the other. If a doctrine be the very same on the pages of the Word and on the tablets of the human mind, what is predicable of it in one place is predicable of it in the other. And if, as written by the Spirit of God in the sacred oracles, it is not susceptible of substantial development, neither is it capable of such development when inscribed by the same Spirit upon the human soul. The same thing is true of doctrine as registered by the church in her formularies of faith and duty. If the doctrines of these symbols exactly coincide with those delivered in the Scriptures, it is impossible to see how they can receive any other development than that to which Scripture itself may be subjected. The ground may, therefore, be boldly and safely taken, that the doctrine of Scripture, if rightly apprehended by the individual mind, or rightly expressed in a church-creed, admits of no substantial development. It is a completed product of the divine intelligence. What is true of any particular doctrine is also true of a system of doctrine, whether held by an individual or by the church. If in either case the scheme of Scripture doctrine is accurately reproduced, nothing can be added to it and nothing taken from it. We do not hesitate, therefore, to maintain that in so far as a creed faithfully conforms to Scripture, it is no more susceptible of development than Scripture itself. What is it, in that case, but Scripture?

If, on the other hand, doctrines are held by the mind which are not those of Scripture, what is the development which is needed? What can it be but abandonment of them and the substitution of the true doctrines? If destruction can be termed development, then may such doctrines be developed. If those held are but imperfectly conformed to the scriptural standard, the developing process is simply one of correction by that standard. It is somewhat curious that there should be any perplexity about this matter. Manifestly, the development which is possible and legitimate in such cases is that not of doctrine, but of doctrinal knowledge. It is the mind’s stock of knowledge which is developed by substantial additions; and the very staple of these additions ought to be the unchanging doctrines of God’s Word. And precisely so is it with the knowledge of the church in her organic capacity, as that knowledge is formulated in her creeds. The fixed, the invariable, the undeveloping quantity is the doctrines of the Scriptures; the variable and developing is the church’s knowledge. If a creed is imperfect, let the church develop it into closer conformity with the Scriptures; or, in other words, let her adjust the formal statements of her knowledge to the nature and extent of that knowledge. This she not only may do, but ought to do; but in that case it is not Scripture doctrine which is developed, it is the theology of the church, by being brought into closer approximation to the changeless and everlasting Word. The distinction which has been illustrated is as clear is it is simple, and the wonder is that it is not always observed.

What becomes, then, of that development of doctrine by inference, which the Westminster Confession appears to sanction? If by development be meant the unfolding, the bringing out the latent and unexpressed meaning of a proposition, then it is admitted that to deduce doctrines from Scripture propositions by good and necessary consequence is a legitimate development of Scripture. But let it be observed that the development, in that case, proceeds not by substantive addition. It is simply the explicit evolution from the doctrinal propositions of the Word of what is implicitly contained in them, — the inference is part of the original enunciation. And it must be borne in mind that it is not a discretionary power which entitles the church to make such a development of doctrine as this: the rules of logic necessitate it. The only discretionary power which the church is apt to employ in the case is to attempt a development by

ill and unnecessary consequence. She has no commission to reason badly. The sort of evolution of doctrine we are considering is only justifiable when it proceeds by logical inference, and logical inferences are not speculative opinions. Let the church confine herself to the deduction of good and necessary consequences from the doctrines of Scripture, and she will not develop from them the doctrines and commandments of men.

There is a specious and dangerous form of this theory of development of doctrine which threatens, at the present day, to invade the supremacy of the written Word. The ground is not openly taken that the doctrinal system of the Scriptures may be developed, but it is maintained that the creeds and confessions in which the church has logically arranged that system cannot bind the conscience or shackle thought. It is contended that they are human compositions — fruits of the human brain, and that they are consequently collections of the unauthoritative dogmas of men. To forbid the development of doctrine beyond their limits is represented as tyranny, and tyranny in its worst form, as inflicted upon the intellect itself. The precious and inalienable right of private judgment, consecrated to the Protestant heart by the struggles of the Reformation, is retrenched, and the dogmatic despotism of man again enthroned in the sacred domain of conscience. The free, progressive, advanced thought of the age must not be strapped down by old dogmas which have gone to sleep with the conflicts which gave them birth. Like the weapons of ancient warfare, they did good service in their time, but they must give way to the improved arms of the present. Theological schools are not to be repositories of these now useless engines. The demand of the times is for untrammeled development. The young, vigorous, exultant intellect of this era will be satisfied with nothing less; and if the church insists on clinging to antiquated dogmas and repressing this temper of development, she must consent to be left behind by the grand army of progress in its onward and triumphant march. This is eloquent. All that it needs to make it effective is — truth. Had it possessed that simple quality it would, ere this, have fired and roused the heart of the church.

If the preceding argument is worth anything, it has shown that in whatever way the doctrines of the divine Word may be expressed, they are characterized by completeness and ultimate authority, and are, therefore, incapable of substantial development. Whether enunciated in the Scriptures, or written upon the tablets of the human mind, or inscribed upon the pages of a church-formulary, they are possessed of the same immutable characteristics. The question, then, is simply one of fact, — do church-creeds faithfully reproduce the doctrines of the Scriptures? The question to us as a church is, Do our standards accurately state those doctrines? If they do not, the development required is to expunge the dogmas which do not express the mind of Christ in the written Word, and incorporate those that do. If they do, as they utter the word of Christ, they are clothed with Christ’s authority. The delivery of Christ’s doctrines and commandments by men does not make them the doctrines and commandments of men. The fact being settled that the doctrines of these standards are the very doctrines of Scripture, we meet the fundamental premise in which the opposition to them is grounded with a denial. They are not human compositions, except in so far as their form and arrangement are concerned — they are for substance the composition of the divine Spirit; they coincide with the inspired writings. Their dogmas are not man’s, they are God’s dogmas. The cry for liberty to develop theological thought beyond their doctrines is the demand for license to develop it beyond God’s doctrines. This is the real secret of revolt against the binding authority of confessions. When men cry, Down with creeds! they mean, Down with the Bible ! When they shout, We will not be tied down by confessions of faith! they mean, We will not submit to God’s authority — the human intelligence is too gloriously free to be led captive by God Himself! These are not Christian views; they are

the children of rationalism brought to the font of the church and baptized under the attractive names of Broad-Churchism, Liberal Christianity, and Progressive Thought — the fair daughters of men with whom, when the sons of God consort, they generate the giant leaders of defection and apostasy.

And in the name of reason we would ask. Why should confessions of faith be rejected because they are old? What is there in age to invalidate truth? She is as old as God and as immortal as He. Is not the Bible old? Has age made it worthless? Is it not now, as it ever has been, the impregnable tower into which the righteous runneth when pressed by the legions of the pit? Has age made it decrepit? Is it not now taking wings like the Apocalyptic angel, to fly in mid-heaven and blow the trump of jubilee to the slaves of sin and death? Is not nature old? And are her laws inoperative because they began to work from the foundation of the world? Are her ordinances worn out because they are old? Shine not the heavenly host with the same luster with which they beamed upon the plains of Uz, when Job sang of the bands of Orion and the sweet influences of the Pleiades? And are the grand facts and doctrines of redemption effete because they date back to the promise which, springing like a bow from the abyss of the fall, has spanned the arch of time? Is the panoply of God of no further service because for ages the darts of the Devil have been driven in a fiery storm against it? And is the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God, now useless and to be discarded because in the conflicts of centuries it has rung against the armor of error and the mail of hell? No; the difficulty with these confessions — these battle-torn standards of the church — is not that they are antiquated; it is that they are as young and vigorous as ever. The light of immortal youth which rests upon the divine Word kindles upon them. Their crime is that they too faithfully represent God’s authority — that they restrain the license of speculation, call the students of truth into the school of Christ, and bind His yoke upon their necks.

To develop her knowledge of Scripture doctrine as its meaning is elicited by fresh conflicts with error, and new evolutions of providence, and, as developed, to give it formal and permanent expression in her symbols and in this way to develop them, — this is conceded to be the privilege and the duty of the church; but so far as this has been done and her standards made coincident with the Scriptures, she is debarred from any substantive development of their doctrines as she is precluded from such a development of the complete and ultimate rule of faith and duty. She ought to add Scripture doctrines to her standards when they are wanting; she has no power to add to Scripture doctrines in her standards.

The next aspect of this subject which claims our notice is the extent of discretionary power possessed by the church in the sphere of government.

Reverting to the great principle of the completeness of the Scriptures as a rule of faith and duty, we would expect to find in them ample directions in respect to the government of the church as an organized society; we would reasonably look for an adequate constitution for this supernatural kingdom from Him who is at once its Savior, its head and its sovereign — the giver of life, the source of power and the administrator of rule. To take any other view would be to impugn the perfection of the Scriptures, or to suppose that they were designed to be a guide to individuals only, and not to the church as an organic whole. To adopt this supposition is to impeach the wisdom of Christ, since in that case He would have failed to guard His church against the corruptions into which she has been plunged by this very hypothesis, that He has given her no definite form of government, but left her in that matter to the guidance of her own wisdom. But our expectation that He would provide for all the requirements of His church is not disappointed. He has revealed to her His will in this solemn concern of her polity. It is usual to

draw a sharp distinction between doctrine and government. In a certain sense, it is admissible — the sense in which the gospel as a doctrine differs from church-government as a law. It would, however, seem to be more accurate to take the distinction between the doctrine touching the way in which individuals are to be saved, and the doctrine touching the way in which the church is to be governed — in a word, the doctrine of salvation, and the doctrine of church-government. Both are matters of revelation; the government of the church is a revealed doctrine as well as the salvation of the soul. In both cases, therefore, our obligation is alike to believe and obey — to accept the doctrine and to perform the inculcated duties. If the individual embraces the gospel by faith, by faith likewise does the church receive the teachings of her Lord in reference to the government and order of His house. If this position be correct, it follows that the church has no more discretionary power to develop the doctrine of government by substantive addition or diminution than she possesses in regard to the doctrine of salvation. This, however, is denied. It is contended that there is no definite form of church- government revealed in the Scriptures; only the essential principles are given. If the language conveys any meaning, it implies that government in the general is instituted, but no form of government in particular.

It may, without arrogance, be suggested that it is difficult, if not impossible, to extract any clear and precise notion from this position. We can understand the proposition that Christ appointed no government for His church, but left it to the enlightened wisdom of His followers to devise one for themselves; but that is not what is affirmed. We can perceive, in the abstract, the logical distinction between the generic notion of government and the different species which may be contained under it; but it passes our ability to comprehend how, in the concrete, an organized society can be under government in the general, but under no particular sort of government. If, for example, it be said that a given political community is under government, the question at once arises. What government? Is it monarchical, or aristocratic, or democratic? If it be replied that it is neither under any one of these, nor under one composed of the elements of some or all of them, then we beg to know what conceivable idea of government remains. It is like thinking away all the distinctive marks which characterize a thing and then attempting to form a notion of the thing itself. There is a government, but there is no constitution which embodies it, and nobody authorized to administer it. The truth is that the effort to realize the abstract idea of government in the concrete necessitates the designation of some particular features, and however few may be the elements enumerated, their specification defines a certain kind of government which is distinguishable from others. If, therefore, Christ has, in His Word, ordained any government at all for His church, it must be one which is capable of being realized in a definite form. Has He done this? Has He revealed a government for His church? Is this among the all things which He commanded the apostles and which they were to teach the church to observe? This question will be settled by another. Has He revealed those component elements of a government the existence of which determines the existence of the government itself? The essential elements which enter into the composition of a government are laws, officers and courts. Each of these elements is revealed in the New Testament, — it embodies the laws, the officers are given under definite titles and with prescribed functions, and the courts are described. Presbyterians are sure that they find a particular sort of officers, courts peculiarly composed, and a specific principle which distinguishes the mode of administering the government from every other — the principle of government by Presbyters in representative assemblies, discriminating this polity from Prelacy on the one hand and Independency on the other. We have, then — so we firmly believe — a divinely-revealed polity of definite form. The King of the church has not left it to her to frame a government upon principles of expediency

commending themselves to human wisdom; He has supernaturally communicated to her as a supernatural organism her constitution, office-bearers and courts. It is no more permissible to the church to devise her government than to think out her gospel. Reason, no doubt, would, were it left to her, do better in the one department than in the other. That is not the question. The task of doing neither has been assigned to it. Polity is given as well as salvation, and in regard to it the church has no power but to conform herself strictly to the requirements of her complete and infallible rule.

There is a respect in which the church has discretionary power in this department, but it is one which does not in the slightest degree affect the nature and organization of her government. It lies not in the sphere of the supernatural, but altogether in that of the natural. The Westminster Confession very precisely defines the extent of this discretion. It is restricted to “some circumstances concerning the government of the church common to human actions and societies.” It is designed to speak more particularly of this “doctrine of circumstances” under the topic still remaining — that of worship — and it is here dismissed with a single remark. It is clear that circumstances which are common to human actions cannot be anything which is peculiar to church actions, and those which are common to human societies cannot be anything distinctive of the church as a certain kind of society. They are circumstances belonging to the temporal sphere — time, place, decorum, and the natural methods of discharging business which are necessities to all societies. They do not appertain to the kind of government which the church ought to have, nor the mode in which it is to be dispensed.

This, then, is the extent of the discretionary power of the church in the sphere of government: She is to add nothing to, to take nothing from, what Christ has commanded in the Scriptures. All her needs are there provided for. She must have a divine warrant for every element of her polity and every distinctive function of government. Her laws are given; her officers are given; and the mode in which those laws shall be administered, and those officers shall act, is given. She can, consequently, make no laws — her power is limited to declaring and applying Christ’s laws; she can create no offices — her power is expressed in electing the persons to fill those that Christ has appointed; she can institute no new mode of government — her sole power lies in employing that which Christ has ordained. Her power and her duty alike are summed up in absolute conformity to the Written Word.

Book Review

Confederate Theological Writings

by H. Rondel Rumburg

I have been asked before about Confederate theologians and the theology of the era. Who were the most prominent theologians who were loyal Confederates and what about their theological writings?

First, I bring to your attention James P. Boyce

’s Abstract of Systematic Theology.

He wrote a 493 page theology. Boyce was the founding president of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. During the War of Northern Aggression Dr. Boyce was a

fundraiser for the Confederacy and was committed to the cause. He was elected to a seat in the South Carolina Legislature in 1862 and re-elected in 1864. As a voice for the Confederacy he endorsed financial issues and published a pamphlet to that end. Boyce was also chaplain of the 16


South Carolina Infantry. His book of theology is very succinct and of highest merit.

Secondly, please consider with me John L. Dagg

’s A Manual of Theology which has 379 pages; also consider Manual of Theology: Second Part: A Treatise on Church Order with 312 pages. His theology is exceptionally readable and one of this editor’s favorites. This theology was Dr. Boyce’s text in teaching theology at the seminary till he wrote his theology. Dagg also wrote The Evidences of Christianity containing 418 pages and A Practical View of Christian Ethics (originally published as The Elements of Moral Science) containing 374 pages. These volumes were reprinted by Sprinkle Publications. Dagg was a pastor and educator. During his very active life he was president of Mercer University. He saw abolitionism as a great danger to the Constitution of the United States. Dagg wrote a Confederate tract called

A Proclamation of Peace.

Thirdly, I refer to Norvell Robertson

’s Church-Members’ Hand-Book of Theology

containing 323 pages. Robertson was an eminent Mississippi minister, who was born in Georgia in 1796. His father, also named Norvell was a Baptist preacher, who spent fifty-one years in the ministry in Georgia and Mississippi, and died at the advanced age of ninety-one years. His distinguished son professed Christ in 1830, and was ordained in 1833. Robertson served as an area missionary. He was soon called to take charge of the Leaf River Baptist Church, where he continued as pastor to the time of his death, in 1879, about forty-five years. He constantly refused the most tempting offers to leave this country church. He was a faithful minister to the flock where the Lord placed him especially during the War of Northern Aggression. This volume is a treasure originally published by the Sothern Baptist Publication Society and has been reprinted by Sprinkle Publications.

Fourthly, I call attention to Robert L. Dabney

’s Lectures in Systematic Theology containing 903 pages. Dabney was a man tremendous foresight much like Patrick Henry. Dabney was a pastor, writer and educator. However, during the War of Northern Aggression he first became chaplain of the 18th Virginia Regiment, and then was persuaded by Gen. T. J. “Stonewall” Jackson to become his Chief of Staff. After the strenuous Valley Campaign he was forced, by his health, to resign this duty in July of 1862. He continued to preach to soldiers as he could and upon the death of Gen. Jackson was requested by his widow to write a biography of the great general. Dabney also continued with his seminary work during the last years of the war. His literary works were many and formidable, in addition to his theology was Defense of Virginia and the South, Sacred Rhetoric, etc. There is a 5 volume treasure of Dabney’s writings called Discussions

which were re-printed by Sprinkle Publications.

Fifthly, please consider James Henley Thornwell

’s Collected Writings

in 4 volumes. His writing on Theology Proper or the Person of God is of great value. Thornwell was a minister and educator. He became a professor at South Carolina College and eventually became president. He pastored First Presbyterian in Columbia, SC. Thornwell became Professor of Systematic Theology at Columbia Seminary. He was an integral part of the establishing of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America at Augusta, Georgia. He was Confederate by conviction and threw himself into the cause of the South and his death occurred during the war.

Sixthly, is John L. Girardeau who was an accomplished preacher and Confederate chaplain! He was professor of Systematic Theology at Columbia Theological Seminary. One of his great books was

Calvinism and Evangelical Arminianism: Compared as to Election, Reprobation, Justification and Related Doctrines containing 574 pages. There is also his Discussions of Theological Questions containing 534 pages. There are other volumes of interest which he wrote. Sprinkle Publications has reprinted many of Girardeau

’s books.

Dear reader if these volumes were to be assimilated you would know what Confederates believed theologically. There were giants in the land in those days. These were not

“men pleasers” but men who sought to please God. Their ministries were

greatly used of God in true revival. Some today sadly try to apologize for these men. God owned their ministries with awakenings but nothing of the kind is heard of God greatly using these apologizers as He did them. Political correctness is not a spiritual virtue but instead a capitulation to the enemy. God save us from ourselves, please!!!!!!!

We must remember who we are and what we must be about:

The SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought.

To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s

good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations.


Chaplain’s Handbook

Sesquicentennial Edition

Sons of Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged Sesquicentennial Edition of the

Chaplain’s Handbook. It is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic, SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen; there has also been added a third burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America; a chapter on Praying in Public has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public Use.

All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the handbook will find it even more useful than before. There is the same cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication. Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles Anno Domini 2014 March Issue No.99

2014 March 9
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth


Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Anno Domini 2014


Issue No. 99

“That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God, one of our dear defenders thus to die.”

Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon Drive,

Greenville, SC 29607



Editor: Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



Quote from a Confederate Chaplain

“The Southern army … is one which, from its commanding Generals to its lowest privates, is pervaded with the sense of dependence upon God. The highest councils of its military leaders are opened with prayer for His divine guidance and benediction.”

Words of a Confederate Chaplain who remained with the wounded after Gettysburg


Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:

Spring is coming! At least if we are patient. This has been a cold winter much like some of those our Confederate ancestors experienced. There is another kind of cold that does not go away with the coming of spring. What is it? It is the spiritual coldness that seems perpetual these days. What could be worse? We are introduced to what is worse in the local church at Laodicea— The Amen said,

I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth

(Rev. 3:15-16). Lukewarmness is worse! The state of indifference is also known as lukewarmness. Do we care about God being honored properly, the Bible being believed properly or the history of our people being preserved properly? Have we become gun shy? Are we tired of the conflict? Are we giving up? An old saying divulges that any old dead fish can float downstream but it takes effort to swim upstream. There was a man described as “fervent in spirit” who “taught diligently the things of the Lord” (Acts 18:25). “Fervent” literally means boiling hot and anxious to serve God. This should be the way of the child of God. This was on display among many of the Confederate Chaplaincy. Many of the chaplains suffered greatly in order to minister Christ to the soldiers and as a result some were physically impaired for life, while others lost their lives. We must be about our Father’s business!


The Urge for Acceptance

By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

Our Southern people are selling themselves out for an acceptance which shall never be realized or given. Even though there are many who are willing to forfeit the honoring of their fathers and mothers by renouncing their Confederate ancestors. Some want their children to shed their Southern accents and bow to the god on the throne of political correctness. As Southern people renounce the Christian faith to be in tune with the god of this world they are losing their children to rebellion, sodomy, drugs, agnosticism and in turn those children disrespect their compromising parents. The South is becoming more like Chicago, New York and Detroit.

Sin is no longer feared, but being vilified by the masters of the corrupt culture is seemingly the primary fear. “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” Are we on the verge of God giving us up to uncleanness; God giving us up to vile affections; or God

giving us over to a reprobate mind (Rom. 1:18-32)? Or are we with Paul the Apostle when he said, “I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth…” (Rom. 1:16)?

The South is being vilified and will continue to be vilified, and why is that true? It is true because in the eyes of false religion we have been reprobated by the establishment which runs all the institutions of society. The Confederate States of America was a Christian nation and therefore her history is being rewritten with the pen of distortion and depravity. Even so-called Southern historians write books on the subject but there are no chapters on Christianity. If there is a reference to the Christian faith it is with a perversion of the truth and Christians are depicted in the light of hypocrisy. Political correctness which is anti-Christian cannot allow a true account of the Christian world-and-life-view of the South.

Why is this true? Is it because the Southern people need to be more pleasing to the establishment; is it because Southern people need to be more media wise; is it because Southern people have not renounced their ancestors; is it because Southern people need to be more humble? Would any of this help?

My distraught compromising Southern friends you must abandon your idea of ever gaining public acceptance! You never will unless you totally renounce everything and convert to newspeak! Why do I say such a thing? The reason lies in the guilt of the enemy and the depravity of man. People who have no reverence for God do not reverence anyone or anything else. What is the basis of such remarks? I premise this on the words of the Eternal Son of God, the Lord Jesus Christ, who is the only way of salvation (John 14:6). Jesus had some things to say in John 16:1-4: “I have spoken unto you….” He wanted His people to be wise to the world in which they lived. He warned that the establishment will put you out of the synagogues or churches and the time will come when killing you will seem like doing a public service or doing God a favor. Such enemies can justify any of their actions for they believe no absolutes. Jesus noted that these things they will do to you “because they have not known the Father, nor me.” Those who are not truly regenerate Christians will do this because they do not know by experience the grace of God. Neither God the Father nor God the Son do they know. The Lord warned in advance—”But these things have I told you, that when the time shall come, ye may remember that I told you of them.” This warning should be sufficient.

Gould Fletcher’s article on education in

I’ll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition

, a volume produced by the Agrarian movement, quoted a national convention of teachers in the North, who were meeting in Pennsylvania in August of 1865. These federal educators or change agents for the Northern brand of deconstruction declared that the just ended war was “a war of education and patriotism against ignorance and barbarism.” This Southerner is shocked when other Southerners perpetuate such abolitionist war propaganda and myths as facts of history. Frank Lawrence Owsley in the previously mentioned volume stated eloquently,

After the South had been conquered by war and humiliated and impoverished by peace, there appeared still to remain something which made the South different−something intangible, incomprehensible, in the realm of the spirit. That too must be invaded and destroyed; so there commenced a second war of conquest, the conquest of the Southern mind, calculated to remake every Southern opinion, to impose the Northern way of life and thought upon the South, write ‘error’ across the

pages of Southern history which were out of keeping with the Northern legend, and set the rising and unborn generations upon stools of everlasting repentance.

This conquest has been going on for 150 years. The Harvard president at the time (1865) was anxious for the North to spread its “knowledge and culture over the regions that sat in darkness.” This new kind of war aimed to capture Southern children with “the proper education in Northern tradition.” Has been embraced and Southern children have been sacrificed to Baal and the voices of their ancestors silenced or reinterpreted.

The urge to be accepted is going to fail. No one likes one who turns on his own people! You need to be sure that you are accepted in the Beloved (Eph. 1:6).


Readers please be in prayer regarding the upcoming Chaplain’s Conference at Providence Baptist Church facility in Harrisonburg, VA. The date to put on your calendar is June 19-20.

Please find in this issue our Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us a sketch of one of the founders of the Confederacy

James Henley Thornwell. Your editor has provided an article, which is the third of three in a short series, on Lee & Jackson as Fathers—Part III. John Huffman gives us an excellent article on A Lad Cares for His Invalid Mother. This issue as usual includes A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard. This sermon is by Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau on The Discretionary Power of the Church and this is part one of three. Our Book Review is on Jerry Bridges’ book I Exalt You, O GOD

and is reviewed by your editor.

Soli Deo Gloria,

Editor H. Rondel Rumburg


Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’ Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have their names and e-mail addresses. Also, feel free to send copies of this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it.

If you want to "unsubscribe" please e-mail the editor or assistant editor. Confederately, HRR]



The Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message,

Rev. Mark W. Evans


James Henley Thornwell,

Rev. Mark W. Evans


Lee & Jackson as FathersPart III,

Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


A Lad Cares for His Invalid Mother,

John Huffman


A Confederate Sermon,

Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau.


Book Review:

I Exalt You, O GOD


Dear fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

It is with joy that I announce the time and place of our next Chaplains’ Conference – June 19, 20, at the Providence Baptist Church, 1441 Erickson Avenue, Harrisonburg, Virginia 22801. Pastor Lloyd Sprinkle will be our host pastor. We sent an email prayer request to you several weeks ago requesting prayer for Pastor Sprinkle. He underwent heart by-pass surgery and is recovering well. We are grateful that he and his wife are willing to host our conference again this year. Pastor Sprinkle publishes such books as

Christ in the Camp, The Great Revival in the Southern Army, The Life and Times of Lt. General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson

, and other valuable resources helpful to SCV chaplains (see This conference provides an opportunity to meet other chaplains, learn from one another, hear instructive and edifying messages, and enjoy fellowship with those who appreciate the Cause of the South.

In the Lord’s will, we want to begin our conference with a service on Thursday evening and continue throughout the day on Friday, concluding around 4:00 p.m. The dates are later than usual, but I think it will work okay. The Sprinkles said, “Hopefully there will not be snow in June.” That part of Virginia has been inundated.

Let’s pray for one another, our camp members and families, and for all the leadership within the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

Deo Vindice!

Mark W. Evans



Chaplain-in-Chief’s Article

James Henley Thornwell



Mark W. Evans

James Henley Thornwell, theologian and preacher, was an eminent defender of the Confederacy. As a boy, he lost his father and faced poverty along with his godly mother. He was pale, sickly, and undersized, but possessed an unquenchable thirst for knowledge. A gifted teacher recognized his genius, and plantation owners agreed to provide for his education. At the age of 16, the scholar overheard his patrons planning to train him in the field of law. The next evening, Mr. W. H. Robbins, a friend and benefactor, found a letter under his plate. The distressed youth wrote:

My Dear Sir: I have adopted this method of discharging a duty, which I consider due to you in common with my other patrons; as I am incapable of speaking to you on the delicate subject without tears. The relation which has hitherto

subsisted between us is now to be dissolved. I would to God that this trying scene could have been averted. I would to God that this bitter cup could have passed from me. But His will be done. Though your regard for me should vanish like smoke, and though you should hereafter treat me with the utmost contempt and disdain, yet will I ever love even the very earth on which you tread.

After explaining his procedure for determining his future occupation, he declared, “In conformity to these views, which appear to me correct, I have determined to adopt theology as my profession.” Mr. Robbins found James weeping in a secluded place in his home. “Taking his hand, he led him gently back to the supper table, and there assured him that he was laboring under a total misapprehension of his views.” He said,

[N]othing was further from the hearts of those who had befriended him, than to force his inclination in any degree. He would be perfectly free hereafter to choose any profession which taste, or prudence, or conscience might suggest; and that he would enter upon its pursuits with their good will and blessing [

The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell,

pp. 47, 48].

When only 18 years old, James applied to the College of South Carolina for entrance into the junior class. The following year he graduated with highest honors. He next studied at Harvard University and finished at the Theological Seminary of Columbia, South Carolina. His subsequent labors included service as a professor and as president of the College of South Carolina, as pastor of several churches, as a leader in the assemblies of his denomination, and as Professor of Theology at Theological Seminary of Columbia. In his various ministries, he never lost his zeal to proclaim the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He declared,

It is my earnest desire and prayer that those who hear me may be saved. The solicitude which I always feel for the young men of my charge is collected to its greatest intensity when they are about to be dismissed from the pastoral instruction and care. If it could avail, I could weep tears of blood over those who have never been persuaded to become reconciled to God … when I reflect that they are probably hearing my voice for the last time, I am constrained to cry aloud in one final, desperate effort to dispel the enchantment which, if not dispelled, must seal them up in death [Douglas Kelly

, Preachers with Power,

p. 78].

Dr. Thornwell was ill when the War for Southern Independence began, yet he took up his pen to defend the cause. He wrote of South Carolina’s secession:

She has not renounced, and, if it had been permitted to stand, she never would have renounced, the Constitution which our fathers framed. She would have stood by it for ever. But, as the North have substantially abolished it, and, taking advantage of their numbers, have substituted another in its place, which dooms the South to perdition, surely she has a right to say she will enter into no such conspiracy. The Government to which she consented was a Government under which she might hope to live. The new one presented in its place is one under which she can only die. Under these circumstances, we do not see how any man can question either the righteousness or the necessity of secession. The South is

shut up to the duty of rejecting these new terms of union. No people on earth, without judicial infatuation, can organize a government to destroy them. It is too much to ask a man to sign his own death-warrant [

The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell,


Soon after the Confederacy’s formation, the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America adopted a resolution calling for allegiance to the Federal government. Forty seven presbyteries of the Confederacy departed their denomination and constituted the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States. The assembly adopted Dr. Thornwell’s defense of the separation. Dr. Benjamin M. Palmer described the scene as, one by one, the delegates signed the document:

We were carried back to those stirring times in Scottish story, when the Solemn League and Covenant was spread upon the grave stone in the Grey Friar’s church-yard, and Christian heroes pricked their veins, that with the red blood, they might sign their allegiance to the kingdom and crown of Jesus Christ, their Lord and Head [Ibid



On August 1, 1862, the faithful servant entered eternal glory. As early as 1850 he had discerned the real cause of the fierce conflict. He wrote,

“The parties in this conflict are not merely Abolitionists and Slaveholders; they are Atheists, Socialists, Communists, Red Republicans, Jacobins on the one side, and the friends of order and regulated freedom on the other. In one word, the world is the battle ground, Christianity and Atheism the combatants, and the progress of humanity the stake [

The Collected Writings of James Henley Thornwell,

vol. 4, pp. 405, 406].

As Sons of Confederate Veterans we are fighting the same battle. Our privilege is to forward the colors, not with physical weapons, but with spiritual truth. The Psalmist said, “The words of the Lord are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times. Thou shalt keep them, O Lord, Thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever” (Psalm 12:6, 7).

Generals R. E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson as Fathers

By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

© 2014 SBSS

Part III

Jackson the Father

To bring children up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord a father needs to know the Lord. This was true of Thomas J. Jackson. When injured and facing death he said:

It has been a valuable and precious experience to me, that I was brought face to face with death, and found all was well. In that experience, I learned an important lesson, that one who had been the subject of converting grace, and was the child of God, could, in the midst of the severest sufferings fix the thoughts upon God and heavenly things, and derive great comfort and peace. But that one who had never made his peace with God, would be unable to control his mind, under such suffering an in such circumstances, so as to understand properly the way of Salvation and repent and believe on Christ. I felt that if I had neglected the salvation of my soul before, it would have been too late.

Thomas Jonathan Jackson longed for children in God’s time and under His blessing. His life was filled with family sorrows that would have embittered many but these events were used of the Lord to fashion a “Stonewall” Jackson. He believed his God was always greater than the difficulties or visitation of sorrows. He had experienced the loss of his father and older sister when but a wee fellow, then he was orphaned of his beloved mother as a little boy; in his youth he lost his older brother; and he was passed around to different relatives for his rearing. Most of his upbringing was at Jackson’s Mill in the home of an unmarried Uncle Cummins Jackson, who at times was of dubious behavior. All of this occurred prior to manhood and marriage.

Every facet of family life was of great concern for Thomas J. Jackson for he had not experienced growing up with his parents. The souls of those in his household were of primary concern as well as their discipline, behavior, health and education. Since Thomas did not have a normal family upbringing he sought to compensate as best he could. He was a man devoted to the Lord and conscientious about life.

Thomas Jackson’s first marriage was to Eleanor Junkin whose father was a minister and president of Washington College. Thomas was growing in the Christian faith when they married. Thus in his pursuit of the Christian life he had an invaluable helper in his wife. Both of them desired to live for their Lord. He had become a student of the things of God when he became a Christian, but “Ellie,” as she was commonly called, helped Thomas fill in the gaps in his spiritual lessons on some of the elementary things of God. Elizabeth Preston Allan wrote:

Major Jackson found in Eleanor Junkin not only the sweetest woman he had ever known, and the most charming and engaging companion, but the highest type of Christian, as well. Hers was the stanch, conscientious, God-fearing faith of the old Covenanters, sweetened and sunned and blossom covered by a dainty and altogether lovely womanliness.

The couple longed to bring glory to God and to receive God’s blessings upon their home. Jackson had never remembered such peace in home life as he now enjoyed for since boyhood he had no home under the roof of his parents for they were dead. Ellie helped

make their lives together one of great joy. Also, Thomas had been so protective of his little sister Laura, especially because of their less than normal childhood. Now he desired her to come to Christ in salvation, and Ellie joined in his desire. Therefore in their prayers and letters they sought her salvation.

Thomas and Ellie expected a baby in October of 1854. Everything seemed to be normal with the pregnancy. Then suddenly something went awry on Sunday, October 22, 1854 and Ellie died during the birthing of a stillborn infant. Ellie and the stillborn child were buried together. The great benefit of family connection was broken after fourteen months. Now Thomas Jackson had to face life without the one which some said, “He had loved too much.” The first child of this father was dead at birth.

In a letter to Maggie, Ellie’s sister and mentor, on February 14, 1855 Thomas wrote:

My dear sister, from my heart I thank God that though He has left me to mourn in human desolation He has taken dear Ellie to Himself. I am well assured that He left her with us to the latest moment consistent with His glory, hers, yours, and my happiness. For no good thing will He withhold from His children.

Thomas was now undergoing a test from his gracious Lord. Here was a trial of his fatherhood in its preliminary stage. Daily he visited Ellie and the infant’s grave. Grief was so intense there was a momentary eradication of the distinction between life and death. At one moment there was the desire for the one and at another the desire for the other. But the fourteen months of life with Ellie had impacted Thomas in so many ways that actually helped prepare him for the rest of his life. Maggie would write that it was “a fitting crown to Eleanor’s short and beautiful life.” Finally, the sorrow was eclipsed and Major Thomas J. Jackson wrote:

I cannot realize that Ellie is gone; that my wife will no more cheer the rugged and dark way of life. The thought rushes in upon me that it is insupportable—insupportable! But one upward glance of the eye of faith, gives a return that all is well, and that I can do all things through Christ that strengtheneth me. Are not His promises wide enough? The height and the length the breadth and the depth thereof, no mortal man can fully measure or take in.

In the end he found that no matter how great was his sorrow his God was always greater. Ellie and the infant were in the hands of the Lord. Jackson would often say, “We could not love an earthly creature too much if we only love God more.”

Some three years after the death of “Ellie” Thomas was to wed again. On July 16, 1857 Thomas J. Jackson remarried. He married Mary Anna Morrison whose father was a minister and founding president of Davidson College. Their first winter together was one of continued adjustment and joy. Thomas made a suggestion that they study together the

Shorter Catechism

as a Lord’s Day activity. This catechism had been an

integral part of Anna’s childhood since she had to master it as a part of her Christian upbringing. Thomas had not been schooled in the catechism. Thomas believed his childhood’s shortcoming, relative to the catechism, needed to be remedied for he needed the information contained therein. He had previously made himself generally acquainted with its contents. The very person to be his source of help he believed was his beloved wife. Not only did he desire to master it himself, but he felt it necessary to do so. Thus Anna was his choice as a teacher. She described the situation:

A few months after our marriage he proposed that we should study together the

Shorter Catechism as a Sabbath-afternoon exercise, and it was not long until we committed it to memory—he reciting it to me with perfect accuracy from beginning to end. This he had not been taught in his youth, although he had read it carefully before committing himself to Presbyterian-ism. He considered it a model of sound doctrine, as he did also the Confession of Faith

; but his chief study was the Bible itself, which was truly “a lamp unto his feet, and a light unto his path.”

Not only was Thomas concerned about the education of his wife and himself he was concerned for his household. He catechized a servant child. He sought to help in the education of a nephew who lived with them for a while.

Thomas had the proper order. God’s Word was his chief study in his life and home and then those things which could aid in understanding doctrinal matters and make one wise in living in the Lord’s world. Anna helped her husband in his pursuit of learning that he had missed in his childhood. Their marriage was fulfilling in so many ways.

Thomas became a father on April 30


, 1858 when a daughter they named Mary Graham Jackson was born. The parents sought to honor Anna’s mother by naming the little bundle of joy after her. The elation of the new parents can be seen in their joy of spreading the news. Thomas now a father of a living child wrote the following to Anna’s mother:

Dear mother, we have in our home circle a darling little namesake of yours, and she is a bright little one, her father being the judge…. I hope it will not be many years before our little Mary Graham will be able to send sweet little messages to you all.

The prospects of the happy father are very clear in this letter and the same was manifested in many letters. Thomas was writing to get out the word to those they loved and knew wanted to hear their joyous news.

In another letter which Thomas wrote from the joys of fatherhood was to his sister. His excitement seemed so evident that he mixes various events, as if driven by nervous excitement, in relaying their good news:

Lexington, Va., March 1, 1858.

My Dear Sister:

I am very much pressed with business, but I must drop you a line to say that yesterday God blessed us with a charming little daughter, and we have named her after Mrs. Morrison, Mary Graham. My eyes have been troubling me a great deal lately. I regret that you have had so much suffering. It appears to have resembled my attack. I am now using glycerin which is the essence of oil. I take it through the nostrils for the purpose of curing the inflammation at the entrance of the nasal tubes into the mouth, and I find it of great service. God has blessed its use to me. I tried caustic or nitrate of silver, but with much less effect. I hope that you will soon be well I ascertained to-day that I can get a copy of “Silverwood” in town, so you may expect one when Mr. Chenoweth goes home, if not before. Anna and the little one are both doing very well, for which we are very thankful to our heavenly Father. I received a letter from Wirt a few days since; his health, I think, is just tolerable from what he says. I have been wanting to write to Thomas for some time, and hope to do so before long. May the blessings of our heavenly Father rest upon you richly is the prayer of your affectionate brother. Anna joins me in love to you and the children. Remember me very kindly to Mr. Arnold.

Your brother,


Thomas began his letter by relating the birth of little Mary and much later in the letter he tells Laura that Anna and the little one are doing well for which they were “very thankful to our heavenly Father.” He also related that Anna joined in sending her love. The new father excitedly jumped from one subject to another in his missive.

The immense happiness that had engulfed the parents was short lived for little Mary became ill. She was showing signs of jaundice. Then in another letter there was an explanation of the situation from the father’s point of view:

Lexington, Va., May 22, 1858.

My Dear Sister:

Your welcome letter came safely, but finds our little daughter Very ill of jaundice; and she may at any hour take her place among the redeemed in Paradise. Anna is doing well. My intention has been, and still is, to visit you this summer, but I learned a lesson from last summer not to make a promise; for no one can tell what a day may bring forth. But I trust that if our little daughter lives that God will bless us all in a visit to see you, and all the family. It seems like a long time since I was at your house. The children, I suppose, have grown a great deal. Give my thanks to my darling little niece for her letter, and tell her I expect to answer

it in a few days. Give much love to all the children from myself and Anna. She joins me in love to you. I received a letter from Wirt this morning, stating that he is well, but that he lost his horse by his straying off, and that he wants me to forward him one hundred and five dollars New York draft, which I want to try and do, though it will cost a premium here.

Your affectionate brother,


The letter instills in the reader the caution of a father who understood the brevity of life. The letter also shows that the Jacksons believed that children that die in infancy go to heaven. Although all those born of Adam’s race inherit a sin nature and all acts of sin are performed as a result of that nature there is redemption through Christ Jesus. If infants are saved they must to be included in Christ’s redemption. The Jacksons and most other Bible believers think that infants have the benefit of the atonement of God’s Son. There was an acute awareness evident in the letter that they could lose their little Mary Graham. She after all was in the hand of God as are all created beings. The infant mortality rate of that era was very high. Then five days short of reaching a month old little Mary Graham died. A memorial service was conducted on May 26, 1858. The parents sorrowed not as others which have no hope, but there was a deep bereavement over one that had already come to love so dearly. Their God was greater than any circumstance and He was the balm in Gilead to their souls as they comforted each other with His Holy Word and rested in the consolation that the God of all the earth does right. Thomas sought to console Anna and he pursued that which made for her well being.

The little niece, Anna Grace Arnold, who was a favorite of her uncle, received the following letter:

Lexington, Va., June 7, 1858.

My Dear Little Niece:

Your very interesting letter reached me a short time before your sweet little cousin and my little daughter was called from this world of sin to enjoy the heavenly happiness of Paradise. She died of jaundice on the 25th of May. Whilst your Aunt Anna and myself feel our loss, yet we know that God has taken her away in love. Jesus says, “Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.” Did you ever think, my dear Grace, that the most persons who have died and gone to heaven are little children? Your aunt is doing very well; she is out visiting. We hope to go and see you all this summer, but my health is so delicate that I am disposed to go North first. I think this will give us more time to stay with you. Should we go to see you first I may have to hasten on North without

staying more than two or three days. I wish you would write to me at once and let me know which you would rather I should do. I hope that you have enjoyed your school and your vacation both a great deal. Remember your aunt and uncle to your father, mother, Thomas and Stark, and accept much love for yourself.

Your affectionate uncle,


Thomas as a father kissed the hand of providence in the removal of his child whom he loved dearly. The Lord does not make any mistakes. Anna wrote of her husband, “But here, as always, religion subdued every murmur. Great as was his love for children, his spirit of submission was greater, and even in this bitter disappointment he bowed uncomplaining to his Father’s will.” The assurance that

all things work together for good to them that love God was a reality to the major. Jackson “always said he preferred

God’s will to his own; and his perfect assurance of faith never forsook him, however severely it might be tried.”

During the war Thomas tried to stay in touch with Anna and she with him via letter. The events of war remind people of the perishable nature of life. Anna lived with her parents and family in North Carolina during much of the war except when she travelled to be with her husband on rare occasions. War news was the topic of conversation. Anna must have been concerned when she read of the loss to overwhelming numbers of her husband’s army at the Battle of Kernstown on March 23, 1862. This battle was not far from Winchester. Anna received a short letter on March 24


which was Thomas’ brief explanation of bravery and the repulse due to superior numbers. Thomas made his wife aware of the “Many valuable lives … lost.” Then he stated, “Our God was my shield.” This was true because their lives were in the Lord’s hands.

Sometime after Anna’s visit to Thomas in Winchester there was news that Anna shared with Thomas in a letter likely the last of March. She had written about her sickness. Neither one of them seemed to know the origin at first. Others seemed to have noticed but evidently did not confide their thoughts to Anna. His answer to the news of sickness was to write with “great concern” on April 7


; this seemed to evidence that he did not know the cause. He challenged Anna in his letter to “so live that it, and all your trials, may be sanctified to your, remembering that ‘our light afflictions … are … for a moment’” but they “‘work out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory.’ I trust you and all I have in the hands of a kind Providence, knowing that all things work together for the good of His people.” Thomas had lost Ellie along with the child; then he and Anna had lost their first child. He did not take life for granted. Their Mary Graham had a very short life. There seemed to be a fear of presuming on God. The Word of God was their source and stay. Thus he quoted of two verses: 2 Corinthians 4:17 and Romans 8:28 which was a part of Thomas’ consolation to Anna.

Finally, Thomas was told that he would be a father. The intervening letters were very sensitive and scriptural. Then when Thomas knew Anna was overdue he did not know if there were complications. A prayerful husband still sought to perform his military duties but only the Lord could prevent a repeat of his loss of another wife and child. Ellie and the little one had both died. However, he knew they were in the Lord’s hands and all things were working together for good to those who love God.

Little Julia Laura Jackson was born on the Lord’s Day just after the worship service, November 23, 1862. Thomas was in Virginia when the birth took place doing his duty as a soldier. Anna gave birth in North Carolina. Anna’s sister Harriet was gifted with a unique expression of pen. Harriet chose to write the informative letter to Julia’s father as if it were written by little Julia. Therefore, General “Stonewall” Jackson the Defender of the Valley received the following precious missive.

My own Dear Father,—As my mother’s letter has been cut short by my arrival, I think it but justice that I should continue it. I know that you are rejoiced to hear of my coming, and I hope that God has sent me to radiate your pathway through life. I am a very tiny little thing. I weigh only eight and a half pounds, and Aunt Harriet says I am the express image of my darling papa … and this greatly delights my mother. My aunts both say that I am a little beauty. My hair is dark and long, my eyes are blue, my nose straight just like papa’s, and my complexion not all red like most young ladies of my age, but a beautiful blending of the lily and the rose. Now, all this would sound very vain if I were older, but I assure you I have not a particle of feminine vanity, my only desire in life being to nestle in close to my mamma, to feel her soft caressing touch, and to drink in the pearly stream provided by a kind Providence for my support. My mother is very comfortable this morning. She is anxious to have my name decided upon, and hopes you will write and give me a name, with your blessing. We look for my grandmother to-morrow, and expect before long a visit from my little cousin, Mary Graham Avery, who is one month my senior. I was born on Sunday, just after the morning services at church, but I believe my aunt wrote you all about the first day of my life, and this being only the second, my history may be comprised in a little space. But my friends, who are about me like guardian angels, hope for me a long life of happiness and holiness and a futurity of endless bliss.

Your dear little wee Daughter.

There was a series of these little letters to Thomas from the “dear little wee daughter” but this was the only one to survive the war. Once Anna was recovered from the childbirth she took her pen and the “wee one” gave up writing for a spell. The new father responded to the letter:

Thank sister Harriet very kindly, and give the baby-daughter a shower of kisses from her father, and tell her that he loves her better than all the baby – boys in the world, and more than all the other babies in the world.

His fatherly assertion was, he loved “her better than all the baby – boys in the world.” This was intended to give reassurance to Anna who was afraid that Thomas was disappointed at not having a baby boy. Thomas had previous to the childbirth mentioned that men had a greater sphere of use and opportunity than women. This is why Anna thought him disappointed. But Thomas believed God’s will was best and that meant he needed a little girl. Anna noted that “… his own will was so entirely in subjection to that of his Heavenly Father that he said he preferred having a daughter, since God had so ordained it.” He would say, “I fear I am not grateful enough for unnumbered blessings.”

Anna described how she felt when she first held Julia. “When she was placed in my arms for my first look … my heart was thrilled with delight and thankfulness….” That which caused the delight was “seeing every feature of his (Thomas’) reproduced in her tiny face.” In the future as this likeness matured often Jackson’s old soldiers would be taken aback and sometimes weep as they saw his likeness in his little girl.

The new father wrote, “Oh! how thankful I am to our kind Heavenly Father for having spared my precious wife and given us a little daughter! I cannot tell how gratified I am….” He noted how much he wished to be with his “two darlings.” Thomas’ playfulness broke out through his pen:

Don’t you wish your husband wouldn’t claim any part of it, but let you have the sole ownership? Don’t you regard it as the most precious little creature in the world? Do not spoil it, and don’t let anybody tease it. Don’t permit it to have a bad temper. How I would love to see the darling little thing! Give her many kisses for her father.

Not only does his playfulness exude from these words but some concerns are evident as well.

Thomas also mentioned to Harriet in another letter marked: “Christmas, 1862. Yesterday I received the baby’s letter with its beautiful lock of hair.

How I do want to see that precious baby! and I do earnestly pray for peace.” Then he remarked,

I haven’t seen my wife since last March, and, never having seen my child, you can imagine with what interest I look to North Carolina.” Here his disappointment was registered but duty required he stay with his command.

Anna wanted Thomas to give the baby a name, since her mother’s name had been given to their first child that died in infancy. Thomas named her Julia to acknowledge his mother. He reasoned, “My mother was mindful of me when I was a helpless, fatherless child, and I wish to commemorate her now.” His memories of his mother were

of necessity as a little boy and of great tenderness because of her love, instruction and final goodbye. Her short time with Thomas shows what a tremendous impact a mother exerts over a child. He was orphaned as a little lad. And Julia’s middle name was Laura in honor of Thomas’ sister whom he immediately took under his care when they were orphaned.

Both Anna and Thomas were a bit fretful regarding the future of their child. Thomas even reminded Anna, “Do not set your heart upon her, except as a gift from God. If she absorbs too much of our hearts, God may remove her from us.” When Julia came down with a severe case of chicken pox General Jackson said to Dr. McGuire, his medical director, “I do wish that dear child, if it is God’s will, to be spared us.” About this time Jackson was encamped on the Corbin property. He became concerned over Julia’s health when little five years old Janie Corbin came down with scarlet fever in the middle of March. The little golden haired child, who would have been about the age of his Mary Graham, if she had lived, was suddenly taken away in death. The child had become attached to the general and he to her. Jackson was overwhelmed with grief and wept sorely. He was in the process of moving his headquarters when this death occurred.

Having never seen his child Thomas, the concerned father, asked Anna, “Does she notice and laugh much?” He also wondered why Anna did not tell him how much Julia looked like her mother. Evidently Thomas had begun to talk out loud or perhaps his mind was expressed via phantom speech to Anna and Julia in the mornings and evenings. Consider the following account: “If you could hear me talking to my


in the mornings and evenings, it would make you laugh, I’m sure. It is funny the way I talk to her when she is hundreds of miles away.” He was a loving family oriented individual as well as a man of humor. Perhaps he was unlike the man many pictured in their minds.

About this time Thomas became concerned about Anna’s health so he sent her brother Joseph, who was on his staff, to her as his emissary.

I send this note by him, and also send the baby a silk handkerchief. I have thought that as it is brightly colored, it might attract her attention. Remember, it is her first present from her father, and let me know if she notices it.

Anna said this handkerchief has “been sacredly preserved as a precious relic.” Later Thomas received a letter from Anna describing Julia’s reaction to his gift. The father replied that he was “glad little Julia was pleased with her present, and wish I could have seen her laugh.”

Anna’s health began to improve by the goodness of the Lord. This was a relief to Thomas who had often besought the throne of grace for his beloved wife’s health. He noted that he was reminded of human mortality. “I think that if, when we see ourselves in a glass (or mirror) we should consider that all … that is visible must turn to

corruption and dust,” (this harkened back to the passage Thomas had read to Anna the day he left Lexington for the war, 2 Corinthians 5:1), “we would learn more justly to appreciate the relative importance of the body that perishes and the soul that is immortal.”

Anna’s verbal depictions of Julia were a boon to her father who had never laid eyes on her. These descriptions only intensified his desire to see her for himself and give her a loving squeeze. Finally, when things seemed safe and Julia was well over her sick spell Thomas gave Anna the news that she had been waiting to hear. She was being invited to make a visit. Thomas in a letter written on April 18, 1863 told Anna he was looking for “my darling and my baby.”

The Monday when little Miss Julia Jackson arrived at Guiney’s Station was a rainy day. Her father arrived with many other eager eyes looking on, everyone trying to get a glimpse of the babe and mother. Thomas entered the coach with his slicker dripping rain. His extremely blue eyes seemed to light up as he greeted his wife and little Julia. Mrs. Jackson wrote:

She was at the lovely, smiling age, and, catching his eager look of supreme interest in her, she beamed her sweetest and brightest smiles upon him in return, so it seemed to be a mutual fascination. He was afraid to take her in his arms, with his wet overcoat; but as we drove in a carriage to Mr. Yerby’s [where he had engaged board for us], his face reflected all the delight and happiness that were in his heart, and he expressed much surprise and gratification at her size and beauty. Upon our arrival at the house he speedily divested himself of his overcoat, and, taking his baby in his arms, he caressed her with the tenderest affection, and held her long and lovingly.

During this short visit, General Jackson rarely had Julia out of his arms as he carried her and amused her in every way his imagination could find. He would hold her up to a mirror and say, “Now, Miss Jackson, look at yourself!” Then he would turn to someone in the room and say, “Isn’t she a little gem?” Those present frequently remarked to him that she looked like him, but he would say, “No, she is too pretty to look like me.”

As Julia slept her father would often kneel at her cradle whereupon he would gaze into the little face with rapt admiration. Anna often afterward desired that the scene could have been captured on canvas.

Jackson, as a Christian father, did not have any idea of spoiling her or allowing her to be spoiled. He sought to teach Julia self-control. His discipline began before she was five months old. One day she began to cry to be held as she showed signs of becoming spoiled. As soon as she was picked up, she stopped crying. Her father laid her back upon the bed, and the crying was renewed with increased volume. Anna desired to stop the crying by taking her, but her father exclaimed, “This will never do.” He issued a

command “all hands off” until that little will was conquered. She lay on the bed kicking and screaming, while he stood over her with as much coolness and determination as if he were directing a battle. He was true to the name of “Stonewall” even in disciplining his baby daughter! When she stopped crying, he would take her up, but if she began to cry again, he would lay her back, and this was repeated until she was completely conquered and became perfectly quiet in his arms.

Anna Jackson’s visit lasted only nine precious days before it was interrupted. The morning of April 29


it was cut short. The Jacksons were aroused by a messenger reporting that General Early’s adjutant needed to speak to General Jackson. Jackson was told that Hooker was crossing the river. Thomas headed out to prepare a proper Confederate reception for Hooker, the invader from Lincoln’s Army of the Potomac who was coming to kill in Virginia. Anna was awaked to the fact that the precious family time was over. Little did she realize that never again would her husband and the father of their child attend the public worship of the Lord together!

Thomas was unwilling for his family to remain. They would be exposed to danger if they remained with the Yerbys. The capture of his family would unduly play into the hands of the enemy. Anna was informed to prepare to leave for Richmond at a moments notice. Her husband promised that he would return to see them off providing circumstances allowed. Although in the event of providential hindrance, he would send Anna’s brother Joseph to be her escort. After a tender and hasty good-by, he hurried off without breakfast.

Almost as soon as General Jackson left, there was the sound of cannon fire and the earth began to tremble, frightening the Yerby and Jackson family. Duty kept Joseph Morrison from seeing his sister off and the general sent a most trusted friend in Chaplain B. T. Lacy. Anna gave the following description:

My hasty preparations for leaving were hardly completed when Mr. Lacy, the chaplain, came with an ambulance, saying he had been sent by General Jackson to convey his family to the railroad station as speedily as possible, in order to catch the morning train to Richmond. My brother Joseph, seeing General Jackson’s need of his services, had requested that Mr. Lacy should be sent in his stead as my escort. He brought a cheerful note from my husband, explaining why he could not leave his post, and invoking God’s care and blessing upon us in our sudden departure, and especially was he tender and loving in his mention of the baby.

Now that his family was headed for safety General Jackson concentrated on crushing the vicious invader and destroyer of human life and property.

The Battle of Chancellorsville was the greatest victory for General Jackson as well as the last. He was wounded after the great victory of the first day’s battle. He was mistakenly shot by his own men while doing recon after the battle. Sunday morning,

May 3


, at first light, Chaplain Lacy reached the field hospital near Wilderness Tavern. General Jackson’s arm had already been removed, and by then he had recovered from the effects of the chloroform. Lacy spoke to Jackson in the field hospital. He inquired after his general and Christian friend, expressing his deepest regret. Jackson thanked him with his usual politeness and then said:

You find me severely wounded, but not unhappy or depressed. I believe that it has been done according to the will of God; and I acquiesce entirely in his holy will. It may appear strange, but you never saw me more perfectly contented than I am today for I am sure that my heavenly father designs this affliction for my good. I am perfectly satisfied that, either in this life, or the life which is to come, I shall discover that what is now regarded as a calamity is a blessing. And if it is regarded as a great calamity [for surely I shall feel it to be a great inconvenience to be deprived of my arm] it will result in a great blessing. I can wait until God in his own time shall make known to me the object he has in thus afflicting me. But why should not I rather rejoice in it as blessing, and not look upon it as a calamity at all? If it were in my power to replace my arm, and to restore myself to perfect health, I would not dare to do it, unless I have reason to believe it was the will of God.

Jackson remained at the field hospital until Monday morning, May 4


. General Lee then sent word to remove him. This was primarily to prevent the danger of capture. Chaplain Lacy woke Jedediah Hotchkiss at an early hour to guide the ambulance carrying General Jackson and Colonel Crutchfield to Guiney’s Station. During Monday’s ride, Jackson met many teamsters with supplies, who, as soon as they heard the wounded Jackson was in the ambulance, they yielded the road with tenderness. One said, “I wish it was me, sir.” Jackson was uncomplaining in this uncomfortable conveyance and was courteous in answer to all inquiries, saying he felt far more comfortable than he had a right to expect. But before his journey’s end his pains became exceptionally hard to bear. The Chandler’s offered a room in their home for the use of General Jackson, but Chaplain Lacy decided to use their office building because it was not as cramped. The office building had more room, less traffic and better accessibility since no one in the house needed to be disturbed with the constant coming and going of care givers and friends.

After reaching Chandler’s, Jackson became more restless and doctors found it necessary to restrict conversation. Dr. McGuire requested that Chaplain Lacy go to General Lee and secure the services of Dr. S. B. Morrison to attend the general’s bedside. Morrison was one of Anna’s relatives and an old friend, as well as the family physician. Lee granted the request and also sent Chaplain Lacy to Jackson with a special message: “Give him my affectionate regards, and tell him to make haste and get well, and come back to me as soon as he can. He has lost his left arm; but I have lost my right arm.”

Lacy read and prayed daily at 10:00 o’clock each morning with General Jackson. Each day he met the wounded warrior for “bedside worship.” Chaplain Lacy often read a chapter from the Book of Psalms as his selection. The chaplain observed that Jackson’s faith was clear. He spoke of perfect willingness to die, but always expected to recover. The pain in Jackson’s side increased. On Wednesday, May 6


, a cold rain fell.

Thursday morning, May 7


, General Jackson called for wet towels, not having used them at all during the night. At 8:00 o’clock in the morning, his breathing was labored and gasping. Pneumonia had reared its ugly head. Dr. Morrison reached Jackson that evening at 2:00 o’clock. Lacy, in going for Morrison, had called on General Lee and told him Jackson’s condition was now more threatening. Lee said he was confident God would not take Jackson at such a time when his country so much needed him. When Morrison and Lacy returned, Mrs. Jackson had arrived from Richmond.

From Thursday morning, Jackson’s mind wandered somewhat, and he seemed to be in a stupor. During his wandering, he imagined himself at the head of his troops and would forthwith give orders. Several times he asked anxiously about issues of battle. Sometimes Jackson visited the throne of grace in prayer. He asked McGuire whether persons healed by the Saviour ever suffered from the same disease again. The doctor replied that he did not think so. Chaplain Lacy continued to pray in his presence, but he was hardly lucid enough to hear it, but the God who hears prayers hears.

Thomas’ last connection with his little five and a half month old Julia was her appearance at his death-bed. Anna’s friend, Mrs. Moses D. Hoge of Richmond, came to her assistance during this difficult time. She was taking care of Julia while Anna was in the sick room. Julia was brought into the room as her father began to lose his earthly powers. He however revived a bit when he recognized his little daughter and his countenance brightened and he lovingly smiled remarking, “Little darling, sweet one!” They sat her beside her father who watched her intently and then closed his eyes as if he were praying. Julia seemed to be contented and smiled as long as her father seemed to have a connection with her.

On Sunday May 10

th Dr. Morrison spoke to Anna and related that medicine had done all it could and Thomas’ end was near. Thomas had said he was ready to die when God willed it, but if he could, he would like a few hours of preparation. Thus his dear wife was faithful to the end. Anna told him the doctors thought he would soon be in heaven, at first he did not seem to discern her meaning, but upon repeating her words he understood; Anna asked him if he was willing for God to do with him according to His own will, and then he looked at Anna calmly and intelligently and said, “Yes, I prefer it, I prefer it

.” Anna mentioned to him that before the day was over he would be with the blessed Saviour in His glory. With perfect distinctness and intelligence he said, “I will be an infinite gainer to be translated.” Anna then asked if it was his wish that she should return with their child to her father’s home in North Carolina. “Yes,” he said,

“you have a kind, good father; but no one is so kind and good as your Heavenly Father.” Thomas J. Jackson was a God-centered Christian man resting in the hands of an almighty and gracious God. He was now leaving this earthly realm and thus his family! These were the last fatherly instructions. His final earthly words have been immortalized, “Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees.” And “Stonewall” Jackson crossed the river of death into Immanuel’s Land.

Conclusion of Lee and Jackson as Fathers

The Apostle Paul under inspiration of the Holy Spirit wrote, “As ye know how we exhorted and comforted and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children, that ye would walk worthy of God, who hath called you unto his kingdom and glory” (1 Thess. 2:11-12). Consider, Paul is using an analogy of “a father” relating to his children. Exhorting, comforting and charging should be with a heart and mind of a father. This indicates that a father is authoritative and affectionate and aware of the sacred nature of their task, and ministers should be the same. Paul is telling the Thessalonian believers that he was concerned for them as a father is for his children in their total care. A father wants his children to walk in a way pleasing to God. This is the same kind of father Lee and Jackson proved to be in their relation to their children—authoritative and affectionate and aware of the sacred nature of their task.

The lives of Lee and Jackson were very family oriented as well as being Christ-centered. Doing that which pleased the Lord was a primary purpose in their desires. One died in the post-war era and the other died during the war.

As has been noted Lee and Jackson when compared give us many similarities as well as contrasts. Lee would live to see some of his grandchildren and Jackson would not. Lee would see the loss of an adult child and Jackson would not. Lee was privileged to teach and guide his children in adulthood but Jackson would not. Lee lived to see his sons established and his daughters became a mainstay of their parents but Jackson would not. Lee lived to see the results of his discipline of his children but Jackson would not. Lee lived after the war but Jackson did not.

Lee and Jackson were both loved and respected by their wives. Lee would die before his wife and so did Jackson. They cared for their families and instructed them in the ways of the Lord as revealed in the Bible. Lee and Jackson loved children and especially their own with a Christian father’s love.

Lee and Jackson were great in war but even greater in the home. Home and family was the place they both desired to be when given their own choice.

A Lad Cares for His Invalid Mother

By John Huffman

[Published by permission of

Mighty Men Herald


What is a gentleman? The picture of a Christian gentleman has long been absent from our modern world. Let us consider, for a moment, a scene from the boyhood of such a true gentleman.

The sun shone high in the autumn sky as a boy walked home from school. His head was full of his lessons, but he had a polite word for all those whom he passed on the street. Soon, a fellow scholar ran up to catch him and begged the lad to go with him on an adventure. The boy’s eyes shone at the prospect. School was out. The autumn air was crisp and inviting, and the smell of ripe apples was in the air. But then the boy remembered. He had promised his invalid mother that he would take her on a drive. A promise was a promise. With a smile, he declined his playmate’s invitation and took the solitary path up to the house where he resided.

He entered with a cheerful smile and gave his mother a kiss. The mother did not know that her son had just turned down an invitation to play. He treated her like a queen. He ran to make her tea. He went out to the back of the house and prepared the carriage for an afternoon ride in the country. In the evening, after the ride was over, the boy pulled out one of his books and read to his mother while she sat at the fire. Our little gentleman loved playing as much as any other boy just entering his teenage years. But he had learned early in life that true joy came from laying aside his own pleasure for the benefit of others.

He had always been like this. Our hero had been born in one of the finest mansions in America. The blood of Scottish kings, English and French knights, and colonial statesmen had flowed in his veins. Yet his family had been reduced to poverty due to unforeseen circumstances. His mother had been left a widow by her husband’s death, and she had been forced to move from the grand mansion to a much smaller house in another town.

His mother having become an invalid, throughout his youth, the boy spent his time devotedly caring for his mother. He read her good books. He hitched up the family vehicle and helped his mother into the carriage to take rides in the country. His mother would say of her son long before his fame, “He is both son and daughter to me.”

This gentle spirit continued as he matured. At the institution of higher learning where he was educated, he was loved by all his classmates and professors. He did not receive a single bad mark upon his name. Yet no one envied him. All seemed to know that he was superior to all, yet they loved him anyway.

Gentleness was the mark of his life. The wife of his youth was the wife of his old age. She, like his mother, became an invalid. He was a tender father to his seven children, seeing them through various calamities common to every young life, such as the time when one of his young sons accidentally cut off some fingers or when a daughter had a severe eye injury. During his busy life, he was never too busy to read with his children.

He also was diligent in writing letters to his friends and family members. His correspondence would fill volumes, and every letter, whether written to a friend or a stranger, was marked with perfect courtesy and genuine interest in the wellbeing of others. His letters were usually signed simply, “Your obedient servant.”

He was known for his kindness to children and even to animals. He once stopped in a dangerous place to lift a little bird back into a nest from whence it had fallen. Once he opened his bedroom window in the middle of a rainy night to let in his daughter’s cat. Children adored him and were always welcome in his presence. Even in old age, he would lay aside his own comfort to let a little boy ride “horsey” on his aged knee. When pressed by the crushing duties of supporting the weight of a nation on his shoulders, he took time to talk to three little girls who visited him and brought him a basket of eggs, pickles, and garden produce. He refilled the little girls’ basket with apples from a tree beside him.

Yet this man of gentleness and tenderness was esteemed by competent military experts, even in his own generation, as the greatest captain of all history. He hurled back no less than five splendidly equipped armies which, in every case, largely outnumbered his own. On several occasions, he offered to lead his own troops personally into the thickest of the battle, but his men, who adored their commander, would not suffer him to risk his own noble life. They always promised him that they would go forward, facing almost certain death, if only he would go to the rear. On dozens of battlefields, small and great, his men proved their devotion to their commander, always inflicting more casualties than they suffered and throwing back wave after wave of well-fed and well-equipped troops.

As the war ground to a close, our hero bore the burden of a people’s troubles on his own manly shoulders and took the odium of defeat upon his own generous head. When successful, he gave the credit to others. When defeated, he took the blame upon himself.

During the war, he lost everything but life itself. He had three family estates destroyed by the enemy. He lost a precious daughter to sickness. All of his grandchildren died of sickness during the war, and his son was severely wounded and languished many months in a prison. At the war’s end, he passed the remainder of his days training young men, in his own words, “to be good Christians.” “If that were accomplished,” our hero said, “I should have nothing more to desire.”

When he died, he was the most beloved man in the world. At the announcement of his death, European dignitaries sounded his praises. Newspapers eulogized him as the greatest man of the day.

Even his enemies adored him. Before his death, he had once said some kind words to a soldier who had fought against him, and he had even given the young man some money from his own reduced purse. This former enemy had then said of our hero, “He is the noblest man that ever lived.”

Yes, I am sure by now that you know his name, for there is no record like that of Robert E. Lee in all the annals of Christendom. The boy who had laid aside his own pleasures to serve his widowed and invalid mother, the servant of all, had become, as Jesus said, the greatest of all (Mark 10:44). Where in all the annals of nations and empires does history record the life of a man who triumphantly faced defeat and came out of his own defeat universally admired? One admirer remarked that when all that was mortal of him was laid to rest, very little was laid away, for that which was immortal remained.

On the Day of Resurrection, when all wrongs are made right and the last shall be first, then and only then will Lee have his just and full reward. A Baptist pastor named J. William Jones, who knew Lee intimately in his last years in Lexington, Virginia, said of him:

“If I have ever come in contact with a sincere, devout Christian – one who, seeing himself to be a sinner, trusted alone in the merits of Christ – who humbly tried to walk the path of duty, ‘looking unto Jesus’ as the author and finisher of his faith – and whose piety constantly exhibited itself in his daily life – that man was General Robert E. Lee.”


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

John Lafayette Girardeau

(1825-98) was a Presbyterian pastor and theologian of great ability. His life was devoted to the preaching of the gospel. His heart was deeply moved to work among the slaves of his native South Carolina. Prior to the outbreak of the War Between the States, he served as pastor of a predominantly black church.

Girardeau was once called the “Spurgeon of America,” and many were moved by his powerful Christ-centered preaching. In Preachers with Power, Douglas Kelly describes Girardeau as one who “had a profound grasp of the reformed faith and was skilled in preaching it with unusual power, clarity and unction to the men and women of his own culture…not a few observers expressed surprise at the theological nature of his preaching to the black slaves.”

Girardeau served the Confederate Army as a chaplain of the Twenty-third Regiment of the South Carolina Volunteers. Following the war Girardeau continued in the pastorate until he was called to the chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology of Columbia Theological Seminary. He would continue in that position until retiring due to poor health.

The editor of the Girardeau’s volume of sermons said the following regarding this sermon: “This is not the most eloquent, but it is the most valuable and the most timely sermon in this volume. It was preached before the General Assembly, at St. Louis, May 20, 1875. The author called it a testimony.”


Part I

Matt. xxviii:20. ”Teaching them to observe all things, whatsoever I have commanded you.”

There are certain utterances which, though brief, are comprehensive and regulative. They enounce principles, or inculcate duties, which involve all minor and dependent ones, and stamp a molding influence upon thought and action. Such are those contained in the text. So far as any

words of the Lord Jesus can derive a peculiar interest from the impressiveness of the circumstances in which they were spoken, these possess that quality. They constitute a part of what is usually termed the great commission, — that last brief, but affecting and momentous charge which Jesus delivered to the apostles and, through them, to the church, while ten thousand of His holy ones waited to escort Him to the gates of glory and the mediatorial throne. An apostate or declining church may be insensible to their power, but they burn like fire in the consciousness of one which is vitalized by the breath of the Holy Ghost. They speak to us this day with the same freshness and emphasis with which they fell from the lips of a triumphant Savior upon the listening ears of the apostles of His extraordinary call.

There are two supreme obligations which this final charge of the Lord Jesus lays upon the heart of the church. The first is the transcendent duty of universal evangelization. The second is the inculcation and maintenance of the truth which Christ, the prophet of the church, has taught, and the commands which Christ, the king of the church, has enjoined. The call of the gospel is to be addressed to all the sons of men, and when they accept it, and are gathered into the fold of the church, she is to teach them all things whatsoever Christ has commanded. There are obviously a positive and a negative aspect of this charge to the church, — positive, in that she is directed to teach all that Christ has commanded; negative, in that she is implicitly prohibited from teaching anything which He has not commanded. The negative duty is a necessary inference from the command which enforces the positive. Here, then, we have the principle tinctured with the blood of our Puritan, Covenanter and Huguenot forefathers — that what is not commanded, either explicitly or implicitly in the Scriptures, is prohibited to the church. She can utter no new doctrine, make no new laws, ordain no new forms of government, and invent no new modes of worship. This is but a statement of a fundamental principle of Protestantism, contradistinguishing it from Rationalism on the one hand and Romanism on the other, — that the Scriptures, as the word of Christ, are the complete and ultimate rule of faith and duty. They are complete, since they furnish as perfect a provision for the spiritual, as does nature for the physical, wants of man, and, therefore, exclude every other rule as unnecessary and superfluous. They are ultimate because, being the word of God, they must pronounce infallibly and supremely upon all questions relating to religious faith and practice. The duty of the church, consequently, to conform herself strictly to the divine word, and her guilt and danger in departing from it would seem to be transparently evident. But the clearest principles, through the blindness, fallibility, and perverseness of the human mind, frequently prove inoperative in actual experience; and the history of the church furnishes lamentable proof that the great, regulative truth of the completeness and supremacy of the Scriptures constitutes no exception to this remark. Because we are Protestants, and Presbyterian Protestants, because the doctrine of the perfection and ultimate authority of the word lies at the root of our system and is embodied in our standards, we are not, therefore, free from the peril attending the failure of the church to conform herself in all things to the revealed will of Christ, and her tendency to rely upon her own folly instead of His wisdom.

It is designed, in these remarks, to direct attention to the subject of the discretionary power of the church; and in the discussion of that question, logical fitness requires that the great Protestant principle of the completeness and supremacy of the Scriptures be premised. That being admitted, the Rationalist hypothesis of the final authority of reason in matters of religious faith and duty, and the Romanist, which affirms the ultimate rule to be the Scriptures and tradition, as expounded by an infallible human head of the church, are effectually discharged. To establish this fundamental assumption, recourse need be had but to a single short but conclusive

argument. Those who appeal to the Scriptures as possessing any authority at all must admit them to be true. They are a veracious witness. But they affirm themselves to be inspired: “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God;” and as inspired they farther assert that they are a complete standard of faith and directory of practice. They claim to be “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness; that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.” Either we must deny their truthfulness in this instance, or admit it. If we deny it, then their character for veracity breaks down in all respects, in accordance with the maxim: “false in one point, false in all.” They are suited to be no rule at all. If we admit their truthfulness, then, as they declare themselves to be complete, we must believe that they are; and so every other rule is excluded, and they stand alone, without a rival, either as a co-ordinate or a supplementary standard of faith and duty.

But, although the Scriptures are the supreme rule, they are not alone the supreme judge of faith and practice. The question being as to the final judge whose expositions of the rule are ultimate, the answer is given with equal sublimity and accuracy in the Westminster Confession of Faith: “The supreme Judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined, and in whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.” From the nature of the case, the only competent judge of a divine rule is a divine judge. Let us pause a moment that we may estimate the force of this mighty collocation. The grand principle of Protestantism is not that the supreme judge is the Word alone, nor that it is the Spirit alone: but that it is — the Word and the Spirit. This little coupling and, which brings together and indissolubly unites the two great terms — the Word, the Spirit, effects the junction with a thundering clank which should ring in the ear of the church, and penetrate into her innermost heart. The copulative here has a significance akin to that which expresses the substantial unity of the three distinct subsistences in the adorable Trinity — the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, one God over all blessed forever. It is like that between justification, sanctification, and the personal experience of both, — not the water only, not the blood only, not the Spirit only; but the Spirit and the water and the blood, one in the unity of the Word, and one in the concrete unity of the believer’s experience. God, all-wise, has put together these two terms of the grandest of all Protestant canons — the Word and the Spirit, the supreme judge of controversies; and what God hath joined together let not man put asunder! Their divorce is sure to result in slavery to the letter on the one hand, and on the other, in wild hypotheses as to human rights and needless schisms which rend the unity of the church in pieces.

Neither, then, is the conscience of the individual, nor that of the church in her organic capacity, possessed of ultimate authority in matters of faith and duty. Both, in the noble language of Luther, himself the intrepid defender of the right of private judgment, in his final reply at the Diet of Worms, both are “bound captive by the Scriptures.” And, as the Word is interpreted by the illumination of the Holy Ghost, human wisdom is to be guided by that infallible authority. In the grand words of the same distinguished reformer: “Obedience is to be preferred to the gift of miracles, even if we possessed that gift.” Yes; the paramount duty of the church is absolute conformity to the written Word as it is expounded to faith by the divine Spirit.

Attention is now invited to a consideration of the theory of the discretionary power of the church. Has she any such power? If so, what is it? and how is it limited?

It is obvious that the root of these questions must be sought in an antecedent one, in reference to the very nature of the church herself. She is fundamentally discriminated from all other institutes in this respect — that they are natural, and she is supernatural. The state has its

origin in the facts and relations of nature, and “is designed,” as a profound thinker has remarked, “to realize the idea of justice.” Philanthropic societies have a like foundation and aim to realize the idea of benevolence. The church is grounded in the supernatural facts and relations of redemption, and is intended to “realize the idea of grace.” Her very existence is created by the redeeming mission of Christ. She is not, therefore, a society of human beings, as such, but of human beings as redeemed. As strictly a redemptive institute she must be supernatural. Her origin is supernatural as lying in the mediatorial work of Christ; her existence as historically developed is supernatural, as springing from the call of the Holy Ghost; her members are men presumed at least to be supernaturally regenerated; and her end is supernatural, as designed to illustrate the grace of a redeeming God. It would, consequently, violate all the analogies of the case to suppose that she is left to the guidance of a rule of faith and duty which is natural — which is dictated by the wisdom of the human intelligence. Like herself, her fundamental rule must be supernatural — it must be a revelation from Him who, as He has redeemed her by His blood and called her by His Spirit, alone possesses the authority to give her constitution and the power to enforce it. It is barely conceivable that as a regenerated nature is imparted by grace to her members, and the promise of illumination is furnished them, she might have been left to the guidance of sanctified reason under the direction of the Holy Spirit, without the formal instructions of an objective rule of faith and duty, — supernaturally imparted wisdom might have been able to frame rules adequate to the wants even of a supernatural society. It might be supposed that, as God originally stamped the articles of natural religion upon the reason of man and engraved His law upon his conscience. He might have pursued the same course in regard to the religion of grace. But this antecedent probability is vacated of force by the consideration that while we are, if regenerate, endowed with a reason and conscience supernaturally illuminated, we are also still under the partial influence of sinful principles; and in the collision between these two antagonistic elements which would emerge upon the presentation of the concrete cases of experience, confusion would necessarily characterize our ultimate judgments, and utter uncertainty attach to the resulting rule. But the question is settled by fact. God has furnished to the church a supernaturally revealed, an external and authoritative rule of faith and duty; and allusion has only been made to the antecedent presumption indicated in order to evince the necessity for such a standard. As infinite wisdom appointed the external objects of nature, the sun, moon, and stars in the heavens above and the visible phenomena of the earth below, fixed realities by which the aberrations of perception and the illusions of sense may be corrected, so has He set in the supernatural firmament of His Word the great facts and doctrines of redemption as unchanging and permanent data, in accordance with which all the deductions of reason and all the decisions of conscience, in the domain of religion, are to be tested and regulated.

Now, as it has pleased God to communicate to the church a supernatural revelation of His will, which He intended and has declared to be a complete and supreme rule of faith and life, it would seem to be intuitively obvious that her duty is to conform herself implicitly and absolutely to it in all things, that she has no discretion but to teach and observe all that Christ has commanded, and to teach and observe nothing else. The maxim of Bacon, in regard to the relation which man holds to nature as a minister and interpreter, would appear to apply with enhanced emphasis to that which the church sustains to the Scriptures. They disclose a new world of supersensible and transcendent realities — a supernatural universe. In their light even the common obligations and duties of “the law moral” in respect to which the natural reason and conscience are, in some measure, competent, to speak, are brought under the molding influence of supernatural relations, enforced by supernatural motives and impressed by supernatural

sanctions. Granting that the church, as renewed and enlightened by the Holy Spirit, is enabled to study and apprehend these revealed mysteries, we are compelled to confess that she must ever be the learner and servant, and not the law-giver and master. Faith, or what is the same thing, reason born again, the supernaturally-imparted organ of perception which adapts her to this system of redemptive phenomena, is a confession of her inability to originate anything in such a sphere. It can only report what it observes. The church, therefore, can have no opinions and frame no laws of her own. The facts, the doctrines which expound the relations of those facts, and the practical rules which enforce the duties arising from those relations, are all divinely given. Her whole duty lies in believing and obeying. She can create nothing. There is no necessity for it even if she could. All that she requires is already provided for her by the wisdom and mercy of her head. She is completely equipped for all the exigencies of her life, and for all the ends which her Lord has designed her to achieve. The extent of her power is thus easily defined, — it consists in first knowing, and then applying, the rule of faith and duty which expresses to her the will of Christ. These conclusions are so fair and obvious that one reasoning abstractly could scarcely imagine how they may be disputed; and yet the history of the church has, to a great extent, been a record of perpetual contradictions of them. How is the amazing fact to be accounted for? Apart from that general cause, the corruption of the human heart, which ever tends to mar by its touch every perfect work of God, a special explanation is to be found in the assumption that the church is invested with a discretionary power which may be legitimately exercised alike in the sphere of doctrine, of government, and of worship. Here we lay our finger upon the main secret of the church’s tendency to degeneracy in these vital concerns. The theory of discretionary power constitutes her formal justification of her practical departures from the Word. It appears, in the main, to be founded on one or the other, or on a combination of both, of these suppositions — namely, that the statements of doctrine in the Scriptures are in the form of concise and comprehensive enunciations of principles, which need to be expanded and developed by additional deliverances; and that the rules laid down for government and worship are regulative, not constitutive — general provisions without the specification of particular modes and minute details: and their application to the varying circumstances and multiplied exigencies of the church demand from her supplementary legislation in a more specific shape. The church is endowed with wisdom for the discharge of these important offices; and so long as she does not positively contradict the Word, her exercise of this discretionary power is legitimate. She is not to be tied to the letter of Scripture — that would be a bondage inconsistent with the liberty wherewith Christ has made her free. She is in some sort His confidential agent, and as such she is entitled to use her own judgment. Where the Scriptures are silent she may speak, and whatever measure they do not prohibit, and is, to her mind, consistent with their general scope and spirit, she is not precluded from adopting. To require her to produce a divine warrant for all that she does, is to fetter her freedom and cripple her energies.

Let us contemplate the operation of this theory of discretionary power in the sphere of doctrine. Let us see how, under its influence, the potent key is wielded by the church which admits her into ‘this grand department of Christ’s kingdom. It is in the way of what is termed development of doctrine. The idea which is embodied in this high-sounding phraseology is somewhat vague and indefinite, as everyone must have felt who has made the attempt to seize it. The meaning of the term must, if possible, be settled in order that we may attain some clear apprehension of the question before us. Development may be understood to signify the express eliciting from anything that which is implicitly contained in it; and that either by a process of self-evolution, or by the agency of extraneous forces acting upon it; or, it may be taken to mean

the unfolding of a series or system by substantive addition and accretion to what previously existed, in accordance with an intelligent plan. In this latter case there is no self-evolution; the development is effected by successive interpositions of a creative power. There is no eduction of what was latent in a thing already existing, but the creation of new things related to those going before, not by inherent affinity, but by the unity of an intelligent scheme. This sort of development is simply the orderly procedure of intelligence accomplishing results in pursuance of a definite plan. It is the development of a scheme, not of the individual things embraced under it. When, for example, a certain class of scientific men contend that the Creator brings into being new species of vegetables or animals, different from, but related to, those previously existing. He only develops His plan; there is no evolution of species into species, but a clear addition at each step in the creative process to the numerical sum of distinct beings.

Let it be observed now that the question is not whether there has been a divine development of doctrine by the instrumentality of inspired prophets and apostles. Of course there has been. As each dispensation of religion succeeded another, there was an addition of new facts, and a fresh development of doctrine. The Jewish economy was an advance upon the Patriarchal, and the Christian upon the Jewish; and this progress of doctrine went on under the immediate agency of inspiration until the canon of Scripture was closed. The question is not, whether God developed doctrine — that is conceded; but it is, whether the canon of Scripture having been closed, the church is clothed with power to continue the development.

In order to clear our way still farther, let us note the patent distinction which has been pressed by orthodox Protestants, and candidly and explicitly stated by rationalist theologians themselves — the distinction between a subjective and an objective development of doctrine. The former is simply the growth and expansion in the mind itself of its knowledge of the doctrines externally given in the Scriptures. It is not a development of Scripture, nor a development from Scripture, but a development, as Dr. Rainy has said, up to Scripture, as the ultimate standard. It is what every well-instructed Christian understands — the leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ and going on onto perfection. In the case of the church as an organized society living on from age to age, it is the progress which she has made in the knowledge of Scriptural truth in consequence of her conflicts with error, and the discipline she has undergone. The latter — the alleged objective development of doctrine — is the numerical increase of the objects of faith, the addition of others to those already externally given in the Scriptures; it is the expansion and enlargement of the doctrinal system by substantive accretions to the complement of doctrine revealed in the written word. It is this latter view which constitutes the very core of the theory of development of doctrine.

Now, in regard to this theory it deserves, in the first place, to be remarked that its most prominent advocates are logically guilty in confounding the two members of the distinction which has just been signalized. At one time they argue for what no one denies — the development of the knowledge of doctrine, and at another for a very different kind of development — that of the doctrinal system of the Scriptures. The confusion is damaging to the success of the theory. Let us have one thing or the other. The amalgamation of rationalist and evangelical views in the same line of argument is too glaring an incongruity to be overlooked.

In the second place, the theory involves the inconsistent mixture of the two sorts of development to which in the foregoing remarks attention has already been directed, — the one, by a process of self-evolution by virtue of inherent tendencies, and the other, by positive additions effected by creative power. A patient endeavor to detect the real merits of the theory has led us to the opinion that it finds some plausible ground in the following assumptions: First,

the doctrines of Scripture may be regarded as seminal principles — germ-truths, which were not intended to be complete, but to expand into other and related doctrines by virtue of certain tendencies inherent in them; in some such manner as the germ-cells of vegetable or animal organisms are developed by a process of growth, or as the rudimentary truths of the human mind are unfolded through the progress of intelligence to maturity. Secondly, there may be assumed to be a genius or spirit which pervades and characterizes the doctrinal system of the Scriptures — a sort of typical, controlling idea, in accordance with which the mind of the church, reflectively acting upon the process of evolution as it brings the germinal principles of the divine Word into contact with her changing circumstances and her diversified necessities, is enabled to register the results of the development in the shape of formulated statements. Substantial additions are thus made to the doctrines of Scripture, but the church does not create them. Her intelligence is indeed in contact with the developing truth, but only as a concurring and conditioning force. As one species of animals, it is said, is evolved into a new and distinct species, so one truth, or group of truths, is evolved into a new truth or group of truths. The church simply watches the course of this wonderful self-development of doctrine, marks the results and reduces them to formal record. Thus the body of doctrine is continually enlarging. Did our limits permit, we think it might be shown that these germ-principles of Scripture are hypothetical. The fundamental doctrines of the word are developed in it far more fully and systematically than is commonly supposed. The great cardinal truths of justification and sanctification, for example, are very elaborately and completely expounded with their affiliated doctrines in the epistle to the Romans, and that of the priesthood of Christ in the epistle to the Hebrews. As to this genius of Christianity which is substituted for the Holy Ghost, what we have to say is, that it usually turns out to be but the dominating conception by some individual or party of the contents of Scripture, to which they are bent to serve a purpose. We, of all men, have reason to know what this genius of the gospel can accomplish, when it holds its light for humanitarian and higher-law developers of the Bible.

But the case, as it has just been stated, is not the case as put by the Romanist defenders of this theory themselves. They admit that all the results of this self-evolution are not to be retained; and they cover up the difficulties in which such a view of the process involves them under the cloudy phrase — historical development. They assume an infallible developing authority which sifts out all that is undesirable and formulates only what is suitable. The admission is fatal. It concedes the fact that the alleged development does not proceed by its own law, but is arbitrarily managed and regulated by the church. We have, then, after all, not a development by legitimate evolution of comprehensive principles, but one implying the continuous growth of a system by the interventions of creative power. The church is the creator; she makes the substantive additions to the original doctrines of the Scriptures, and she does it by the process of construction in accordance with a scheme of her own. The hypothesis is weighed down by the difficulties with which a searching historical criticism had embarrassed that of tradition, for which it was intended to be a philosophical substitute. They both postulate an infallible developing authority. That being granted, it is virtually admitted that the church has creative power, and actually makes new doctrines in addition to those of the Scriptures. This theory of development, then, stands chargeable with bringing together and confounding incongruous hypotheses.

In the third place, the theory, in the hands of the Romanist, effectually breaks down at the point at which it assumes the continuance of inspiration. Were it true that the church is inspired and, therefore, gifted with infallibility for the development of doctrine, it would follow that there is a continuous supernatural revelation of God’s will. The development in the way of addition

would be legitimate, since it would be divine. But the fundamental assumption of the theory — the existence of an infallible developing authority — is unsupported by evidence. The miraculous credentials of inspiration are absent. Let the Pope raise the dead and we will consider his claim to be inspired.

The theory as held by the Rationalist, while substantially identical with that of the Romanist, differs from it in several respects, — he denies the Scriptures to be a supernaturally inspired revelation; he makes reason, instead of an infallible church, the ultimate developing authority; and he asserts its competency to abridge, as well as enlarge, the doctrinal contents of the Word. Our main issue with the Rationalist is not in regard to the power to develop the Scriptures, but in reference to their inspiration. But holding, as we do, the fact of their inspiration, the argument against the power of reason to develop their doctrines either by addition to, or subtraction from, them is a short one. The developing authority cannot be of lower degree than that which originally communicated the doctrines. To remit the dicta of an inspired revelation to the fallible judgment of reason is to bring God to the bar of man.

We meet this whole theory of development of doctrine, which involves positive additions to the Scriptures, by whomsoever held, on the simple ground of the perfection and supremacy of the written Word. We accept its own testimony that it thoroughly furnishes the man of God for all good works, and maintain that the church, as a society of men of God, finds in its provisions ample furniture for all her needs. It is absurd to talk of substantially developing a complete rule; it is wicked to say that the Scriptures are not complete. The church has no such discretionary power as is implied in this theory of development of doctrine by which Rationalist and Romanist — Herod and Pontius Pilate — take counsel together against the Lord and against his anointed.

Book Review

I Exalt You, O GOD: Encountering His Greatness in Your Private Worship

by Jerry Bridges

(c) 2001 Waterbrook Press, 186 pages hardback

Reviewed by H. Rondel Rumburg

How do you ascribe to our God the glory that is due unto Him? You are commanded to worship the Lord your God and serve Him alone. How are you doing? There is a challenge given by Jerry Bridges in his

I Exalt You, O GOD.

Our God triune is worthy of perfect exalted worship but we are finite and fail so much in our spiritual duties. This does not negate our responsibility for our God is worthy.

Bridges divides this book into four parts:

 Part I: For Your Greatness, O God, I Exalt You

 Part II: For Your Holiness, O God, I Exalt You

 Part III: For Your Wisdom, O God, I Exalt You


 Part IV: For Your Love, O Lord, I Exalt You

There are thirty one devotions that are excellent to encourage the reader in exalting the Lord in personal worship. There is a sense of the gloriousness of God in these devotions divided into one a day.

Bridges points out two concepts of worship one broad and the other narrow. “We glorify God by ascribing to Him the honor and adoration due Him because of His excellence—the narrow concept of worship. We also glorify God by reflecting His glory to others—the broader, way-of-life manner of worship.”

In his introduction he gave a Biblical depiction of worship from Psalm 29:1-2:

Ascribe to the LORD, O mighty ones,

ascribe to the LORD glory and strength.

Ascribe to the LORD the glory due his name;

worship the LORD in the splendor of his holiness.

“Without the heart,” Stephen Charnock wrote,

…it is no worship; it is a stage play, an acting a part without being that person really which is acted by us: a hypocrite, in the notion of the word, is a stage player…. We may be truly said to worship God, though we [lack] perfection; but we cannot be said to worship him if we [lack] sincerity.

Jesus said worship “in truth.” Bridges said, “if we stress only one side of God’s attributes—say, His mercy and love—without also stressing His sovereignty and holiness, we’re not worshiping in truth.”

Another essential in worship that is dealt with is that “we must always come to God through Christ” (Eph. 3:12; 2:18). Yea, we enter through Jesus’ blood (Heb. 10:19). A third essential in worship is a heart free from cherished sin (Ps. 66:18).

Bridges said after his wife’s death a friend passed on to him a saying that helped him with his submission to God:

Lord, I am willing

To receive what You give;

To lack what You withhold;

To relinquish what You take;

To suffer what You inflict;

To be what You require.

Bridges keeps a copy of this in his prayer notebook and prays over it several times a week.

He also deals with posture in worship. He makes suggestions and questions:

1. Have I presented myself and all that I have to God as a living sacrifice, so that my way of life is a life of worship?

2. Do I take time daily to worship God privately and to thank Him for all His blessings to me?

3. Is there some “cherished” sin, some practice I’m unwilling to give up, that hinders my worship?


4. Do I seek to enter wholeheartedly and “in spirit and truth” into worship? Or do I simply go through the motions without really worshiping?

What follows is a selection extracted from Day 22.

Day 22: A Mystery Too High

One reason we may not recognize God’s wisdom in providence is because He often works in ways contrary to how we would. His wisdom and ways are so much higher than ours….

God’s wisdom, however, is infinite; ours is finite. This absolute difference is one that I think we fail to grasp. We tend to assume we

would understand if God would just explain. We don’t really believe that “his understanding no one can fathom

” (Isaiah 40:28)….

Humility should be a hallmark of those who fear and worship God. To accept that God’s ways are often mysterious, that His wisdom is infinite and ours only finite, is an important expression of humility. Then we can say with David, “My heart is not proud, O LORD, my eyes are not haughty; I do not concern myself with great matters or things too wonderful for me” (Psalm 131:1).

Father in heaven, I praise and thank You for how Your wisdom and Your ways are so infinitely high and exalted and incomprehensible. You are truly God Most High!

“How awesome is the LORD Most High, the great King over all the earth!” Your “understanding has no limit,” and Your “greatness no one can fathom.”

Psalms 47:2; 147:5;


We are formed by God to declare his praise (Isaiah 43:21).

On Day 31: In Grace I Stand

Bridges said, all true believers acknowledge that we’re saved by grace (Eph. 2:8-9). Paul tells us … that we also


in grace (Rom. 5:1-2)….

….My desire has been to help you develop such a view of God’s love that you can’t help but be motivated to fear and worship Him, to love others, and to wholeheartedly obey and serve Him. I want you to experience


in these responses and to grow in that joy more and more as you increase in the knowledge of His love.

My desire is that both you and I will be so overwhelmed by Christ’s love that it will indeed compel us to live not for ourselves but for Him…. He delights in our heart response of love….

The book is concluded:

Of God our glorious Father! With You there is forgiveness; therefore You are feared. While we were still sinners, objects of Your just and holy wrath, You love us and sent Your Son to die for us. You reached out in Your mercy to relieve our misery, and in Your grace to forgive our guilt.

And now through Jesus we call You “Abba, Father.” Create in our hearts that sense of filial fear that will cause us to worship and adore You because of Your love to us.

Again we praise You through Jesus our Lord.


This reviewer has always profited from Jerry Bridges’ writings such as:

The Pursuit of Holiness, The Practice of Godliness, Trusting God, I Will Follow You, O GOD

and others. If you would like a spiritual challenge this book will help you!

We must remember who we are and what we must be about:

The SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations.


Chaplain’s Handbook

Sesquicentennial Edition

Sons of Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged Sesquicentennial Edition of the

Chaplain’s Handbook. It is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic, SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen; there has also been added a third burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America; a chapter on Praying in Public has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public Use.

All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the handbook will find it even more useful than before. There is the same cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication. Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

January 29, 1864: You may be poor, but at least you’re white

2014 January 29
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth

CHARLESTON MERCURY, January 29, 1864, p, 1, c. 2

Slaveholders and Non-Slaveholders of the South.

We believe that there is not in the world a more harmonious population than the white population of the Southern States. Every white man feels and knows that the negro is not of his race, that one race is the superior race, and he is one of the superior race. A Northerner may prate his dogma all day, of all men being equal; and may strive to persuade the white man of the South that he is on a dead level with the negro; but he will strive in vain. Facts are stronger than theories. The white man knows his superiority, and disdains the logic which would degrade him to the level of the negro. With the same privileges and rights, his affinities are with his race. All his aspirations, his security, his interests, are bound up in their destiny. Nor is he left to speculation to know the fate of white men in the community of liberated negroes. Where are the white non-slaveholders of Hayti? Slaughtered or driven out of that grand paradise of Abolitionism–where, in Port-au-Prince, there are six married couples out of a population of fifteen thousand.

Suppose the object of Northern Abolitionists then accomplished, and the four millions of slaves liberated at the South–what becomes of the poorer whites? The rich–the sagacious–will leave the country. None will remain, but those who are unable to leave it, or who do not realize the fearful terrors of their condition. A strife will arise between the white men who remain in the South and the negroes, compared with which the atrocities and crimes of ordinary wars are peace itself. The midnight glare of the incendiary’s torch will illuminate the country from one end to another; while pillage, violence, murder, poisons and rape will fill the air with the demoniac revelry of all the bad passions of an ignorant, semi-barbarous race, urged to madness by the licentious teachings of our Northern brethren. A war of races–a war of extermination–must arise, like that which took place in St. Domingo.

Or, possibly, suppose no antagonism between the two races–and harmony and identification takes place–amalgamation must be the result. There is no portion of our people who contemplate such a fate with as much horror as our white non-slaveholders–because they are the people who will be exposed to it in the wreck of our institutions. With the continuance of these institutions, not only their industrial occupations, but their political and social station–their domestic safety–the purity of their homes–is identified. And the white man of the South is as proud as the haughtiest aristocrat that walks Wall street or lives in a Fifth Avenue palace with his wife and children.

The consequence is, that there are no people in the South who abhor Abolitionists more than the non-slaveholders of the South, or who are more ready to resist their machinations. With them, it is not only the patriotic hatred of a public foe who would involve the country in convulsion and ruin, but it is also the hatred of a social, personal enemy–the Black Republican–who would force upon them the alternative either of the most terrible degradation and barbarism, or of slaughtering the negro, or being slaughtered by him, in a war of extermination.

The people of the North cannot, or will not, understand this state of things. They gloat with secret joy at the anticipations of conflicts among the citizens of the South, by which their fiendish policy will be consummated. The few negroes they have amongst them do not jostle them, in their public marts, their theatres, their ballrooms. They do not enter their households as visiting equals. They are down in holes and cellars, filling their jails and poorhouses, and coming not at all “between the wind and their nobility.”

But if Abolition meant the existence suddenly of four millions of emancipated negroes amongst their laboring population, their equals, there would not be a single Abolitionist even in New England. The doom they are ready to visit upon the poor white man of the South they would not dare to propose to the white laborer of the North. They would be crushed out, like grapes in the wine press.

Our people–slaveholders and non-slaveholders–they will find not unworthy of the great and free destiny before them. They are one in sympathy, interest and feelings. They have equal rights and privileges–one fate. They will stand together in defence of their liberties and institutions, and will yet exist at the South a powerful and prosperous confederation of commonwealths, controlling the welfare and destiny of other nations, but controlled by none.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles || Anno Domini 2013 || November || Issue No. 95

2013 November 10
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth


Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Anno Domini 2013


Issue No. 95

“That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God, one of our dear defenders thus to die.”

Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon Drive,

Greenville, SC 29607



Editor: Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



Quote from a Confederate Chaplain

“Soldier … there is no class of men for whom I feel a deeper solicitude, than the noble defenders of our rights, civil, political and religious. You have bared your bosoms to the cannon’s mouth; and your lives may be said to be in jeopardy every hour. I would


to God that you were all prepared for living, and for dying, that you might live eternally with Christ in the upper mansions.”

Chaplain Andrew Broadus

J. B. Gordon’s Georgia Brigade


Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:

As we enter the month of November please consider with me the truth that contentment is the disposition of thanksgiving. We are to “be thankful.”

Thanks-giving may be expressed in prayer and praise. It is that part of divine worship in which we acknowledge the benefits and blessings of the Lord. However, thanksgiving may have its greatest expression in thanks-living.

Paul told Timothy that “godliness with contentment is great gain” (1 Tim. 6:6). “Godliness” or devotion to God with a satisfaction of mind is very profitable. A person could truly say that one who is truly thankful is content or one who is content is thankful. “Contentment arises not from a man’s outward condition, but from his inward disposition, and is the genuine offspring of humility, attended with a fixed habitual sense of God’s particular providence, the recollection of past mercies and a just estimate of the true nature of all earthly things” [

Buck’s Theological Dictionary, 115]. What is contentment from the perspective of the New Testament word? The word means self-sufficing, having within one what produces contentment and so contentment is not to be impacted with external things. Thus one who is content is independent of his circumstances. The child of God carries this secret of happiness that rests in the sufficiency of his God. Contentment is not a stoical indifference to or contempt of material needs. The Christian can be self-sufficient because his sufficiency is rooted and grounded in God’s all-sufficiency and rests with assurance upon God’s providential care. Thus a state of contentment makes one independent of outward circumstances, satisfied with one’s inner resources, enabling one to maintain a spiritual equilibrium in the midst of favorable as well as unfavorable circumstances.

When a very painful event occurred in the life of Andrew Murray he wrote the following words as an admonition to himself:

First, God brought me here; it is by His will I am in this strait place: in that fact I will rest.


Next, He will keep me here in His love and give me grace to behave as His child. Then, He will make the trial a blessing, teaching me the lessons He intends me to learn and working in me the grace He means to bestow.

Last, in His good time God will bring me out again—how and when, He knows.

Let me say I am here by God’s appointment, in His keeping, under His training, for His time.

Here is a demonstration of contentment.

“Godliness with contentment,” Patrick Fairbarin noted, “that is, godliness cultivated for its own sake, not as a stepping-stone to wealth or worldly consideration, and so bringing its own dowry of good along with it, making the soul ‘satisfied from itself.’”

On Sunday morning, May 3

rd, 1863 at first light Chaplain Beverly Tucker Lacy reached the field hospital near Wilderness Tavern. He found that General “Stonewall” Jackson’s arm had already been removed, and by then he had recovered from the effects of the chloroform. Lacy spoke to Jackson in the field hospital. He inquired after his general and Christian friend, expressing his deepest regret. Jackson contentedly thanked him with his usual politeness and then said:

You find me severely wounded, but not unhappy or depressed. I believe that it has been done according to the will of God; and I acquiesce entirely in his holy will. It may appear strange, but you never saw me more perfectly contented than I am today for I am sure that my heavenly father designs this affliction for my good. I am perfectly satisfied that, either in this life, or the life which is to come, I shall discover that what is now regarded as a calamity is a blessing. And if it is regarded as a great calamity (for surely I shall feel it to be a great inconvenience to be deprived of my arm) it will result in a great blessing. I can wait until God in his own time shall make known to me the object he has in thus afflicting me. But why should not I rather rejoice in it as blessing, and not look upon it as a calamity at all? If it were in my power to replace my arm, and to restore myself to perfect health, I would not dare to do it, unless I have reason to believe it was the will of God [

Lacy Narrative].

Here is contentment with a voice of thanksgiving. At another time that same day:

I thought, after I fell from the litter, that I would die upon the field; and I gave myself up into the hands of my heavenly father without a fear. I was


in the possession of perfect peace. It has been a valuable and precious experience to me, that I was brought face to face with death, and found all was well. In that experience, I learned an important lesson, that one who had been the subject of converting grace, and was the child of God, could, in the midst of the severest sufferings fix the thoughts upon God and heavenly things, and derive great comfort and peace. But that one who had never made his peace with God, would be unable to control his mind, under such suffering an in such circumstances, so as to understand properly the way of Salvation and repent and believe on Christ. I felt that if I had neglected the salvation of my soul before, it would have been too late [

Lacy Narrative].

Chaplain Tucker Lacy recorded for posterity these words of General Jackson and many biographers have repeated them. Jackson clearly through thanks-living showed that “godliness with contentment is great gain.”

Paul expressed himself—”But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity. Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content” (Phil. 4:10-11). He learned “in whatsoever state or in the condition in which I am.” Paul bowed to the will of God in every condition in which he was placed.

We are not sufficient of ourselves but our sufficiency is of Christ. Do we bow in contentment resting in Christ alone? Are we thankful always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of Jesus Christ (Eph. 5:20)?

Please find in this issue our Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us a very excellent article entitled

Thanksgiving and Adversity. Your editor has provided a biographical sketch of Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe, Part II. This issue as usual includes A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard. This sermon is by Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau. This is the second of a series of five on Prayer; this one is on The Spirit of Prayer. Our Book Review is on the Webster’s Dictionary in Reprint of First Edition.

Soli Deo Gloria,

Editor H. Rondel Rumburg


Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’ Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have their names and e-mail addresses. Also, feel free to send copies of this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it. If you want to "unsubscribe" please e-mail the editor or assistant editor. Confederately, HRR] 5



The Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans


Thanksgiving and Adversity, Rev. Mark W. Evans


Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe, Part II, Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


A Confederate Sermon, Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau.


Book Review: Noah’s Dictionary Reprint of First Edition


Dear fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

This time of thanksgiving gives us an opportunity to ponder the abundant blessings poured out upon us. As chaplains in the Sons of Confederate Veterans, we have many reasons to be thankful. The greatest blessing any of us can have is salvation in Jesus Christ. If we have that eternal blessing, we have everything. “He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall we not with Him also freely give us all things” (Romans 8:32)?

We are blessed to have a glorious heritage of valiant defenders of the Southland. Our relative’s courage, character, perseverance and Christian virtues set a high standard for us. Then, as SCV chaplains, we have the example of faithful men of God who were used of the Lord to bring a glorious revival to the Southern armies. They labored zealously for the advancing of the cause of Jesus Christ. One job description was given by Dr. Rosser of Ewell’s Division:

We want our best men here – men of courage, faith, experience – holy men – hard working men – sympathizing men – self-denying men – men baptized afresh every day by the Holy Ghost for the work. No place here for slow men, mere reasoners and expositors, however learned or eloquent; war has no time to wait for such men – the soldier has no time to wait for such men – he may die tomorrow.

[The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 333].

May the Lord grant you a wonderful Thanksgiving. Let’s pray for one another, our compatriots, and for the victory of the cause our ancestors fought to preserve.

Deo Vindice!

Mark W. Evans




Chaplain-in-Chief’s Article

Thanksgiving and Adversity

Mark W. Evans

Giving thanks in the time of peace and joy is easy, but having a thankful heart when all seems to be against us is extremely difficult. We find examples in God’s Word that give us hope. Job, who lost his children and possessions, said, “The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord” (Job 1:22). David faced enemies from within and without, but said in Psalm 34:1, “I will bless the Lord at all times: His praise shall continually be in my mouth.” Jeremiah, the weeping prophet, said in the midst of one of the darkest books of the Bible, “It is of the Lord’s mercies that we are not consumed, because His compassions fail not. They are new every morning, great is Thy faithfulness” (Lamentations 3:22, 23). Habakkuk the prophet said, “Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labor of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls: yet, I will rejoice in the Lord, I will joy in the God of my salvation” (Habakkuk 3:18, 19). When Paul and Silas were scourged by the Roman whip, put into stocks, and left in a dark prison, they “prayed, and sang praises unto God” (Acts 16:25). Paul instructed the Thessalonian believers, “In everything give thanks: for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you” (I Thessalonians, 5:18). The Lord Jesus Christ comforted His disciples with these words before going to the cross, “And ye now therefore have sorrow: but I will see you again, and your heart shall rejoice, and your joy no man taketh from you” (John 16:22). Every true believer in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, from the weakest to the strongest, has many reasons to rejoice and thank God.

Our Confederate ancestors were deluged with miserable circumstances, yet, we read of their thanksgiving. In July, 1863, Rev. E. H. Myers, of the

Southern Christian Advocate, said:

Our temporal condition looks none the brightest. God is trying us in a fiery furnace of war; and for the present, the battle seems to go against us. The high hopes for our country and of a speedy peace, which we entertained a few weeks since, have been in a measure disappointed, and we may be doomed to yet greater disappointment. But there is a refuge for the soul in every storm. God’s peace and love, the joys and hopes of salvation, the sanctifying and comforting influences of the Holy Ghost, are not subject to human


circumstances; and they may be ours amid every variety of calamity. But these are the fruits of the cultivation of personal religion; and, independent of every other consideration, the uncertainty of all other sources of comfort alone should be an inducement to us to betake ourselves to the refuge, to watch closely, pray much, believe with all our heart, and to cleave the closer to God, the louder the storm swells, and the more furiously the billows dash upon the wreck of earthly hopes. He who in the dark hour feels that he grows in grace and maintains soul-communion with God, stands upon a rock. He shall never be moved

[Christ in the Camp, 607].

As the War for Southern Independence progressed and the superior numbers, weapons, and supplies of the enemy destroyed the prime of Dixie’s noble warriors, God sent a revival to all the armies of the South. Chaplain A. D. McCoy, 58

th Alabama, after detailing personal testimonies of soldiers repenting and believing in Jesus Christ, wrote: “Thus the work of God is going on amid the cannon’s roar, the fatiguing monotony of the trenches, and the heroic movements of the picket line. Religion is infusing a spirit of fortitude, endurance, and determination, into the hearts of the soldiers that no hardship, no suffering, can undermine or break down” [Christ in the Camp, 559].

As the war moved towards a close, the Yankee hordes advanced upon private citizens, robbing, abusing, and destroying their property. Churches and public buildings were burned. Chaplain Bennett said, “The incidents of General Sherman’s march were often painful to the last degree. From multitudes of people the last morsel of bread was taken, and in some instances delicate women were pushed to the verge of starvation” [

The Great Revival, 408]. Yet, the spirit of the men in gray could not be broken. After the war, they returned, many with war injuries, to rebuild their devastated land. Chaplain Bennett asked the question, “[W]ere the fruits of the army revivals enduring? He answered, “To this question thousands can this day, more than twelve years after the banners of the South were furled, give an emphatic affirmative response. In all the churches of the South there are earnest, devout and active Christians, who date their spiritual birth from some revival in Virginia, in the West, or in the far South” [The Great Revival, 427].

Some one hundred fifty years later, we are still reaping the harvest sown during the War for Southern Independence. Our relatives persevered through war, poverty, enemies of our way of life, and rebels against God. They fought for Constitutional liberty, State’s Rights, and freedom from an oppressive central government. In the midst of the battle, another great cause emerged – the greatest freedom of all – freedom from guilt and the bondage of sin through faith alone in the Lord Jesus Christ. With thankful hearts, we trace the merciful hand of God in


preserving a testimony to His truth, even in the face of our enemies. The victory is certain. “Enter into His gates with thanksgiving, and into His courts with praise: be thankful unto Him, and bless His name. For the Lord is good; His mercy is everlasting; and His truth endureth to all generations” (Psalm 100:4, 5).

Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe



th Alabama Infantry Regiment

By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

Part II

Entering the Chaplains Corps

War is terrible and destructive therefore it must not be entered into lightly. Only “just war” is acceptable to Christian people. What is “just war?” Biblically it is the same as self defense. The South desired to be left to its own governance in accord with the original Constitution. This is why the Confederate States of America Constitution was almost a replica of the Constitution of the Founding Fathers many of whom were Southern men.

Renfroe preached a sermon in the Army of Northern Virginia called “God hath a Controversy with the Nations” and his text was Jeremiah 25:31 dealing with God’s declaration of war against earthly nations. Herein he warned that Southern people “have forgotten our obligations to the God of our mercies.” Waldrep in

Alabama Review pointed out the position that Chaplain Renfroe took:

A theological Calvinist, Renfroe believed that nothing happened outside of God’s will; thus the war had to be understood in cosmic dimensions, as an aspect of God’s providential 9

rule in the affairs of men. His explanation began with Adam’s disobedience in the garden of Eden and the subsequent transmission of Adam’s fallen nature to his posterity. “Here,” he asserted, “is the cause of the controversy, of all our woe. Man is a sinner against God…. The effusions of blood that have flowed on the battlefield of every nation in all ages,” he told his audiences, “have resulted from the sinful nature of our race.”

In the eyes of Renfroe since no nation is without sin no nation is without war. War thus is a result ultimately of someone’s disobedience to God.

This biographical sketch began with the death of J. J. D. Renfroe’s brother Baptist minister Nathaniel Renfroe who had joined the 5

th Alabama Infantry and served as a lieutenant. Personal correspondence and the deep love he had for his brother was a force in propelling him into the chaplaincy. Renfroe had at first opposed the military chaplaincy as being unconstitutional due to his interpretation of the issue of the separation of church and state, but the death of his brother caused a reconsideration of that position—”It is perhaps no credit to me that I accepted a chaplaincy prejudiced against the system” [South Western Baptist, September 10, 1863; Dwain B. Waldrep, Alabama Review, July 1999]. After Nathaniel’s death he would throw himself into the gap and seek to bring Christ to the Confederate soldiers. There are a series of sermons Renfroe preached in the Army of Northern Virginia that are preserved in his own hand.

Riley noted:

Pastors in Alabama were promptly enlisted in the work of taking the gospel to the soldiers, not in a merely perfunctory way, but with the vim and spirit of the country protracted meetings at home. Renfroe, Bailey, Hawthorne, Chambliss, DeVotie, Bell, and many others suspended the work of their pastorates, and went to the front [152].

It has been said that Renfroe was the best known of the Alabama chaplains. Before he became a chaplain he was an agent for the Colportage Society spreading the Word of the Lord through literature. A. E. Dickinson wrote, “Rev. J. J. D. Renfroe … made known the fact that he had arrived at the conclusion that it was his duty to give himself to the army, his churches were very unwilling to give him up.” Then he gave the following account:

At one church, after several had spoken against his leaving, three of the sisters remarked, that while they valued as highly as any Brother Renfroe’s services, they could cheerfully give him up to labor in the army, for they had sons there for whose conversion they felt very deeply. Each of these three sisters has received a great blessing. The sons of two of them have professed conversion, and the son of the third has been restored to the fellowship of God’s people, from whom he had wandered [J. William Jones,

Christ in the Camp, 328-329].

His chaplaincy began in the winter of 1863. The subsequent account was written in January of 1867:


The Tenth Alabama was the regiment of which I was chaplain. The brigade was composed of the Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh and Fourteenth Alabama Regiments. I reckon this brigade comprised as noble a body of men as ever served in any army. I reached my post of duty while the army was in winter-quarters at Fredericksburg, in the early part of the year 1863…. Very little preaching had been done in the brigade up to that time…. The first Sabbath after I got there I preached twice, and from that time until I left them, I had a large attendance upon worship, and as good order in my congregations as I ever had at home [Jones, 510].

During the Gettysburg campaign he preached thirteen sermons but most of them to other brigades. “I preached several sermons in line of battle,” he confided. He preached at times when shot and shell were flying overhead and had men wounded while he was preaching [Jones, 511]. Chaplain Renfroe said that he saw few signs of revival up to Gettysburg. When they fell back to Orange Court House after Gettysburg they build arbors and began to preach the gospel. The chaplains in the brigade through the faithful preaching of the gospel began to see the Lord’s blessings in conversions. Chaplain Renfroe described the wind of revival that began to blow:

God greatly blessed our efforts. I have stood at that place (his preaching place in the 10

th Alabama) at night and on Sabbaths and preached, as it seemed to me, to a solid acre of men. I think I have seen as many as five or six hundred men, in one way or another, manifest at one time a desire to be prayed for. I have never seen such a time before or since. There were as many evidences of genuine penitence as I ever noticed at home—yes, more. Almost every day there would be a dozen conversions, and there were in the six weeks in the brigade, not less than five hundred who professed conversion…. A most interesting feature was the large number who would retire after the evening ‘roll-call’ in groups, to pray. Walk out from camp at that hour in any direction and you would find them, two, three, half-dozen and a dozen, in a place, all bowed in the dark, earnestly praying for themselves and the conversion of their comrades; they nearly always took some unconverted one with them [Jones, 510-511].

Chaplain Renfroe wrote a letter from the Army of Northern Virginia to a member of his pastorate in Talladega, Alabama:

Were it not for separation from my dear family, I never was so happily situated in my life. I would rather be in the army than anywhere else. O, it is transporting to see the earnestness with which men enter upon the cause of religion, and the primitive familiarity and simplicity with which they approach each other and the preachers on the subject. And then there is scarcely an hour, but some poor inquiring soul comes to my tent to get instruction. I never saw the like of it before [Jones, 346-347].

What a change took place in Renfroe who was so reluctant to join the Chaplains Corps at first only to be overwhelmed by the blessings of God upon his work as a chaplain. He was seeing hundreds of men come to Christ and he administered baptism to many of these.


Chaplain Renfroe was greatly used of the Lord. Chaplain J. William Jones said that on September 6

th, 1863 he was engaged to preach for Brother J. J. D. Renfroe in the great revival in Wilcox’s Brigade near the Rapidan River not far from Orange Court House. On the afternoon of that day Chaplain Jones witnessed what he described as “a most interesting baptismal scene in a creek near the railroad … where Dr. Andrew Broaddus, of Caroline county … and Chaplain Renfroe baptized eighty two soldiers…” [Jones, 246]. Then that same day as dusk came Jones who went with Chaplain Renfroe to his place of worship. Those who attended were not just from the 10th Alabama but men came from every direction until at least 5,000 men had assembled. Chaplain Jones preached and around two hundred professed Christ [246].

Chaplain Renfroe pushed himself in the work to the point of nearly breaking down physically; the toll of intercession and preaching numerous times a day for three weeks was now about to be collected. A visiting chaplain said that he had witnessed those under Renfroe’s ministry and he had never seen men so eager to hear and profit from the preached word of God. Many professed faith in Christ and were baptized.

Chaplain Renfroe’s preaching was very noteworthy. His sermons have been described as “well constructed and powerful in their rhetorical effect” [Waldrep]. Jerry M. Windsor in an article called “Preaching Up a Storm from 1839 to 1889″ described our chaplain’s preaching as “earnest, direct, aggressive.” Windsor noted that Renfroe “preached a sermon to General Forney’s brigade of Robert E. Lee’s army entitled ‘The Sin of Stealing.’ Renfroe had been made aware of comrades’ stealing from one another in the front lines of battle, and he attacked the problem directly and forcefully” [

The Alabama Baptist Historian, Vol. 29, January 1993, No. 1, 15]. Chaplain Renfroe went to the heart of the matter in his ministry and the Lord greatly blessed his honesty and truthfulness as he held up “thus saith the Lord.”

A very similar approach was seen when Chaplain Renfroe preached the sermon entitled “Jeering the Bald Head.” This sermon had been prepared and preached because a number of enlisted men were mocking and deriding their officers. The chaplain thought this was disrespectful and unscriptural so he went into detail describing incidents which he had seen and heard where men spoke disrespectfully or sarcastically to officers. In this message he reminded the men of Elisha’s words in 2

nd Kings 2:23-24 and how he had called down a curse upon the children for mocking him. He described how two she-bears came out of the forest to eat forty-two children who were thus guilty. Chaplain Renfroe in this message declared, “You are soldiers in the hands of superiors who can invoke the aid of the she-bear” [Windsor, 16]. This message no doubt got the attention of the culprits. Thus his 12

sermons aimed at the soul and mind and decorum of the men bolstering the cause in a way most would have overlooked.

Renfroe was requested to have a fast day sermon put in print. This sermon he had preached on August 21

st, 1863 and in his prefacing remarks he said he had to “snatch fragments of time from the pressing duties of an extensive and glorious revival of religion.” There was great revival under his chaplaincy as the Lord was pleased to send the Holy Spirit to anoint and apply the sermons which he preached to the hearts of hundreds of men many of whom were to face eternity in hours or days.

The years of Renfroe’s chaplaincy was spent in Virginia with the 10

th Alabama. He was true to the end in providing the ministry of the gospel. 1865 was declared by Renfroe to be a year of “woe and lamentation.”

Conflict of Arms Ended

When his work as a chaplain was wrapped up Pastor Renfroe returned to the congregation in Talladega. There he readjusted himself to civilian life and the pastoral scene must have seemed very tame to one who had spent years in the field. Literal bullets were no longer flying but conflict was far from over.

The conflict of arms ended but the conflict in many other ways was about to be revved up by a hatemongering elite bent on destroying Southern faith and culture. Pastor Renfroe confided to his congregation at the Talladega Baptist Church that there were many things that he wished to say to them but they had to be repressed. Why? There was a sea of brass buttons on blue uniforms sitting before him. Lest there be reprisals against his flock he practiced restraint. However, to make his point Renfroe told a story of an old rebel prisoner being informed by his guards that he could not speak his mind. Finally one of the guards asked what he was thinking, and the prisoner replied, “Damn the Yankees.” Renfroe’s point, “Now, I have not yet come to that in my thoughts, but I have come so near it several times that my conscience is repeatedly operating on the subject every day” [Sermon "Redeeming the Time"].

In the added preamble of his sermon “The Resurrection of the Confederate Soldier” Renfroe related an incident between himself and Gen. Christler (General Morgan Henry Chrysler) after the war at Talladega. Chrysler was military governor of the District of Northern Alabama at the time and attended Renfroe’s ministry.

(I)n the summer of 1865 when the war was over, there was a great revival in my church at Talladega, when the Hon. J. L. M. Curry, now minister to the Spanish Court at Madrid, was a minister of my church and did most of the preaching; and the aforesaid General. Christler (Chrysler) and many of his garrison were regular attendants on the services, and three of his men united with my church. I baptized them in Talladega Creek—a large stream 13

near at hand; it was a pleasant scene to see the whole city on the banks of the creek witnessing the baptism of men of the conquering army and of the conquered, going into the water together…. My Union disciples reported to me however, that they were kicked and cuffed about a good deal in camp on the strength of their “rebel salvation”—not by their officers, but by their comrades of the line [6-7, 9].

Renfroe said of the gloriousness of the final resurrection is that they will be brought “up together.”

When Renfroe preached the funerals for Confederate veterans he honored them as much as he did those he buried during the war. Men who survived the war whose funerals he conducted many were men whom he ministered to as their chaplain in the 10

th Alabama. These funerals were in a sense a vindication of their fight for freedom. His sermon “The Resurrection of the Confederate Soldier” began, “The Christian thinks of his Saviour when told that ‘without the shedding of blood there is no remission of sins.’” And he immediately said:

The patriot thinks of his fallen comrades and of the soldiers of former ages, when told that ‘blood is the price of liberty.’ As we stand at the open graves of these our officers and comrades, we feel that we are paying a great price for the boon for which they died….

There is not and never will be dishonor attached to their graves. Following our convictions of an honest patriotism they have laid down their lives for the vindication of these convictions. Let it not be said that it has been a mere sectionalism and not patriotism which has inspired those brave men…. They have died in an effort to prevent the fetters of political slavery which is attempted by an old and scheming sectional enemy. If their survivors should fail, then the effort will be made to hand them down to posterity as traitors, but even in this case the slanderous effort would prove a failure…. (T)hey can no more be disgraced than England can disgrace the graves of the soldiers of Cromwell. The death of every one of them imposes on us the additional responsibility of guarding their honor [10-13].

This was a powerful sermon in which he reminded his hearers,

We fought on the same principles which actuated the forefathers of American liberty…. We fought to maintain the institutions and the liberty which were secured to us in the Constitution of the Country; and we laid down our lives in resistance to a sectional party which had conspired to overthrow the fundamental compact on which the original Government was based [14].

Some have tried to turn Dr. Renfroe into a New South man but the previous quote looks Old South to this writer! There are those who call him a “Lost Cause apologist” but where will anyone ever find that concept in Renfroe? Modern writers often seem to fear the thought police or politically correct Gestapo so they impose false interpretations to one who bows to God’s providence and recognizes reality. What is the result of such misconceptions? They turn great men into


hypocrites. Renfroe always sought to vindicate truth Biblically in spiritual things or Constitutionally in civil things.

The Baptist Encyclopedia astutely noted:

Dr. Renfroe is a man of strong convictions, with courage to follow wherever they lead without hesitation and without wavering. An humble man of God, who has spent his life and sacrificed himself in the service of his Master [970].

Interestingly when Renfroe was working with the Alabama Baptist State Convention in 1868 and 1869 his mission reports took the form of “biblically based sermons.” “In the 1868 domestic missions report Renfroe used Acts 1:8 to remind all present that missions were to start at ‘Jerusalem—beginning at home.’” Then when he gave his foreign mission report he “used Isaiah 42:6 to show that the Christian Church must be a light to the Gentiles” [Windsor, 17]. Renfroe’s life was based on the Word of God and so was his view of doing the work of the Lord.

He also returned to the labors of his denomination with its needs and work. His pen was quickly put to use in contributing articles to various Baptist periodicals. As corresponding editor of the

South Western Baptist and Christian Index he sought to be a source of encouragement to God’s people. This was true when he was associate editor and then editor of the Alabama Baptist. The Southern people and former Confederate soldiers found a friend as he defended their values, beliefs and customs. He was ever ready to defend the faith once delivered to the saints. There was also the need for rescuing or rebuilding the institutions damaged by the invasion and preoccupation with defense. Pastor Renfroe set to doing what he could which was a great deal. There were many boards that he was requested to serve on during this process.

Many of the sermons of Pastor Renfroe made reference to the Southern cause and those who fought it. “It was J. J. D. Renfroe who constantly used his war experience to begin, end, and illustrate sermons” [Windsor, 19]. This is certainly evident when one reads those sermons.

When General R. E. Lee passed away on October 22

nd, 1870 Pastor Renfroe remembered the esteemed Virginian and Southern Christian gentleman in a sermon. The title of this message he preached to the congregation he pastored was “A Star of the First Magnitude of General Robert E. Lee.” His text was—”For one star differeth from another star in glory” (1 Cor. 15:41). He told the congregation:

And now, in harmony with the spirit of the text … we propose to bring forward the name, virtues, and character of General Lee, and if the world were assembled here we would modestly and yet boldly challenge the chronicles of the past and the living present, “match him if you can!” We will not claim that he never had an equal, but that we have known nothing of his superior…. And while one planet in the moral and intellectual heavens differs from another in glory, we assume that our retired and fallen hero is a star of the first magnitude—standing among human luminaries as a “burning and a shining light.” 15

In this message Renfroe dealt with Lee’s noble attributes and character [6-7]. In this message is an encouraging word regarding Lee and those who respected him. He pointed out that the glory of such men as Cromwell, Wellington, Havelock, Washington, etc. was “the glory of success; that of Lee shines out luminously in the hour of defeat in the dark days of subjugation” [14-15]. A bit later he stated, “It seems to your speaker that Gen. Lee … will stand the test for greatness whether tried by the hard rule of success or the harder rule of failure” [15]. Of course Pastor Renfroe used the message to encourage the sheep in the local fold. This encouragement was evident in such declarations as, “A dark cloud drew itself between him and the object of his cherished hopes, but so brilliant was this bright star, that its rays burst through that cloud and throws a flood of light on the dreary pathway of the disappointed and defeated” [15]. He held Lee up to youth as a role model. Renfroe indicated that it did not matter when the stars from the South ascended; they “are our stars still…. Hard by the glories of Lee stands his illustrious Lieutenant General Jackson—the inspiration of the Southern armies and the consternation of the invading forces” [19].

Howard College (now Samford University) conferred a Doctor of Divinity degree on him in 1875. He diligently sought to raise funds for this institution which was almost put out of existence during the war. He was one of the instruments in its relocation to Birmingham.

There was the frustration and consternation with the results of the war and the conflicts that took another form. Pastor Renfroe never believed the South was wrong in defending herself against a hostile invasion. The outcome of the war was according to God’s providence and thus he accepted it. Theologically he understood but he found it challenging to submit to Yankee masters policing the South and interfering in about every aspect of life after the war during occupation.

Pastor Renfroe preached a sermon to his congregation that he had preached during the war. The title of the sermon was “Bitter Waters Made Sweet.” This was a very practical sermon to men who had seen so much carnage and death, but it was equally practical to a congregation suffering under want, occupation and military coercion.

There were in his life many difficulties from beginning to end but Renfroe trusted the one who saved him by grace and kept him unto glory. His life was one of facing the difficulties head on.

The Baptist Encyclopedia recognized these issues:

The latter years of his life have been made bitter by severe bereavements and affliction. Amid repeated sore troubles and hard trials, rapidly recurring, he has made it manifest that he is a trusting child of God, a good servant of Christ, who can endure hardness as a good soldier of the Cross [970]. 16

During his involvement in supporting Howard College he met others at Birmingham’s First Baptist Church where he became ill. He was taken to his brother-in-law’s home in Woodlawn for care, but the time of his summons had come. Thus on June 2

nd, 1888 he closed his eyes to earthly things. Elsie his wife had passed from this earthly scene just nine months previously. J. J. D. Renfroe was interred beside his wife at Oak Hill Cemetery in Talladega, Alabama where he had spent so many years ministering to the Lord’s people. “So shall he ever be with the Lord.”

B. F. Riley gives what could be called Renfroe’s Eulogy:

Dr. J. J. D. Renfroe had died at Woodlawn—a leader whose death occasioned universal sorrow. No one had exceeded Dr. Renfroe in the esteem, honor, and love of the Baptist people of Alabama. Chivalric in disposition, the soul of honor, a great preacher and leader, he was preeminent in the esteem of the people to whom he was, in turn, devoted [253].


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

John Lafayette Girardeau

(1825-98) was a Presbyterian pastor and theologian of great ability. His life was devoted to the preaching of the gospel. His heart was deeply moved to work among the slaves of his native South Carolina. Prior to the outbreak of the War Between the States, he served as pastor of a predominantly black church.

Girardeau was once called the “Spurgeon of America,” and many were moved by his powerful Christ-centered preaching. In

Preachers with Power, Douglas Kelly describes Girardeau as one who “had a profound grasp of the reformed faith and was skilled in preaching it with unusual power, clarity and unction to the men and women of his own culture…not a few observers expressed surprise at the theological nature of his preaching to the black slaves.”

Girardeau served the Confederate Army as a chaplain of the Twenty-third Regiment of the South Carolina Volunteers. Following the war Girardeau continued in the pastorate until he was called to the chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology of Columbia Theological Seminary. He would continue in that position until retiring due to poor health.

The following sermon on prayer was the

second in a series of five sermons delivered late in 1865, in Zion Presbyterian Church, Glebe Street, Charleston. A note by Dr. Girardeau says: “Daily prayer was offered by crowds of worshippers for the success of the Confederate struggle In consequence of its disastrous result, many of God’s people 17

were, by Satanic influence, tempted to slack their confidence in prayer. These sermons were an humble attempt to help them under this trial.” We will publish all five sermons in this series in the CCC over the next five months.


Hebrews, x: 22.

“Let us draw near with a true hearty in full assurance of faith having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.”

In the words immediately preceding the text the apostle, as I endeavored to show in the last discourse, indicates the grounds of acceptable prayer. They are, first, the atoning death of the great Mediator, forcibly expressed by the words, ‘”the blood of Jesus”; and, secondly, the presidency of Christ as a great High Priest over the house of God in all that pertains to the offering of worship. And the warrant which we have to approach God in reliance upon these grounds is derived from His own invitations, commands, and promises. Your attention is now asked to a consideration of the question, What is the spirit of true and acceptable prayer? How should we pray? In what manner should we attempt to discharge this all- important duty? In answering these questions I shall follow the order of statement observed in the text.

I. In the first place, in conformity to the exhortation of the inspired apostle, we should earnestly endeavor, in all our prayers, to “draw near” unto God. This evidently implies that we should avail ourselves of that perfect liberty of access to God which is granted to us under the present dispensation in consequence of the completed mediatorial work of Christ, and His prevalent advocacy of our cause in the heavenly Holy of Holies. In the whole of this suggestive passage a contrast is drawn between the restricted worship of the old economy and the untrammelled freedom of our approach to God under the provisions of the new. Not that it is by any means implied that the way to God through prayer was unknown to the saints of the former dispensation, or that there were not conspicuous examples of the performance of this duty before the advent and death of the Lord Jesus Christ. Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David, Daniel and a host of others, were remarkable exemplars of the fervor and the efficacy of prayer. Every believer during the past dispensations of the Gospel enjoyed access to a prayer-hearing God. We do not differ from them in the fact that we can come to God in supplication


while they could not; but our state is discriminated from theirs by the consideration that as a result of the accomplished sacrifice of Christ we have greater liberty, a bolder confidence in drawing near to God. We are not now admitted into the holiest of all only after the lapse of protracted intervals, and upon the occasion of solemn and national lustrations. We are not deterred from drawing nigh the blood-besprinkled mercy seat by a veil which dripped with blood and a glory which forbade the approach of the ordinary worshipper. We come not as the Israelite did, even when represented by the august High Priest, only to the symbols of the divine presence. Nor are we obliged to conform, as a prerequisite to acceptable petition, to the requirements of a cumbersome and painful ritual, to present daily the blood of animal sacrifices and to furnish the numberless offerings exacted upon pain of death by the rigid statutes of the Mosaic institute. On the contrary, we are privileged to come unto God, to approach into the holiest of all every day and every moment. No interposed veil stands between the worshipper and the innermost sanctuary. The flesh of Jesus has been rent and the veil exists no more, or exists only as an open door through which our High Priest passed into the heavens and through which all His people are invited to enter with Him — a privilege now enjoyed by faith, and actually possessed at the personal passage of believers at death into the heavenly sanctuary. We come not now, as of old, into contact with the symbols of the divine presence, but into the very presence of a gracious and reconciled God. No blood of daily sacrifices is required at our hands, nor need the smoke of the morning and the evening oblation ascend to God; we come through the sacrifice of Jesus which was offered once for all, and the infinite merit of which opens the way for the advance of every true believer, and the submission of every true petition. What an extraordinary privilege, my brethren, do we thus possess! A privilege denied, in its full extent, to the saintly patriarchs, prophets, and servants of God in time past, but now freely granted to the humblest believer in the atoning Lamb. How great will be our guilt and folly if we neglect to avail ourselves of this liberty of worship and fail to draw near unto God!

It is also implied, in drawing near to God, that we endeavor to attain to nothing short of an intimate personal communion with the Father of our spirits. We have seen that the guilt of the believer is fully expiated by the blood of Jesus, and the pardon of the believer is actually secured for him by the priestly intercessions of his great High Priest. God is, therefore, no longer an unpropitiated judge. He is a reconciled God and tender and pitiful father. It


has been said that the style by which the Old Testament saints addressed the Deity was — the God of Abraham, of Isaac and of Jacob, but that that employed by believers in the New Dispensation is — the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. “Go to my brethren,” said Jesus to Mary at the sepulchre on the morning of the resurrection, ‘”go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.” “Blessed,” says the Apostle Peter, “be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which, according to His abundant mercy, hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.” Our sins estranged us from Him and drove us into exile from His paternal presence and from the tokens of His fatherly love. In Christ He is reconciled to us and admits us to His gracious presence. Our communion with Him is not only restored, but enhanced and enlarged. “Truly,” exclaims the Apostle John, in appreciation of this illustrious privilege, “our fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ.” The great God now regards us as children adopted in His Son and beloved for His sake. As children, therefore, are entitled to enter into their father’s presence, to invade, so to speak, his very privacy, and to come before him with filial confidence at all times with their petitions, so are we, my brethren, authorized to approach our heavenly Father, to hold personal communion with Him, and freely and fully to present our prayers and make known our wants. Nor should we ever be satisfied unless in our worship we have sensibly attained to this sacred yet intimate fellowship with our God, have been enabled to talk to Him as children to a parent, and have thus consciously realized the fact that we have drawn near unto Him.

In connection with this point, it may be remarked, that drawing near to God supposes not a perfunctory performance of prayer, dictated by the demands of custom or a cold and formal sense of obligation, but a kindling of the emotions which naturally spring from near and holy intercourse with Him. In coming near to Him in personal communion we are attracted by His infinite glory, beauty and loveliness, are powerfully drawn to Him by sentiments of gratitude and love, and secure that moved and elevated state of the affections which renders prayer an actual joy and best prepares us for the duties, the conflicts and the trials of life. Without some such experience as this, though the fundamental elements of prayer may not be entirely absent, we fail to discharge the duty in such a manner as to entitle it to be described as a drawing near of the soul unto God.


II. The second element in the spirit of true prayer, which is mentioned by the apostle, is that we should come to God “with true hearts.” There are two things which are suggested by these words: in the first place, that in prayer, our hearts should be true to God; and in the second place, that we should be true to ourselves. That our worship should be acceptable it is necessary that it should be that of the heart. It is the language of the heart which God expects, and no other language, whether it be that of outward services or of words, is ever acceptable to Him except as the medium of His own appointment through which the heart utters itself to Him. Nor is it only the worship of the heart which He demands. The heart itself must be characterized by truth. That our hearts should be true to God, it is essential that they should, in the prayers they urge, be conformed to the nature and perfections of God, to the relations which we sustain to Him, to the requirements of His word, and to the really existing condition of our own souls in His sight.

It deserves to be considered, then, that our hearts are true to God in prayer when they recognize Him in His spirituality and render to Him a spiritual worship which corresponds with His nature. “The hour cometh,” says our Savior, “and now is when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth.” It is not so much required of us that we worship in this or that place, in Jerusalem or Samaria; nor that we employ this or that external mode of addressing God; what He does expect of us as absolutely indispensable to any worship at all, is that as He is a pure and intelligent Spirit, our spirits should hold true and genuine communion with Him.

It ought also to be noticed that the spirituality of the divine nature makes it requisite that our hearts, if they would be true to God, should divest themselves of those vain and unscriptural imaginations and conceptions by which material properties are attached to Him. I am not unaware, as our Savior possesses a human nature, and that nature is represented as being in a certain locality designated as heaven, and as being the medium through which the divine glory is manifested to the celestial worshippers, that it would be unscriptural and extravagant to say that such conceptions, so far as they apply to this mode of Christ’s existence, are illegitimate. The truth is, that the facts of the case and our own mental natures necessitate them. We cannot think of Christ without associating with Him corporeal qualities. But


what 1 would urge is this, that worship rendered to God as God must recognize His spirituality, and that we ought to labor to free ourselves from those imagings of His essential nature which degrade or limit it by the ascription to it of material qualities. When we are privileged to draw most near to God we feel that in Him we live and move and have our being, and that He is restricted to no place and no material forms in the manifestation of His presence and the exhibition of His glory. Of course, this view of the spirituality of the divine nature and the spiritual worship which truth requires will exclude all impious attempts, on any pretence whatsoever, to frame some material image of God by the efforts of human art through which we may conceive ourselves better able to approach Him or to attain the sense of nearness to Him. Now, as of old, the command of God is thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image: thou shalt not bow down thyself to it or serve it. Whatever may be pleaded for these painted or sculptured representations of an immaterial Being, their tendency necessarily is to the destruction of spiritual worship; and the blinded, fascinated and imbruted faculties lose at last all capacity for true and heartfelt worship. These words may not be gratuitous. Prophecy informs us that the time is coming — and there are not a few who think it not far distant, — when these old and settled principles of Protestants will be brought to a crucial test. To worship the image of Antichrist will then be to live, to refuse it homage will be to die. Happy he who will consent to die that he may forever live!

It merits our consideration, too, that in order that our hearts should be true to God in prayer, they should recognize His greatness, majesty, holiness and glory, and worship Him “with reverence and godly fear.” Liberty of access to Him by no means implies that we are warranted in approaching Him with thoughtlessness and rashness. We are never to forget the great and terrible name of the Lord our God. He is in heaven, and we upon earth; He the infinite God filling immensity with His presence, and we insignificant worms of the dust, debased by sin even unto hell, and dignified and ennobled only by the gracious notice which He is pleased to take of us. His glory fills the heavens and the most exalted principalities of that celestial state approach Him with reverence and awe, and bending in the light of His majesty, cry, Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God Almighty. It becomes us, truth requires it of us, to come unto God with profoundest humility, and to pay our homage to Him with reverent and prostrate adoration.


I remark, further, that in order that our hearts may be true to God in prayer, it is necessary that they should be characterized by sincerity, and be free from hypocrisy, double-dealing and formality. This involves the necessity of being ever deeply convinced that our secret motives, intents and thoughts are open to the scrutiny of the all-seeing eye. “Thou God seest me.” “O Lord, Thou hast searched me and known me. Thou knowest my down-sitting and my uprising; Thou understandest my thought afar off. Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and art acquainted with all my ways. For there is not a word in my tongue, but lo, O Lord, Thou knowest it altogether. Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid Thine hand upon me. Whither shall I go from Thy Spirit? or whither shall I flee from Thy presence? If I ascend up into heaven, Thou art there; if I make my bed in hell, behold Thou art there. If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea; even there shall Thy hand lead me and Thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, surely the darkness shall cover me; even the night shall be light about me. Yea, the darkness hideth not from Thee; the darkness and the light are both alike to Thee.” Were we always properly impressed by the truth conveyed in these striking words of the Psalmist, we should less seldom vitiate our prayers and vacate them of efficacy by the insincerity and hypocrisy which may be mingled with them. It is frequently the case that while we pray to be delivered from sin, our hearts secretly cling to it and are reluctant to give it up; so that we should be disappointed by receiving the answer which we seek with our lips. And not only is this the case in specific cases, but a secret regard for sin operates to the destruction of all truthfulness of heart in prayer, and closes the ear of God against our petitions. “If,” says David, “I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not hear me.” This is a species of insincerity which consists in pretending to desire what we do not, and it is as abhorrent as it is patent to Him who desireth truth in the inward parts. On the other hand, we may be equally guilty of insincerity by seeking from motives which God cannot approve the things which we really desire. This sort of insincerity is designated by the Apostle James when he assigns a reason why some of our prayers fail of receiving an answer, “Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.” It would be interesting to inquire what motives come under this class, what prayers are thus invalidated, but the scope of this discourse precludes the discussion. Suffice it to say that any state of the soul which consists with a love of sin, with an indisposition to


submit to the divine will, and with a refusal to seek the divine glory as our great and ultimate end, is characterized by an untruthfulness to God which hinders the success of our prayers. We are not true to God in our prayers, if we love sin instead of hating it, if we seek the gratification of our own wills rather than the accomplishment of God’s will, and if we desire our own reputation and advancement rather than the glory of God’s great name.

The exhortation of the apostle, it may be observed in the next place, supposes that in our prayers we should be true to ourselves, both in regard to our own personal necessities and the needs of those who are related to us. This implies such a knowledge of our own state, such a conviction of our own wants, as will lead to fervent earnestness and importunate ceaselessness in pressing our petitions. It is evident that in order to pray as we should, we ought, in some degree, to understand our necessities, and to feel them. It becomes us, therefore, to examine into the condition of our souls, that we may be prepared to plead with God. And then when apprized of our wants, we should not be satisfied with merely mentioning them at the throne of grace, or coldly asking their supply; we should urge our suits with fervent earnestness. We have eminent examples of this manner of presenting prayer in the saints mentioned in Scripture. The most illustrious case is that of the Lord Jesus Himself, who is represented as having spent much of His time in wrestling with God prayers with strong cryings and tears unto Him that was able to save Him from death. We are commanded to ask that we may receive, to seek that we may find, to knock that it may be opened to us. Truthfulness to our own wants requires that we should be instant, that is, urgent in prayer, that like Jacob we should wrestle with God, and like Jesus pour out our supplications with strong cryings and tears.

To be true to our own necessities, furthermore, we must continue importunately and unremittingly to pray. Our needs are always pressing and demand unceasing prayer. And He spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray and not to faint. Like the poor widow in this parable, we should, in spite of discouragements and delays, of baffled expectations and disappointed hopes, continue to plead our cause until the answer is in some form received. Perhaps there is no one duty which is more frequently inculcated in the Scriptures than that of importunate and incessant prayer. “Praying always,” says Paul, “with all prayer and supplication in the spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance.” “Evening and morning and at noon,” says David, “will I pray and cry aloud.” Daniel kneeled upon


his knees three times a day, and prayed and gave thanks. “Continue in prayer and watch in the same.” “The end of all things is at hand; be ye therefore sober and watch unto prayer.”

III. In the third place, we are exhorted, in the text, to draw near to God in prayer “in full assurance of faith.” The apostle does not here, as I conceive, allude to what is ordinarily understood as assurance, that is, the certain persuasion of our being the children of God, though a feature of Christian experience clearly enounced in other passages of Scripture as one which we should labor diligently to attain. His meaning in this place, I take it, is that in approaching God in prayer, we should repose undoubting reliance upon the death and intercessions of the Lord Jesus as sufficient grounds for our petitions, a childlike and unquestioning confidence in the willingness of our great High Priest to present and of our Heavenly Father to accept our prayers, and a firm belief in the promises of God to answer us favorably so far as may be for His glory and our highest good. Doubt upon these points is a hindrance to the proper performance of this great duty. The limitations which God may see fit to impose upon the fulfillment of His promises have already, in a previous discourse, been fully suggested. He best knows what is consistent with His glory and the welfare of His people, and He reserves to Himself the sovereign prerogative to answer prayer in accordance with His righteous will. But even in view of these limitations — in full recognition of the divine sovereignty, and in profound submission to the divine will, it is alike our duty and our privilege, in all cases in which we are convinced that we offer petitions which are not inconsistent with the revealed will of God, to pray in full assurance of faith. This duty is frequently inculcated by the Savior. “All things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.” “If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.” The Apostle James, in directing us to pray for wisdom, bids us ask in faith, nothing wavering; and declares that doubt is fatal to success. “For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea, driven with the wind and tossed. For let not that man think that he shall receive anything of the Lord. A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways.” It is obvious that a general rule is here delivered which, although applied by the apostle to a special case, is capable of universal application. My brethren, we are conscious of infinite guiltiness, infinite shortcomings, and infinite worthlessness. Satan infuses doubts into our minds and our own hearts tempt us to skepticism. Let us believe. In the blood of Jesus and the intercession of


Jesus we have sufficient grounds for approaching God. Let us rely upon them. Our great High Priest and righteous advocate is willing to receive our prayers and present them before the throne. Let us trust Him. Our reconciled God and Father in Christ Jesus is ready to accept our petitions. Let us confide in Him. To doubt is to do injustice to a Savior’s work and the dispositions of a Father’s heart. Come, let us draw near to God in full assurance of faith.

IV. In the fourth and last place, the apostle encourages us to come to God in prayer, “having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.”

There are two cases in which the heart is so influenced by an evil conscience as to be hindered in endeavoring to offer acceptable prayer. The first is that in which the conscience convicts us of guilt, accuses us of it, and reflecting the sentence of the broken law, condemns us for its existence. This necessarily produces a timid and slavish condition of the soul, which is utterly inconsistent with the enjoyment of that filial confidence without which it is impossible to draw near to God with liberty and boldness. The blood of Jesus sprinkled, through faith, upon the conscience, satisfies its demands, silences its accusations, and annuls its condemning sentence. We are, in consequence, no longer ashamed or afraid to come unto God. The blood of Jesus, as the apostle says in another passage, purges the conscience from dead works to serve the living God. The soul is no longer slain under the curse of a violated and unsatisfied law. The blood of atonement applied by the grace of the Spirit has rendered it a living soul. Its works are consequently living works and suited to be presented to a living God. In coming to God by prayer, therefore, we should labor so to apprehend the atoning merits of Christ as to be delivered from an enslaving bondage to an accusing and condemning conscience.

The second case in which liberty in prayer is impeded by an evil conscience is that in which, through the special pleadings of a perverted understanding and a corrupt heart, the conscience is deceived and induced to tolerate the soul in the secret indulgence of sin. So long as this condition lasts, no access to God in prayer can be enjoyed. The heart regards iniquity, and God will not, consequently, hear our prayers. The blood of Jesus sprinkling the conscience purges it of its blindness, clears up its perceptions of the real facts in the case and leads it to continue its rebukes of the sin until it is repented of and forsaken. The defiled condition of the heart is thus removed, and liberty in prayer is the result. We should draw near to God,


therefore, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience by the blood of Jesus.

To this the apostle adds the necessity of having our bodies washed with pure water. Dr. Owen is of opinion that the allusion in these words is not to the purification which is symbolized by the washing of baptism. It may be that it is included in the idea presented by the apostle; but I am inclined to think that that was not its chief significance, and to agree with the great theologian just mentioned in supposing that Paul’s meaning is that in coming to God in prayer, we should be cleansed, not only from the guilt of those secret sins by which the heart is defiled, but also from that of those more open and grosser sins which the body is instrumental in committing. The blood of Christ applied by the grace of the Holy Ghost washes us from the pollution communicated by these sins. And as it is necessary that in praying acceptably we should not secretly regard iniquity in our hearts, it is equally incumbent upon us, if we would pray aright, to resist the solicitations of those sins of the flesh from which we have been purified by the blood of Jesus and the washing of the Holy Ghost. It is plain that allowed indulgence in such sins bars the way of access to God. Let us, therefore, draw near to God, having our bodies washed with pure water.

Book Review

Noah Webster’s First Edition of An American Dictionary of the English Language

by Noah Webster

Foundation for American Christian Education

The first edition to own is published by the Foundation for American Christian Education and has a prefacing article by Rosalie J. Slater. Slater noted, “Today when the biblical basis of education is under systematic attack we need to capitalize upon the availability of our first American dictionary – the only dictionary in the world to

“draw water out of the wells of salvation” – to utilize God’s written word as a key to the meaning of words. Historically, it documents the degree to which the Bible was America’s basic text book in all fields.”

There is an excellent chapter added to this edition titled:

Noah Webster: Founding Father of American Scholarship and Education.

Why review a reprint of the first edition? This is the unadulterated version. Words matter! Have you ever heard, “Those are fighting words?” Words may be used to falsely incriminate, to pardon, to assassinate a person’s good name and character. Southerners of all people should be aware of the misuse and abuse of words. Richard M. Weaver reminds us in

Ideas Have 27


: “Words because of their common currency acquire significance greater than can be imparted to them by a single user and greater than can be applied to a single situation.” A good dictionary is essential in learning. One who reads books prior to the twentieth century needs such a dictionary in order to understand those authors in context.

Consider the destructive forces that are mutilating our language and thus distorting understanding. Consider for example definition of the

family. Webster in his 1828 American Dictionary of the English Language defined “family” as “1. …a household, including parents, children and servants…. 2. Those who descend from one common progenitor (forefather)…. Thus, Israelites were a branch of the family of Abraham.” The drift in definition of the “family” has plunged into the abyss. Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary defined “family” as “…a group of individuals living under one roof and usually under one head (household)…. 5. The basic unit of society having as its nucleus two or more adults living together and cooperating in the case and rearing of their own or adopted children.” Where are we headed? Yes, we have reached the abyss. Have you heard of the Charles Manson family? Yes, this group was described as a family. The word “family” has become identified with every form of behavior that is an abomination to God, such as: homosexual marriages, unwed partners, group relations and mate swopping to name some.

Webster considered education to be “useless without the Bible.” He stated: “In my view, the Christian religion is the

most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government, ought to be instructed…. No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people.” The Webster’s 1828 Dictionary is a unique and essential tool for educating Christians. It has the greatest number of Biblical definitions of any reference. The roots of words are traced in many languages. There are examples of proper use from classical literature and the Bible. This dictionary becomes not only a tool for defining words Biblically, it becomes a way of thinking that forms a worldview. It will equip you for Christian leadership, strengthen your vocabulary, give you an edge in communicating your view and become your foundation for thinking and reasoning Biblically. This tool can be the turning point for you to be more effective in communicating Christian principles used in government, economics, and marketing or for your child to clearly understand how the Bible has influenced every area of life.

We must remember who we are and what we must be about:

The SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your stren

gth will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations. 28


Chaplain’s Handbook

Sesquicentennial Edition

Sons of Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged Sesquicentennial Edition of the

Chaplain’s Handbook. It is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic, SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen; there has also been added a third burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America; a chapter on Praying in Public has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public Use. All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the handbook will find it even more useful than before. There is the same cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication. Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles | Anno Domini 2013 | October | Issue No. 94

2013 October 21
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth



Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Anno Domini 2013


Issue No. 94

“That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God, one of our dear defenders thus to die.”

Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon Drive,

Greenville, SC 29607



Editor: Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



Quote from a Confederate Chaplain

Speaking of the Revival in the ANV in 1863:

“There were as many evidences of genuine penitence as I ever noticed at home—yes, more. Almost every day there would be a 2

dozen conversions, and there were in the six weeks in the brigade, not less than five hundred who professed conversion.”

Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe

10th Alabama Infantry Regiment


Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:

One hundred fifty years ago a great awakening took place in the Army of Northern Virginia and in the Army of the Tennessee. Yes, 1863 was a wonderful time of ingathering. Revival had come! Revival is a sovereign act of God manifesting His work through His Word and by His Spirit. Richard Owen Roberts asserted, “In using the term

revival, I am speaking of an extraordinary movement of the Holy Spirit producing extraordinary results” [Revival

, 16-17]. We live in an age in great need of this blessing of the Lord.

Remember what J. William Jones said in describing this extraordinary event, “Jesus was in our camps with wonderful power, and that no army in all history—not even Cromwell’s ‘Roundheads’—had in it as much of real, evangelical religion and devout piety as the Army of Northern Virginia” [

Christ in the Camp

, 20]. Genuine revivals are the fruit of God the Holy Spirit’s work. One said, “The effective cause in all true revivals is the life-giving, light-imparting, quickening, regenerating and sanctifying energy of the Holy Spirit … reclaiming the backslidden and dormant believer.” When believers are in a right relation with the Lord then there is often a manifestation of the presence of the Spirit in a saving work among the unbelievers. Revival does not come because men do certain things in which God is bound or obliged to grant His blessings!

The preaching services during this time were variously described. One such description was—”By the time the preacher reached the point of announcing his subject he would find himself standing in the midst of a congregation of thousands—as many behind him as in front, and on every side the men were some sitting, some reclining, some standing, some on the seats, some on the ground, and ready to give sober attention to the sounding out of the Word of God” [Renfroe]. The chaplains were overwhelmed with intense hearers.

Outside of Fredericksburg, Virginia and Dalton, Georgia a great movement of God commenced that fall after Gettysburg and Vicksburg. Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe of the 10

th Alabama was outside of Fredericksburg


when the wind from heaven began to blow. He left in his personal handwriting an article called “The Great Revival” wherein he disclosed, “In camps near Orange Court House our best work was done after our return from the Pennsylvania Campaign.” Chaplain Jones noticed, “(W)hen we came back to rest for a season along the Rapidan, the ‘Great Revival’ began with all of its power and made wellnigh every camp vocal with the praises of our God” [

Christ in the Camp

, 312].

There was no great revival in the Army of the Potomac as there was in the Confederate Army. Why? William W. Bennett helps us understand:

There is a strongly marked difference between armies of invasion and armies of defence. The former are often mere bands of butchers following at the heels of some ambitious leader. But when men fight for country, kindred, and home, they bear a moral character that lifts them above mercenary motives [

The Great Revival in the Southern Armies

, 17].

A bit later this author explained:

In our war the Northern people fought, as they declared, to maintain the Union as it came from the hands of the fathers; the Southern people fought for the right of self-government. The war was brought to our doors, and was waged against us with the most determined and relentless spirit. Our people were thoroughly aroused, and rushed into the army from all ranks of society. They bore with them the convictions, thoughts, and habits they had been accustomed to in peaceful life. They were citizen soldiers; and though they shook off to some extent, in the early part of the war, the influences of education and religion; yet, when dangers thickened, and disease and death thinned their ranks, these returned upon them with increasing power.

The feelings of true patriotism lie next to the higher sentiments of religion in the heart, and the man that cheerfully bears the yoke for the sake of his oppressed country will not stubbornly refuse to bear the yoke of Christ [17].

This is a view from one chaplain. Certainly revival is in the hands of God to dispense as He sees fit but there are aspects of human motive toward the Lord and disobedience to Him that is not blessed. Just war and unjust war is another way of either being obedient or disobedient. Just war is on the national scale what self defense is on the personal. The South was invaded and forced into defending itself against an enemy seeking to destroy it. The South had the Biblical high ground for they were following divine precedent.

An accurate assessment of the fruits of the 1863 revivals will be given in eternity, but the men who were the objects of grace and survived the war and returned home had a fine record and few proved to be false. There are churches all over the South that were started by some of these men. Numbers entered the ministry. Many became instruments of the Lord and served Him in every facet of life.


Please find in this issue our Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us a very excellent article entitled

Liberty. Your editor has provided a biographical sketch of Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe, Part I. This issue as usual includes A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard. This sermon is by Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau. This is the first of a series of five on Prayer; this one is on The Nature of Prayer. Our Book Review is on the Trinitarian Bible Society which is an organization dedicated to the preservation of God’s Word and the Textus Receptus or Received Text

. They are the defenders of the KJV which was the Confederate Bible.

Soli Deo Gloria,

Editor H. Rondel Rumburg


Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’ Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have their names and e-mail addresses. Also, feel free to send copies of this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it. If you want to "unsubscribe" please e-mail the editor or assistant editor. Confederately, HRR]



The Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans


Liberty, Rev. Mark W. Evans


Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe, Part I, Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


A Confederate Sermon, Rev. John Lafayette Girardeau.


Book Review: Trinitarian Bible Society


Dear fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

We are grateful for the Christian heritage the Lord has given us. In these times of moral and civil turmoil, we have an anchor that keeps us from going adrift. The Bible, with its doctrines and practices, directs our steps. What a blessing to have ancestors who knew and honored God’s Word.

I benefitted from a sermon by Confederate Chaplain John Lafayette Girardeau (23

rd Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers), preached at Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, SC, May 10, 1871. The occasion was a Memorial Service conducted for eight Confederate soldiers killed at the Battle of Gettysburg and finally returned to their beloved State for re-interment. Our editor, Past Chaplain-in-Chief Ron Rumburg has preserved the sermon in pamphlet form, available at 5 Chaplain Girardeau lived with his regiment and endured the soldier’s hardships while ministering to souls. He was captured during the retreat from Richmond and imprisoned at Johnson Island — but “the Word of God is not bound” (II Timothy 2:9). The faithful parson conducted seminary classes and frequently preached to Southern prisoners, while the Yankee guards listened in rapt attention. In his message at Magnolia Cemetery, he asked a stirring question, “Did these men die in vain?” The chaplain answered his own question, “[O]ur brethren will not have died in vain, if we cherish in our hearts, and as far as in us lies, practically maintain, the principles for which they gave their lives.” He explained that they fought not only for their “firesides and their political franchises,” but also for their “altars.” Chaplain Girardeau said, “The spirit of the Christian Religion pervaded the armies of the Confederacy. The vast majority of our soldiers were its nominal adherents, and thousands of them were professors of the faith. Its influence was felt in almost every regiment. In the quiet of camp, during the march and on the eve of battle its sacred services imparted fortitude under hardship and heroic courage for the day of conflict. From the Commander-in-Chief to the humblest private in the ranks a reverent respect was paid to its ministers and its ordinances.”

Such were the men in gray who drew the sword to defend their fundamental liberties. Today, we have the privilege of carrying on the struggle. As chaplains, we enjoy the opportunity of declaring the same truths that enabled our ancestors to withstand the fiery trial. Chaplain Girardeau, in a poem entitled “Sons of the South, Arise, Arise,” gave a significant exhortation:

“Southrons, the right is on your side,

The truth shall stem this stormy tide.

The living God shall be your tower

And fortress in this trying hour.

Trust Him, and though the clouds of war

Shall glitter freedom’s morning star;

Trust Him and His great name shall be

The oriflamme [banner] of victory.”

Thank you for your prayers and faithfulness.

Deo Vindice!

Mark W. Evans



Chaplain-in-Chief’s Article



Mark W. Evans

Our relatives were not fighting to preserve liberty that fuels unrestrained immorality and seeks the usurpation of the authority of God. In 1642, John Winthrop, a founding father of Massachusetts, gave a timeless explanation of liberty:

There is a two-fold liberty, natural (I mean as our nature is now corrupt) and civil or federal. The first is common to man with beasts and other creatures. But this, as man stands in relation to man simply, he hath liberty to do what he lists. It is liberty to evil as well as to good. This liberty is incompatible and inconsistent with authority and cannot endure the least restraint of the most just authority. The exercise and maintaining this liberty makes men grow more evil and in time to be worse than brute beasts. … This is that great enemy of truth and peace, that wild beast, which all the ordinances of God are bent against, to restrain and subdue it. The other kind of liberty I call civil or federal, it may also be termed moral in reference to the covenant between God and man, in the moral law, and the political covenants and constitutions among men themselves. This liberty is the proper end and object of authority and cannot subsist without it; and it is a liberty to that only which is good and just, and honest…. This liberty is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority; it is the same kind of liberty wherewith Christ has made us free… Even so, Brethren, it will be between you and your magistrates. If you stand for your natural corrupt liberties and will to do what is good in your own eyes you will not endure the least weight of authority, but will murmur and oppose, and be always striving to shake off that yoke; but if you will be satisfied to enjoy the civil and lawful liberties such as Christ allows you, then will you quietly and cheerfully submit unto that authority which is set over you, in all administrations of it, for your good

[quoted by C. Gregg Singer, A Theological Interpretation of American History, 17, 18).

Our relatives fought to preserve this true, civil liberty. It was the same liberty for which their Revolutionary fathers had fought. Benjamin Morgan Palmer, renowned Confederate preacher, summarized well the South’s position when he addressed the Washington Artillery of New Orleans:

At the sound of the bugle you are here, within one short hour to bid adieu to cherished homes, and soon to encounter the perils of battle on a distant field. It is fitting that here, in the heart of this great city – here, beneath the shadow of


this Hall, over which floats the flag of Louisiana’s sovereignty and independence, you should receive a public and a tender farewell. It is fitting that religion herself should with gentle voice whisper her benediction upon your flag and your cause. Soldiers, history reads to us of wars which have been baptized as holy; but she enters upon her records none that is holier than this in which you have embarked. It is a war of defense against wicked and cruel aggression – a war of civilization against a ruthless barbarism which would dishonor the dark ages – a war of religion against a blind and bloody fanaticism. It is a war for your homes and your firesides – for your wives and children – for the land which the Lord has given us for a heritage. It is a war for the maintenance of the broadest principle for which a free people can contend – the right of self-government. Eighty-five years ago our fathers fought in defence of the chartered rights of Englishmen, that taxation and representation are correlative. We, their sons, contend today for the great American principle that all just government derives its power from the will of the governed. It is the corner stone of the great temple which, on this continent, has been reared to civil freedom; and its denial leads, as the events of the past two months have clearly shown, to despotism, the most absolute and intolerable – a despotism more grinding than that of the Turk or Russian, because it is the despotism of the mob, unregulated by principle or precedent, drifting at the will of an unscrupulous and irresponsible majority.

The North’s view of liberty prevailed upon the country through the force of arms. Today we are reaping the sad results. Inseparable from our heritage are eternal principles of liberty. Many Confederate soldiers not only knew the blessing of civil liberty, but also rejoiced in the eternal liberty given through faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. Tens of thousands of Confederate soldiers and sailors professed faith in Jesus Christ. No tyrant or despot can destroy that liberty. The King of kings said, "If the Son, therefore, shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed" (John 8:36).

At Magnolia Cemetery, Charleston, South Carolina, May 10, 1871, a crowd of mourning Southerners gathered to give final tribute to men in gray being re-interred from the battlefield of Gettysburg. Former Confederate Chaplain, John L. Girardeau, addressed the assembly and gave words that also speak to us as Sons of Confederate Veterans:

When Stonewall Jackson had, on that fearful night at Chancellorsville, received his fatal wound, and the ground was swept by a storm of grapeshot, he was informed by an officer that it was thought necessary to retire. Faint from the loss of blood, and suffering from excruciating pain, he partly raised himself from his prostrate posture and in a tone of authority said: ‘Hold your ground,


Sir!’ The bleeding form of Liberty rises from the earth before us and utters the same command. We must, by God’s help, hold our ground, or consent to be traitors to our ancestry, our dead, our trusts for posterity, to our firesides, our social order, and our civil and religious liberties

[quoted from Rumburg’s edition, A Heritage of Resisting Tyranny, p. 28].

Chaplain J. J. D. Renfroe




Alabama Infantry Regiment

By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

Part I

Confederate chaplains had their difficulties and sorrows as did the men with rifles in the trenches. Some of them were wounded and a few were killed doing the work of the Lord in the Confederate army. Other chaplains were plagued with disease, fighting for their lives from that front. There were few who escaped some grievous issue. They were subject to the same sorrows as others when their loved ones were ill, wounded or killed. The chaplain who has our attention now was such a man with a deeply wounded heart.

Rev. J. J. D. Renfroe was greatly impacted by the death of his younger brother the Rev. Nathaniel D. Renfroe who had joined the 5

th Alabama Battalion which was in Gen. A. P. Hill’s Division. The two brothers were exceptionally close. The death of Nathaniel in the Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13th, 1862 occasioned J. J. D. Renfroe’s writing of a commemoration to his brother. He titled it Model Confederate Soldier. This was printed in the South Western Baptist magazine and was also put into tract form in which it was distributed to 9

Confederate soldiers. Renfroe commented to the editors: “I have passed the saddest Christmas of my life, and how lonely and sorrowful the new year finds me! I have to perform the painful task of communicating to you the intelligence of the death of my only dear brother, N. D. Renfroe….”

J. J. D. Renfroe had previously received what was to be the last letter from his brother, and in that letter Nathaniel wrote:

We have just completed another march of one-hundred and seventy miles, crossing two awful mountains in the time. We were twelve days on the march. I had no wagon, or horse, or any other means of transportation, except my feet for myself and baggage; we rested only at night—rising at 4 ½ in the morning and marching until sunset. I suffered much—frequently thinking that I would fall out and rest, but when I would look through the company and see several men barefooted and still keeping up, it would stimulate me, and I would press on. The tramp finished my boots, and both my feet are on the ground, and but little prospect of getting any shoes soon. But it is my duty to bear a little hardness as a good soldier of Jesus Christ; and I submit to it cheerfully and without a murmur in view of my country’s freedom and the honor of my religion. We are certainly on the eve of a great battle here—it will be a grand affair—I may not survive the conflict; but, brother, if I die, I shall fall at my post and I am ready to go.

Perhaps young Nathaniel Renfroe had a premonition but one thing is certain—he was committed to the Lord and his country. He stressed his readiness for the eternal. The past spring Nathaniel had declared to his brother his weariness and excitement, but he said he desired to look beyond such scenes.

This premonition of death is also evident in a previous letter to J. J. D. Renfroe to prepare him for what might be in the providence of God.

And now, my brother, I have some reason to fear that you have not prepared yourself to meet the news of such a fate as may befall me. I know you feel lonely without me. It seems to me that if you should die first the world would be without interest to me. But I have entered the army to fight for you, and, if need be, to die for you and yours. Let us be prepared for the worst—nay, rather for the best, for though life is sweet,

Heaven is infinitely sweeter! I am willing to go when God calls, and I am willing he shall call me in any way that he pleases.

Such was the resolve of the young Baptist minister of Christ from Alabama who chose the army instead of the Chaplains Corps as was the practice of many young Baptist ministers. Such was the desire to comfort his brother in the event of his death.

This author’s paraphrase of the last moments of Pastor/Soldier Nathaniel Renfroe is based on the account left in the

Religious Herald. Above the heights of the ravaged and beleaguered City of Fredericksburg, Virginia a young soldier lies in the shadow of trees as his life’s blood slowly seeps into the Lord’s earth. There was a great dying thirst but no friend or foe was near to satisfy it with water. Here 10

lay a young pastor, a preacher of the grace of God, whose congregation in Alabama often prayed for him to return to them and minister the eternal verities of the Redeemer-God. While the stars of the night sky sparkle and his guardian angel prepares to bear his soul to glory this child of God, and preacher of grace, a defender of hearth and home in his final earthly moments remembers his Lord, his family and the congregation to which he had ministered as his soul takes flight to the realms of eternal day. “Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord.”

J. J. D. Renfroe in his sermon “Heaven” preached on January 11

th, 1863, wherein he confessed, “One of my strongest ties to earth has been dissolved, and heaven has gained for me an additional attraction.” These words and this sermon had reference to his brother. In the next paragraph he said, “I … devote this sacred day to the contemplation of ‘The Saint’s Everlasting Rest.’”

The Beginning

The genesis of the life of John Jefferson DeYambert Renfroe occurred in Montgomery County, Alabama on August 30

th, 1830. His parents were Nathan W. and Mahala Lee Renfroe. They came to Alabama from Washington County, Georgia. There are some children who do not have a role model in perhaps one or both parents. As a lad J. J. D. Renfroe was faced with an earthly father who sought to keep his children shut off from the Christian faith. Nathan Renfroe was very irreligious. He was a farmer and trader. One writer described this father as “thriftless.” That same writer noted that the father was “A most godless man” who “never attended on preaching, nor did his family.” A visiting preacher to the home on Chunnenuggee Ridge described finding mother Mahala cooking under a shed. In the course of his visit he sought to point her to Christ and found her responsive. Mahala related to the preacher that she had not heard a sermon in twenty years [B. F. Riley, A Memorial History of the Baptists of Alabama, 135-136].

The eldest daughter in the family had two children and she lived in the same area. She confided that she had only heard two sermons in her life; and it seems that her siblings had never heard any preaching. This oldest daughter arranged for a worship service in her home since her father would not allow one in his home. Rev. A. N. Worthy held the first service and thereafter there was an interest in the community for Baptist missionaries to come and preach in the little community school building. J. J. D. Renfroe’s mother and oldest sister professed faith in Christ publicly when Rev. Joel Sims baptized them upon profession of faith. The little school building came into use as a place for the founding of Elizabeth Baptist Church. Here the fledgling assembly meet and the building doubled as a school and place of worship. This was quite normal during that era.

J. J. D. Renfroe’s conversion took place under a sermon preached by Rev. Worthy. The sermon was titled “The Wise and Foolish Virgins.” B. Dwain


Waldrep wrote, “Despite his irreligious father’s attempts to shield him from Christianity, Renfroe was converted and baptized in 1848.” Dr. A. N. Worthy baptized him August 30

th, 1848 [William Cathcart, The Baptist Encyclopedia, 969]. The little community school was where he began his elementary learning on two fronts. As a result of his conversion and the manifestation of an interest in the things of God Renfroe was taken to the home of Rev. J. M. Newman. Newman was a Baptist preacher of means who provided Renfroe an opportunity valuable learning. “Rev. J. M. Newman … afforded young Renfroe the first slim advantages of an education” [Riley, 136].

Calling to the Ministry

Not long after his conversion Renfroe believed he was called to the gospel ministry. His desire was to preach and exalt his wonderful savior the Lord Jesus Christ. Like most things in his life there were many difficulties to overcome.

Unprepossessing in personal appearance, he was ridiculed by some when he proposed to become a minister, but undismayed, he mastered one difficulty after another, acquired information where he could, and gradually became second to no other in influence in the Baptist denomination in Alabama [Riley, 136].

This young man began by swimming against the current of opposition and contrary circumstances which only seemed to make him stronger. This would be almost a norm in his life. Riley described that he was very useful in the work of the Lord regardless of his “unfavorable background … and his career was a romance of success.” Before he was ordained to the ministry he began preaching. Also, during this time he married Elsie Lee and the Lord blessed their marriage with eight children. He was ordained as a minister of the gospel at Cedar Bluff, Alabama in 1852.

Entering the ministry when young, with great difficulties in his pathway, he has by persistent and faithful effort made his way to the front rank of preachers in the South [Cathcart].

Theologically Renfroe was a Calvinist like most of the Baptists, Presbyterians and Episcopal men of God in the South. “While diligently engaged in leading sinners to Christ, he was earnest and aggressive in his defense of ‘the faith once delivered to the saints.’” [Cathcart]. Because of his strong convictions regarding God’s revealed truth Renfroe found himself in some very heated controversies with other preachers and other denominations. He became recognized by many of his peers as a defender of their cause. In his own denominational conflicts he did not practice a hand-off approach. This was evident when J. B. Hawthorne wrote an article which was a direct attack on Landmarkism. This attack appeared in the


South Western Baptist

periodical and Renfroe marshaled his pen and gave a defense for the Landmarkers [Riley, 130].

Renfroe became a pastor of a local flock of his Lord. He was described as being unusual in his native ability, a dedicated student of the things of God and quickly gained the attention of his denomination. From 1852 to 1857 he pastored several churches in Calhoun and Cherokee counties. But in the fall of 1857 he was extended a call from one of Alabama’s most influential pulpits which eventually became known as the First Baptist Church of Talladega, Alabama. He entered this pastorate on January 1

st, 1858.

Pastor Renfroe was busy ministering the Word of God, distributing tracts and literature. However, there was a storm of conflict about to break out in these United States that would end the Founding Fathers’ interpretation of the Constitution. The Southern States came under an attack set forth by the agnostic New England transcendentalists who sponsored John Brown in the killing of citizens in their homes until he was executed for his crimes. This group from New England perpetuated their final solution which would entail the death of hundreds of thousands of people either in the military or civilian life, even infants and the elderly would fall prey to tactics unlike civilized warfare. This was due to Lincolns “total war” concept.

The end result would be the coercion of a centralized government essentially robbing the individual states of their rights and the Constitution of its original intentions. Perhaps Renfroe should speak to this issue which he did in his sermon “The Battle is God’s” preached to Wilcox’s Brigade on a fast day:

Yes, we are in the midst of war, not of choice but necessity. No other alternative was left us at the beginning, and we have no choice now, but to realize, the fact that a great war is upon us, and confront it like freemen, unless we can tamely submit to the yoke of slavery, and surrender every indefeasible right guaranteed to us by the God of our being, and sell our posterity into a state of vassalage more cruel and merciless than that suffered by the Hebrews in the land of Egypt, or the subjugated parties under the reign of terror. Surely there is no man—I know there is no patriot in all our land, who has watched the developments of Yankee character for the past two years, but will rejoice in the idea of national and social separation from that people. Certainly, all men have seen that separation from them was necessary and inevitable. It was necessary for the preservation of our institutions and social systems; it was necessary for the maintenance of that form of government transmitted to us by the patriots of the first American Revolution; it was necessary for the defence of our own Constitutional liberty, and the liberty and happiness of our posterity for generations to come. Our enemies were fast fixing the manacles of despotism upon us, and some of us knew it not. We were astonished when aroused to a sense of our danger. And when we attempted to leave them, we asked to be allowed to go in peace. As Abraham said to Lot when they separated, so said we to them;—”Let there be no strife between us.” But they replied, you shall not go in peace, you shall not go at all. We will enforce our laws; we intend that your States shall remain obedient and true to our 13

government. The very act of refusing us peaceable separation shows that they had already learned to regard us as

subject to them, and bound to obey their laws and submit to their rule, however prejudicial to our rights and liberties those laws and that rule might be. And when they denied us peaceable separation, Liberty called for her Sons in the South to come to her rescue and defence; and those sons rose up in every town and city, in every hill and valley, and came forth from almost every hearthstone and sacred altar throughout the land;—leaving their peaceable avocations, forsaking for the time—and many of them forever—the unspeakable joys of domestic life, they rushed with heroic enthusiasm to their country’s standard, and there they pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor, to the defence of the heritage handed down to them by the fathers of American independence! Nobly have they kept that pledge! With almost superhuman energy, endurance and courage, have they toiled and suffered and battled, at the altar of liberty. And prominent among this mighty host of gallant men, stands Wilcox’s Brigade. Sirs, do you regret that you obeyed your country’s call? Are you ashamed of what you have done? Is there a single man here who would retrace the honored steps he has taken for the defence of his native land? No, there are none of that class here. Your proud record vindicates your unrelenting courage. I feel that I am not talking to one of those faint-hearted whiners, who cry peace, peace, when there is no peace, and who would sell his country or desert his country’s flag. We have to fight on! We cannot make peace. We cannot even propose peace. Our government has done all that could be done in that line. A proposition for peace going from us, now would be the essence of cowardice, and could but have the effect of causing our enemies to believe that we were about ready to yield everything. Propositions for peace must emanate from them; and until then, we must stand by our arms, and be ready to strike at all times for our country and our country’s honor.

This quote is extensive but very succinct considering the ponderous nature of the subject. Renfroe was superb in his reply!


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

John Lafayette Girardeau

(1825-98) was a Presbyterian pastor and theologian of great ability. His life was devoted to the preaching of the gospel. His heart was deeply moved to work among the slaves of his native South Carolina. Prior to the outbreak of the War Between the States, he served as pastor of a predominantly black church.

Girardeau was once called the “Spurgeon of America,” and many were moved by his powerful Christ-centered preaching. In

Preachers with Power, Douglas Kelly describes Girardeau as one who “had a profound grasp of the reformed faith and was skilled in preaching it with unusual power, clarity and unction to the men and women of his own culture…not a few observers expressed surprise at the theological nature of his preaching to the black slaves.”

Girardeau served the Confederate Army as a chaplain of the Twenty-third Regiment of the South Carolina Volunteers. Following the war Girardeau continued in the pastorate until he was called to the chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology of Columbia Theological Seminary. He would continue in that position until retiring due to poor health. 14

The following sermon on prayer was the first in a series of five sermons delivered late in 1865, in Zion Presbyterian Church, Glebe Street, Charleston. A note by Dr. Girardeau says: “Daily prayer was offered by crowds of worshippers for the success of the Confederate struggle In consequence of its disastrous result, many of God’s people were, by Satanic influence, tempted to slack their confidence in prayer. These sermons were an humble attempt to help them under this trial.” We will publish all five sermons in this series in the CCC over the next five months.


Luke xviii, 1. “Men ought always to pray”

In these words our Savior inculcates the habitual and unremitting discharge of the duty of prayer. He obviously contemplates it as of importance so indispensable as that it admits of no suspension or serious interruption of its discharge. The reason of this is sufficiently evident. Prayer is a duty of universal significance. There can be no religion without it, and the degree of practical piety must always correspond with the extent to which it is performed. It may be said to be the prime duty of all religion, whether that of nature or of the Gospel of Christ. Not only does it possess an intrinsic value of its own which is absolutely immeasurable, but it is the essential concomitant, the necessary stimulus and support of all other religious duties. It goes hand in hand with the cultivation of Christian graces, and the performance of legal obligations. As it is passive, it is the grand recipient of that divine grace and strength which energize the soul, and as it is active, it re-acts most salutarily upon the fervor of religious emotions, is positively influential in the production of the most important results, and power- fully propels the suppliant in the path of spiritual obedience.

A just and scriptural consideration of this vitally important subject can at no time be inappropriate, or suited to promote other than beneficial ends, but there are certain exigencies in the experience of God’s people when it claims more than ordinary attention. Especially when confidence in its efficacy has been weakened if not impaired by the occurrence of afflictive and disastrous events against which its aid had been invoked, and the sneer of the skeptic is, Where is now thy God who professes to be the hearer of prayer, it becomes us to re-examine its nature and its grounds, and to settle afresh our faith in its divinely-appointed force. It has probably struck us all, my brethren, that under just such circumstances we now find ourselves actually placed; and anxious as I am to accommodate the ministrations of the pulpit to your present necessities, I have thought it not inappropriate to take up, in several discourses, this great duty of prayer, and to endeavor, with God’s blessing, to indicate its nature, its grounds, its spirit, and its efficacy, and then to answer, if possible, the objections which skepticism or a flagging faith may urge against its continued dis- charge. And I am impelled to this course by the pro- found conviction that we need all our religion to sustain us now, and that without the active exercise of prayer, though the principle of religion may not cease to exist, it will be practically dormant and inoperative either as to the performance of duty or the supply of consolation.

Your attention will first be directed to the question. What is the nature of prayer? It need scarcely be observed that prayer has a wider and a narrower signification. In its wider sense, it comprehends the elements of adoration of God, confession of sin, and a thankful acknowledgment of the mercies which we may receive. In its narrower acceptation, it is simply petitionary or supplicatory in its character. In this point of view it is the preferment of our request to God for the blessings which He, and He alone, is competent to bestow. It is to this latter aspect of it that these remarks will be mainly devoted. 15

I would here take occasion to remind you, my friends, that there are certain great and fundamental truths which, at the outset of the discussion, will be taken for granted. It is assumed that God is, and that He is the re warder of such as diligently seek Him. I shall not for the present, at least, pause to discuss with the Atheist the question of the divine existence, or with the Pantheist that of the divine personality, supposing God to exist, nor with the professed believer in the sole reign of naked, abstract law, that of the possibility of prayer as addressed to an intelligent Being who is capable of communing with us and who invites us to hold communion with Him. These things, which it is admitted lie at the very bottom of the subject, must for the present be assumed as truths which are con- ceded. Nor can any fair objection be urged against this course, since the utterances of the pulpit are simply the reflections of the deliverances of Scripture. The Bible does not elaborately expound, in formal shape, the great doctrines of God’s existence and personality. It enounces them authoritatively as entitled to immediate reception, and ever proceeds on the supposition that their bare enouncement is sufficient to call forth an affirmative response to them from man’s essential structure, or is itself an adequate revelation of their truth. The pulpit, therefore, is entitled to assume what the Scriptures — its sole authority — always take for granted. This, however, will not debar us, at a future stage in the treatment of the subject, from comparing the objections of the skeptic with those principles of our nature, or those convictions of reason which are themselves sanctioned and supported by the Divine Word. Conceding, then, that God exists, that He is possessed of personal attributes which render communion with Him possible, and that He is both willing and competent to answer our petitions for His blessing, the question which now solicits our consideration is. What is prayer?

I. In the first place it is clear that true prayer must include, as its first great element, the offering up of our real desires unto God. There may be the form of prayer without the desires of the heart, but there can- not be true prayer without them. All petition supposes a condition of want which requires to be relieved. It is the experimental sense, or the intellectual conviction, of need, which originates desire. The hungry man prays for bread, and the thirsty man prays for drink, because they desire them to supply their wants. He who is not hungry may ask for bread, and he who is not thirsty may beg for drink, but as the petitions they offer are not prompted by desire springing from a real want they are destitute of sincerity and are not worthy of being answered. In like manner the wretched man desires happiness, the guilty pardon, the impure holiness, and the lost salvation, when they experience in their souls a want of these invaluable blessings. But it is conceivable that formal petitions may be offered to God for these benefits without that desire for them which is grounded in a sense of need. In these cases the professed suppliant tampers with the majesty of God, which is offended by his insincerity; or trifles with the omniscience of God, which he must all the while be conscious is able to detect the hypocrisy and to unmask the pretense. It is not sufficient, then, that the attitude and gesture, the look and tone of supplication be assumed; it is not sufficient that a certain formula of devotion be employed in accordance with the demands of custom or in obedience to motives which are simply mercenary or selfish; it is not sufficient that a clamorous repetition of empty words be used under the impression that the Deity must needs be affected with such a quantity of entreaty; it is absolutely essential that the real desires of the heart should urge the prayers which we offer to the Giver of every good and perfect gift, or all our petitions, arrayed though they be in language ever so sublime, are offensive to God and barren of beneficial results. They are nothing but sounding brass and a tinkling cymbal. It is then only we “draw near” to God when we come with the conviction of want and the language of sincere desire. The heart must speak or the ear of God is deaf to the voice of the petition. 16

II. It deserves, also, to be considered that the desires which we experience and the prayers which they prompt should be for things that are agreeable to the will of God. Otherwise no true prayer is presented. It is hypocrisy to ask for blessings which we do not desire, it is presumption to pray for those which are contrary to the divine will. If the objects of prayer be unlawful, the prayer itself is illegitimate. The will of God is the expression of His holy nature and perfections, and wherever it is made known to us it becomes the standard of reference and the rule of action. It is evidently possible that we may transgress this will in our prayers, both in regard to the things which we seek and the motives which suggest our petitions. If either the reasons in which prayer is conceived or the ends it desires to secure are contrary to the will of God the prayer itself is intrinsically wrong.

The objects which we seek in prayer are of two kinds. They may be either spiritual or temporal, and the rule which has been indicated will apply with equal force to both of these classes. It will hardly require discussion to show that in those cases in which the revealed will of God, as contained in His Word, is transcended by our petitions, they are not conceived in the spirit of true and legitimate prayer. It is always lawful to ask those blessings for which the Scriptures authorize us to pray, always wrong to seek those things which they forbid us to desire, or the supplications for which are prompted by motives which they will not justify. The Word as the expression of the will of God specifies the things for which we may properly pray and indicates the motives which will meet the divine approbation. To ask other things than these, or to pray from other motives than these, is to be guilty of impiety in our professed homage to God, and to make worship itself the vehicle of sin. To seek from God those things which He has plainly told us we ought not to desire is to treat Him as wayward and exacting children would a father whom they regard as too weak to adhere to his own will, or to abide by those rules which he has laid down for the government of his house. Thus far all is clear. There can be no dispute as to the position that it is wrong to pray for those things which the Scriptures, as the revealed or preceptive will of God, forbid us to seek, and that those petitions in which this is done do not partake of the nature of true and legitimate prayer. Nor, on the other hand, will any question exist as to the propriety of those supplications which the Scriptures authorize us to present.

There is, however, another aspect of the will of God in reference to which the case may not be equally free from perplexity. A distinction has been drawn, and, it strikes me, validly drawn, between the revealed or preceptive will of God, contained in the written word, and the secret or decretive will of God which He has not thought proper to disclose in the same formal manner. It sometimes pleases Him to indicate this latter aspect of His supreme will, with greater or less distinctness, in the procedures of His providence; and whenever in this mode it becomes definitely known to us we are bound to pay it the same deference and render it the same obedience as we yield to the dicta of His written word. But there are numerous cases in which this secret will of God is not distinctly made known to us. He reserves to Himself that prerogative of sovereignty the glory of which it sometimes is to conceal a thing. He is not under obligation to give account of His matters unto any. As the ruler of the universe, and the supreme arbiter of events, He disposes of all things in accordance with His own secret purposes. Now, we are bound to submit to the decisions of God’s will, whether they are revealed or not. It cannot, it is true, become to us a rule of action when it is not revealed, but even then it claims our profoundest homage and our most implicit submission. It exists, though it be not made known; and as it is eternally the rule of the divine government, we are under obligation to refer to it all our states of mind, all our acts, and all our circumstances in life. In all cases about which our prayers may be concerned it behooves us to refer the final decision — the ultimate result — to 17

the supreme though secret will of God. Let me endeavor to illustrate this truth, for it appears to me to be one of great importance. In those cases, for example, in which we are clearly authorized by the written word to offer prayer for blessing, we are not discharged from the obligation to submit the matter to the decision of God’s secret will. This is true, I conceive, even in reference to prayer for spiritual benefits. For even in those cases He has reserved to Himself the right to answer or not, and the disposal of the time, circumstances and mode in which He will bestow blessings when He sees fit to grant a favorable response. We pray for an increase of a certain grace within us. We are right. But it is for God to decide whether He will comply with our request as to the thing sought or as to the mode and measure in which the request shall be met. We pray to be delivered from a certain temptation. We are right. So the Apostle Paul prayed against the thorn in the flesh. But it is for God to decide whether we shall be delivered or not. It is sometimes the case, to go still farther, that God calls us to do what He does not mean us to do and authorizes us to pray for blessings which He does not intend to confer. He called Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac, but He did not mean to permit him to perform the act itself. He tests our obedience, and at the same time fulfills His own wise and secret purposes. Paul was authorized to pray for exemption from a certain form of temptation, but God did not intend to grant him that exemption. He gave him, it is true, what was better — His sufficient grace, which enabled him successfully to resist it. He accomplishes, thus, our discipline in holiness, and works out concurrently the behests of His sovereign will. It will be perceived, then, my brethren, that even in those cases in which we do not disobey the revealed will of God in offering our prayers, they must still be presented in profound sub- mission to His secret will. Our blessed Savior Himself prayed that He might be delivered from drinking the cup of His last dreadful sufferings, but meekly referred the decision of the matter to the sovereign will of God. “Nevertheless, not my will, but Thine be done”!

This principle will go far to solve the apparent difficulty arising frequently from the nonfulfillment of promises which on their face are limited by no qualification. It must always be assumed, as a tacit condition, that God has reserved to Himself the right of acting in regard to them in accordance with His sovereign will. In some instances the limiting circumstances may be plainly gathered either from the Scriptures themselves, or from the course of God’s providence. If, for example, one should now pray for the faith which enabled the believer to perform miracles, he would fail to secure it, though the promises concerning it appear to be unqualified. God has withdrawn this particular gift from His church. This was one of Edward Irving’s great mistakes, which tended to cripple a ministry of extraordinary power.

The same principle ought always to be applied to prayers in which benefits of a temporal nature are sought. In the general those blessings which come under this class are promised to believers, so far as they may be needful to them. The Divine Word guarantees them, and authorizes us to pray for them. In these cases where the motives which lead us to ask them are unlawful, or where the things desired are themselves forbidden to us in the Scriptures, we clearly have no right to pray. In the other instances in which we are authorized to seek them, we should never lose sight of the great fact that God bestows, or does not bestow, them in accordance with His holy and sovereign will; and in the event of their not being attained in answer to prayer, it is our duty to lay our hands upon our mouths, to refrain from charging God foolishly, and to render implicit and unquestioning submission to that will.

And let it never be forgotten that there are many specific forms of temporal blessings for which we are often led to pray which God has never pledged Himself to confer. He gives us promises, in the general, and has reserved to Himself the particular application of them. In such 18

cases it is manifestly our duty to yield the most perfect deference to His decisions. He promises that the prayer of faith shall save the sick, but He has not promised that this or that particular individual who is sick shall, through prayer, be restored. We are authorized to pray for the recovery of the sick, and to believe that our prayer will be answered, until the providence of God decides adversely, when our duty is to submit. God promises to deliver His people who call upon Him in the day of trouble, but He has not pledged Himself to deliver a certain individual from what he conceives to be evil. The martyr is authorized to pray for deliverance from the fire and the stake, so long as the final event is uncertain, but God may call him to testify to His truth and to prove his own faith and love by dying in His cause; and in that case he is bound to acquiesce and to go obediently to his tragic end. God has promised to uphold truth and to support right, but He has not pledged Himself in every particular conflict in which truth grapples with error and right with wrong to render truth and right for the present triumphant. He may suffer them, for wise purposes, to undergo apparent defeat, and to be exposed to a tempest of opprobrium, oppression and scorn. In these cases it is our duty to sustain ourselves by the consideration that God does His will, and that the Judge of all the earth will do right. And to him who thus in disappointment and suffering, baffled in his hopes, and tempted to skepticism, yet honors God by a meek and uncomplaining submission due from a sinful, short-sighted creature, to infinite wisdom and absolute sovereignty, it will in time be made conspicuously to appear — as clearly as the flash of a sunbeam through the fissures of a dissolving cloud — that benefits were withheld for the bestowal of greater, that temporary suffering is but the prelude to everlasting blessing, short-lived disappointment to the dawn of unfading honor, and that truth and right go down beneath a horizon of darkness, and an ocean of storms, only to reappear in the morning glory of an eternal triumph. Jesus as an infirm, dying human being, staggering under the curse of a world, prayed that He might be delivered from suffering the second death. His prayer was unanswered and He died; but His grave was the scene of death’s dethronement and the birth-place of unnumbered millions of deathless souls redeemed from Satan, sin and hell. Hold, Christian brother! Do not despair because your prayers for certain blessing, however apparently great, have for a time been unanswered. Where is your faith? Where is your allegiance to your almighty, all-wise, all- merciful Sovereign? Collect yourself. Put on the panoply of God. Stand against these troops of fiends that would dislodge you from the citadel of your faith. Look up. God, your redeemer and deliverer, reigns. See, He sits on yonder throne, and suns and systems of light are but the sparkling dust beneath His feet. Thousands of thousands of shining seraphs minister before Him. Infinite empire is in His grasp. The sceptre of universal dominion is borne aloft in His almighty hand. His eye is upon His afflicted people. See, see, He comes, He comes, riding upon the wings of the whirlwind, wielding His glittering sword bathed in the radiance of heaven, driving His foes like chaff before His face, and hastening to the succor of His saints with resources of boundless power, and illimitable grace.

III. Let us pass on briefly to consider the third essential element in true prayer — a thoroughgoing reliance upon the atoning merits and advocacy of the Lord Jesus Christ. Prayer is a duty of universal obligation. We are bound by the very conditions of our being, as the creatures of God’s power, the subjects of His government, and the pensioners of His bounty, to render worship to Him and to express our dependence upon Him in the form of supplication. But, on the supposition of sin, it is impossible to see on what natural grounds we would have a right to approach Him with entreaties for His favor. Exiles from His presence, condemned by His law, and doomed by His justice to perpetual exclusion from His fellowship, we might indeed roar out our petitions for relief from our misery, but could be consoled by not the most distant hope of 19

audience and acceptance. It has, however, pleased God to bridge this gulf which separated us from Him, and which would otherwise have been forever impassable by us. In the mediation of His dear Son, who, being God and man in one person, was competent to reconcile us to His Father, we have a way of access opened to us through which we are again privileged to approach the divine throne with our supplications and our prayers. The atoning blood of Jesus removes the guilt of the believer and pleads for his acceptance with melting accents and resistless power. To offer prayer without a reliance upon the person and the work of the great Mediator is to bar the door of audience against ourselves. Reliance upon His atoning merits is absolutely necessary, therefore, to the existence of true and effectual prayer. Having, therefore, brethren, says the Apostle Paul, boldness to enter into the holiest of all by the blood of Jesus, let us draw near. And let it be also borne in mind that had we not in the person of the Lord Jesus a righteous advocate on high, a merciful and faithful high-priest who, having passed through the heavens, appears for us in His Father’s presence, no prayers that we could offer would rise into those holy courts. Polluted as we are in our persons and defiled as we are in our best services, it is out of the question for us to approach directly to the throne of the majesty on high. It is the province of the great Intercessor to offer His blood as the reason of the sinner’s accepted approach, to take into His own priestly hands the prayers of the suppliant, and perfuming them with the incense of His glorious sacrifice to present them before His Father’s throne. True prayer, then, my friends, involves a heartfelt recognition of the advocacy of the great Redeemer, and an humble dependence for acceptance upon His availing intercession.

IV. The last element which I shall mention as necessary to the existence of true prayer is the gracious assistance of the Holy Spirit. Blinded by sin as we are, we would, in ourselves, be ignorant of the objects for which we should pray, and be unable, did we know them, to pray in an acceptable manner. The apostle teaches us that it is one part of the condescending and merciful office of God’s blessed Spirit to supply these wants. “Likewise,” says he, “the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for as we ought, but the Spirit Himself maketh intercession for us with groanings that cannot be uttered.” From this consoling passage we learn that coming into our hearts as the promised “Spirit of grace and of supplication,” the Holy Ghost graciously helps us while struggling under our infirmities, while conscious of our unworthiness and ashamed to appear before God, while vainly endeavoring to collect our scattered thoughts and wandering affections, and almost hopeless in the effort to school our stammering tongues to utter the language of sincere petition. He illuminates our souls with knowledge of our real wants, and stimulates our desires for that grace which alone is able to relieve them. And then remaining in us, — what wondrous mercy that such dullness and reluctance to pray and proneness to sin as we constantly oppose to His heavenly offices do not drive Him from us in unappeasable anger! — remaining with us, He responds from the depths of our poor, sinful hearts to the pleas that Jesus pours out for us in the heavens and makes intercessions for us with unutterable groanings.

Book Review

Trinitarian Bible Society


This editor brings the

Trinitarian Bible Society to the readers attention because of its faithfulness to the integrity of the Word of God and its preservation of the KJV which is our Confederate Bible. This society is worthy of support. They make quality Bibles and make them available at excellent prices. They provide Bibles as mission projects.

The Trinitarian Bible Society (TBS) was formed in 1831 from a conflict within the British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS) over the doctrine of the Trinity and the deity of Jesus Christ. The BFBS refused to take a stand against Unitarianism, and those men who were concerned for doctrinal purity left to form the Trinitarian Bible Society (TBS). In the early years of the TBS, the matter of different Bible texts and versions was not a serious issue in the sense it was to become at the end of the nineteenth century. Though there were textual critics in the first half of that century, they did not exercise wide influence in ordinary Christian circles. The battles faced by Trinitarian in its earlier years were in other directions. The TBS did make public statements from the very beginning that they believed in the divine preservation of the Scriptures. For example, J. Lockhart said, “Let it be our zealous care, in our day and generation, to guard inviolate the precious treasure, and our delight to acknowledge with thanksgiving our infinite obligation to the special providence of the Lord, Who hath conveyed it down to us in its original purity” (TBS, Holding Fast the Faithful Word, p. 6). From the beginning, the TBS made a commitment to circulate only the Authorized Version in English. “They did not accept the so-called ‘Improved Version’ or the ‘most correct text’ upon which it was based, and they did not allow the Committee any latitude to circulate along with the Authorised Version such other English versions as the Committee might approve from time to time” (Holding Fast the Faithful Word, p. 6). With the publication of the English Revised Version (ERV) and the Westcott-Hort Greek text of 1881, the TBS began to take a more active position on texts and versions. A number of articles were published in the TBS Quarterly Record at the turn of the century critiquing the ERV and supporting the Received Text. Some of these drew heavily upon John Burgon’s Revision Revised, as well as the research of F.C. Cook and F.H.A. Scrivener. From that time to this, Trinitarian has stood solidly behind the Received Text and the King James Bible. Though the TBS has never claimed absolute perfection for either, their published writings have promoted all of the major points commonly given in defense of the KJV. In 1904 the British & Foreign Bible Society issued an edition of the critical Greek text prepared by Eberhard Nestle and based upon the work of Tischendorf, Westcott and Hort, and Weiss. That same year the Annual Report of the Trinitarian Bible Society made this plain statement in contradiction to the confusion being promoted by their liberal counterparts: “There is a great shaking going on all around us; the foundations are being displaced; ancient landmarks are being removed; institutions are being assailed; confusion is written on all things ecclesiastical and political. There is only one thing that can sustain us in times like these, and that is living faith in the living God. “It is the design of the enemy to quench the lamp of Inspiration, to get rid of the supernatural and miraculous in the Word of God; to break down its authority and integrity by minimising 21

differences of translations; for, IF THE BIBLE IS NOT THE WORD OF GOD, BUT ONLY ‘CONTAINS’ IT, THEN ONE VERSION CAN CONTAIN IT, OR AS MUCH OF IT, AS ANOTHER. IF THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS ‘THE BIBLE,’ THEN ‘A BIBLE’ OR ANY BIBLE WILL DO. “The enemy cares not by what agency he gains his great end of making the Word of God of none effect. The enemy will use any instrument to accomplish his purposes; and the greater and the better the agent, the more effectually will he obtain his ends” (Holding Fast the Faithful Word, p. 15). Of particular note in the defense of the Authorized Bible within the TBS is TERENCE HARVEY BROWN, TBS Secretary from 1958 to 1990. Brown authored many of the publications produced by TBS during these years, publications that influenced great numbers of people around the world. This is described in the official history of the TBS as follows: “From 1958 onwards the TBS waged war on all these fronts with considerable vigour. Successive modern English translations were reviewed by the secretary in the Quarterly Record, and their defects analysed” (Andrew J. Brown, The Word of God Among All Nations: A Brief History of the Trinitarian Bible Society 1831-1981, p. 118). Titles of TBS articles leave no doubt about this society’s position on Bible versions. The following are a few of these: “The Divine Original: Doctrinal Deficiencies of the Modern Versions Traced to their Source” “Notes on the Vindication of 1 John 5:7″ “A Textual Key to the N.T.: A List of Omissions and Changes in the Modern Versions” “The Bible and Textual Criticism” “The Deity of Christ: Modern Versions and Romans 9:5″ “The New International Version: A Critique” “God Was Manifest in the Flesh: A Defense of ‘God’ in 1 Timothy 3:16″ “Rome and the R.S.V.” “The Excellence of the Authorised Version” “The Authenticity of the Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel According to Mark” The following excerpts from TBS publications illustrate the position of this organization in regard to the KJV: “Since 1881 modern versions have had a number of common features, the most important of which has been the adoption of emendations of the Greek text based upon the unreliable testimony of a comparatively small group of ancient manuscripts entirely unrepresentative of the great mass of documentary evidence that has come to light in the last one hundred and fifty years” (The Excellence of the Authorised Version, TBS article No. 24). “Those who are favourable or tolerant towards the modern versions are apt to react very sensitively to any suggestion that any changes have been made in the interests of ‘a lower Christology’, but it can be very clearly shown that the modern versions and their underlying Greek text eliminate or considerably diminish the force of many passages relating to the deity 22

and Sonship of the Lord Jesus Christ. … The Bible testifies to the eternal deity of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Eternal Son of the Eternal God. The modern versions, and the defective manuscripts upon which they rely, obscure this vital testimony, which the Authorised Version faithfully preserves” (The Divine Original, TBS Article No. 13). “The architects and advocates of the modern English translations of the Holy Scriptures often assure us that their numerous alterations, omissions and additions do not affect any vital doctrine. While this may be true of hundreds of minute variations there is nevertheless a substantial number of important doctrinal passages which the modern versions present in an altered and invariably weakened form” (God Was Manifest in the Flesh, TBS Article No. 10, 1965). “A comparison of the modern versions with the older ones reveals that the former all have something in common with the Rheims-Douay Roman Catholic Version which was translated from the Latin Vulgate. This was influenced by the Old Latin copies, which have some affinity with a small group of ancient Greek copies often at variance with the majority” (“Good Will Toward Men,” TBS Quarterly Record). “For too long the ‘science’ of Textual Criticism has been in bondage to the authority of a small class of ancient manuscripts, with the Sinai and Vatican copies at their head, which are in thousands of instances at variance with the Greek Text preserved in the great majority of the documents now available for ascertaining the true text. … The result has been that even in the ‘evangelical’ seminaries generations of theological students have been encouraged to accept without question theories which involve the rejection of the historical text and the adoption of an abbreviated and defective text cast in the mold of the Vatican and Sinai copies” (Many Things, TBS Article No. 33). “No evangelical Christian, learned or unlearned, would wish to follow [modernistic] writers along the perilous paths of infidelity in which they strode with such presumption. There is another danger, no less serious, in that Textual Criticism, the evaluation of the actual manuscripts in the ancient languages, the preparation of printed editions of the Hebrew and Greek Text, and the modern translations now being made in English and many other languages, are very largely conducted under the direction or influence of scholars who by their adoption of these erroneous theories have betrayed the unreliability of their judgment in these vital matters. WE MUST NOT PERMIT OUR JUDGMENT TO BE OVERAWED BY GREAT NAMES IN THE REALM OF BIBLICAL ‘SCHOLARSHIP’ WHEN IT IS SO CLEARLY EVIDENT THAT THE DISTINGUISHED SCHOLARS OF THE PRESENT CENTURY ARE MERELY REPRODUCING THE CASE PRESENTED BY RATIONALISTS DURING THE LAST TWO HUNDRED YEARS. Nor should we fail to recognise that scholarship of this kind has degenerated into a skeptical crusade against the Bible, tending to lower it to the level of an ordinary book of merely human composition” (If the Foundations Be Destroyed, TBS Article No. 14). The TBS publishes an edition of the Received Text Greek New Testament that it considers to be the preserved Word of God: “The Society uses the form of the Greek text of the New Testament known as the Textus Receptus or Received Text. This is the text which underlies the New Testament of the Authorised Version and the other Reformation translations. It is a faithful 23

representation of the text which the church in different parts of the world has used for centuries. It is the result of the textual studies of conservative scholars during the years both before and after the Reformation, and represents for the most part over 5,000 available Greek manuscripts. The Society believes this text is superior to the texts used by the United Bible Societies and other Bible publishers, which texts have as their basis a relatively few seriously defective manuscripts from the fourth century and which have been compiled using twentieth-century rationalistic principles of scholarship” (The Trinitarian Bible Society: An Introduction to the Society’s Principles, TBS, London, copyright 1992). The heartbeat of the Trinitarian Bible Society for pure copies and translations of the Word of God is seen in the following excerpt from the 1904 Annual Report referred to earlier: “How infinitely important, then, is it, that the Bibles we send out should contain (as far as we can assure it) only and exactly what He has said, and what He can speak of and acknowledge as ‘My Words’ … We ought to leave nothing undone in order to secure that every translation shall be as near to human perfection as human capability can make it. Satan’s first words were, ‘Yea, hath God said?’ and the answer was given in a false version of what God had said. In that answer there was an omission from, and an addition to, and an alteration of what God had said. These are the only three ways in which the Word of God can be adulterated, and these are the three marks which have characterised all false versions from that day to this… “It is impossible to overstate the importance of these two things—unfeigned faith, and the Word of God. This is the Divine provision for all the errors, and all the evils, and all the hostile influences of the present day.”

[Trinitarian Bible Society, 217 Kingston Rd., London SW19 3NN, England. (web site), (e-mail).]

We must remember who we are and what we must be about:

The SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought. To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations.



Chaplain’s Handbook

Sesquicentennial Edition

Sons of Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged Sesquicentennial Edition of the

Chaplain’s Handbook. It is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic, SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen; there has also been added a third burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America; a chapter on Praying in Public has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public Use. All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the handbook will find it even more useful than before. There is the same cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication. Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles||Anno Domini 2013||September||Issue No. 93

2013 September 1
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Domini 2013


No. 93

“That in all
things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God,
one of our dear defenders thus to die.” Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon

SC 29607



Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



from a Confederate Chaplain

A number of prisoners were
under the sentence of death for desertion, although not one from my regiment. I
was in daily attendance upon them in the guard-house. As most of our chaplains
were absent from camp much of that time, this painful service devolved on me,
even to announcing their sentences and accompanying them to the stake. Their
expressions of hope and gratitude must be my sufficient reward in this life.

Lachlan Cumming Vass

Virginia Infantry Regiment






Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:


This editor sends greetings to each of you
in the name of the Lord Christ. May He be glorified and honored forever and
ever. “It is of the LORD’s mercies that we are not consumed, because his
compassions fail not. They are new every morning: great is thy faithfulness”
(Lam. 3:22-23).

We live in
an age in which there is a desperate need for good examples. Why? The culture
is filled with bogus examples such as lawless athletes, drugged musicians,
perverted Hollywood stars and others from the cesspool of preferred corruption
endorsed by news sources, political figures and otherwise pseudo-intellectuals.
As leaders among our compatriots we need to exemplify the Christian life in
contrast to a bankrupt world system. Paul urged Timothy to “be … an example of
the believers, in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in
purity” (1 Tim. 4:12).
To be a faithful servant of Christ one must be
exemplary. What does that mean? There are two imperatives that are connected in
this verse by the strong adversative “but.”
For a car battery to be good it must have a negative and positive post.

First, Negatively

Timothy must not allow his youth to be despised—“Let no man despise thy youth” (1 Tim. 4:12a). Chrysostom
paraphrased it, “Let no man despise thee
on account of thy youth.”
What is the meaning of “youth”? The particular Greek word Paul used refers to someone who
is under the age of 40, and Timothy was possibly between 35 and 40. The
emphasis on Timothy’s age may have arisen because the elders in the church at
Ephesus were much older and apt to look down on him but Paul urged him to not
let that happen. Timothy must behave in such a way as to garner their respect.

What Timothy must not do is to let anyone “despise” his youth. This literally means that he must not let
anyone look down on him mentally, think little of him, or push him around. We
must not allow anyone to despise our age whatever it is!

Second, Positively

Timothy must
“be an example of the believers”
(v.12b). Yes, be like “believers” in
contrast to “unbelievers.” There is a
lot of difference between a John the Beloved in contrast to a Judas the
Betrayer. The word “example” means a
pattern. Like a Greek child who has a wax tablet with the alphabet imbedded in
it for him to trace to learn his letters. He is not just an example to them but
he is also a model or pattern for them. What kind of pattern was he to be? He
was to be [1] a Christian pattern in his outward way of life—“in word, in conversation,” [2] a
Christian pattern in ruling principles of life—“in charity, in spirit, in faith,” and [3] a Christian pattern in
the consecration of life—“in purity.”

He is to be a pattern “in word.”
There must be verbal veracity. The use of public speech, private speech and everyday
speech involves speaking, preaching, teaching, exhorting, conversing or writing,
that is what the apostle referred to here. The tongue can be a dangerous
instrument full of deadly poison, James said, therefore we should be slow to
speak (James 3:8; 1:19).  Timothy’s
speech should be full of grace and seasoned with salt (Col. 4:6). The truth
must be spoken in love for it never fails (Eph. 4:15; 1 Cor. 13:8).

He is to be a pattern “in
conversation or conduct.”
There must be external behavioral continuity
(James 3:3; 1 Peter 3:1-2, 16; 1 Cor. 11:1). This is the revelation of
character. Remember what you do speaks so loud I cannot hear what you are
saying. The deportment of life can undermine the weight of ones words. This
deals with the conduct in the local church, the community, the home and the
state. The use of words and the behavioral activities show motive.

He is to be a pattern “in charity
or love.”
There must be the internal motive of love in all Christian
service. Our internal love for God is evident in our external love toward God’s
people (1 John 4:20-21). If a man has the tongue of men or angels and has not
love he is nothing. This is a ruling principle in a person’s life. Think of 1
Corinthians 13.

He is to be a pattern “in spirit.”
There must be an internal governing of one’s passions. There is a need for
meekness and a forgiving disposition. And perhaps it also refers to the spring
of zeal (Col. 3:23). As Robert G. Gromacki remarked, “The spirit is the self,
the spiritual, mental, and emotional center of activity.” This is a ruling
principle of a person’s life.

He is to be a pattern “in faith.”
There must be a pervading confidence in God for all of life. And this will
evidence itself in trustworthiness and faithfulness. This is another ruling
principle of life. We are to walk by faith and not by sight.

He is to be a pattern “in purity.”
There must be a principle of consecration helping govern the life (thus
signifying a spiritual atmosphere of life). Timothy must be personally chaste,
pure in intentions and show sincerity of character. Purity in thought, word and
deed is of necessity (Phil. 4:8). Unto the pure all things are pure.


We are to be
examples, and we are examples of some sort good or bad. When we consider the
life of John Pelham or “Stonewall” Jackson and others we could mention the
reality of their impact on others as examples is profound. The power of example
is seen in the following:


When Pelham
returned to the front he found General Stuart with the help of Gilmor rallying
the troops that had wavered against overwhelming numbers.  The men now had drawn their swords and were
charging along the stone wall giving the yell.
They appeared to be looking for a gap or gate to get at the enemy
sharpshooters who were bearing down on them.
Pelham on a raw boned black mare seemed to be enjoying himself as he
drew his sword and spurred his horse.  He
had wanted to be a cavalryman.  The
adrenalin of battle had taken over and its effects could be seen in his
eyes.  Smiling he waved his sword
shouting “Forward!”  He continued to
shout “forward” as he cut across to the head of the column.  By the time he arrived the men were streaming
through a gap in the fence and were turning sharply to the left.  He reined his mount at the gap yelling
encouragements to the men as they passed through the defile.  As usual he appeared calm and fearless
[Rumburg, John Pelham of Alabama,


The influence of example is what our era
desperately needs. T. DeWitt Talmage noted, “What men want to rally them for
God is an example to lead them.” There are so many who fake being like Jackson
or Lee (a uniform does not a Jackson or Lee make) but that is all they are –
fakes, for where is the godliness. Those men had character and were examples of
the believers in word, in conversation, in charity, in spirit, in faith, in
purity” and were not fake. God help us not to be proud fakes!





Please find in this issue our
Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us a
very insightful article entitled Hope in
Spiritual Darkness
Your editor has provided a biographical sketch of Chaplain
William N. Buckles.
There is an excellent essay by John Huffman on Prove All
Things; Hold Fast That Which Is Good.
This issue as usual includes
A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain
Kenneth Studdard.  This sermon is by Rev. Daniel A. Penick, Sr
Our Book Review is on “Southern Writing” by
Douglas Southall Freeman


Soli Deo Gloria,

H. Rondel Rumburg

[Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’
Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have
their names and e-mail addresses.  Also, feel free to send copies of
this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it
  If you want to “unsubscribe” please e-mail the
editor or assistant editor.  Confederately, HRR]






Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans

*Hope in
Spiritual Darkness, Rev.
Mark W. Evans

*Chaplain William
N. Buckles,
H. Rondel Rumburg

*Prove All
Things; Hold Fast That Which Is Good, John Huffman

*A Confederate
Daniel A. Penick, Sr.

*Book Review: Southern






fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

to a number of you who have recently been added to our email list.  I trust that the Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles will be a help and blessing to
you.  Past Chaplain-in-Chief Ron Rumburg
began editing and publishing this email paper over seven years ago.  It was my privilege to share in the early
beginnings and watch the free subscription list grow.  SCV chaplains need a means of communication –
especially in matters affecting our camp’s ministries, but also in spiritual
matters of broader concern.  Having the
monthly emphasis upon the history and Christian vibrancy of the Confederate
chaplaincy gives us good motivation and direction in today’s challenges.  My heart has often been strengthened through
its sermons and articles.  I trust that
you will pray for this volunteer labor – especially for Ron as he works to
provide us a spiritually beneficial communication, honoring to the memory of
Confederate chaplains and glorifying to the Lord Jesus Christ.  If you know of any chaplains who may benefit
from this paper, please have them send us a request for subscription to

Please remember to pray for the SCV, at all
levels of our organization.  The attacks
upon our heritage and the good name of our relatives are relentless.  Yet, we continue to see those, not only in
the Southland, but throughout our country and even in foreign lands, rally to
the defense of the Confederate cause.  It
is amazing to observe the unfolding of what our relatives foresaw in the
dangers of an overbearing central government.
Added to the debacle, is an atheism that defies foundational truths,
commandments, and institutions revealed in God’s Word.  Sadly, rebellion against God brings misery
and chaos.  We are grateful that the Word
of God does not change, and the same spiritual blessings enjoyed by our
ancestors are ours today.  No man can
take them away.  It is a joy to know of
the continuing testimony to the Gospel through SCV chaplains and many others in
our heritage organization.  Many of our
ancestors rejoiced in the blessing of the heavenly message that brings eternal

Deo Vindice,

Mark W. Evans






in Spiritual Darkness

Mark W.

     The prospering of the Gospel of Jesus
Christ in the Southern armies is an astounding testimony to the Lord’s blessing
in a dark hour.  Out of a vast harvest of
converts, each one professing Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior, came spiritual
strength to resist the Northern invader and to preserve a Christian heritage
bringing blessings to this day.  At the
heart of the great revivals were dedicated chaplains, serving the Lord in word
and deed, while enduring the hardships and dangers of a desperate
struggle.  Such gallantry seemed unlikely
at the beginning of the conflict.
Confederate Chaplain J. William Jones said:

were at this time but few chaplains in the army, and it must be confessed that
some of these were utterly worthless, and that but few of them appreciated the
importance or the fruitfulness of the field if properly cultivated.  There were exceptions to this, and here and
there faithful labors were crowned with some measure of success.  But the general moral picture of the army during
the autumn of 1861, and the winter of 1861-62 was dark indeed
[Jones, Christ
in the Camp,
p. 271].

By the time of the organization of the
first Chaplains’ Association, March, 1863, through the influence of General “Stonewall”
Jackson, the blessing of faithful chaplains was becoming evident.  Chaplain Jones reported a discussion held at
the Association’s meeting:

One brother was disposed to coincide with the very
harsh opinions that have been expressed so frequently concerning chaplains; but
the general expression of opinion was, that while we all have to mourn that we
have come far short of our duty, and there are some sad examples of
inefficiency, as a class army chaplains are as attentive to their duties and as
efficient as the same number of pastors at home.  In my own personal observation, during the
twenty-two months I have been in the army, I have met with several chaplains
who shamefully desert their posts on the slightest pretexts; but, as a general
rule, I have found them faithfully discharging their duty.  Let the chaplain who is nearly always absent
from his post, and shirks duty when there, be held up by name to public
censure, but let not the man who is constantly at the post of duty be made to
share his shame.  This is as manifestly
unjust as it would be to hold up the “shirker,” the coward, or the “straggler”
as a type of the noble soldiery that compose our Southern army.  It is as fair as it would be to take some of
the lazy, good-for-nothing preachers at home as types of our Southern ministry
[Jones, p. 231].

Association sent a letter to the leading denominations throughout the
Southland, urging them to supply the need of Christian laborers to advance
Christ’s cause.  The letter described the
chaplain’s work:

Our work is a hard work, and there are privations
which must be endured.  The fare of the
chaplains is that of the soldier.  The
exposures and discomforts to be encountered are in striking contrast with the
previous lives of most ministers of the
Gospel.  The health of some has
failed in the service, and some, indeed, have laid down their lives for the
brethren, but to many the change of habits has been beneficial, and the feeble
have come to endure hardness as good soldiers.
The chaplain, however faithful, will at times be discouraged.  Men will seem to take little interest in his
preaching; profanity, card-playing, and Sabbath-breaking will be on the
increase; his presence often will be no restraint upon vice, and when he has
faithfully discharged his duty he may meet with censure and ridicule.  In camp-life there is an indolence of mind
produced, and an aversion to serious thought.
There is also a disposition to seek entertainment in all manner of
foolish talking and jesting.  On the
march, and on an active campaign, the attention is much absorbed, and time is
often wanting for religious duties.  The
carelessness and open apostasy of professors of religion are here – as well as
everywhere else – a great hindrance to the success of the Gospel.  The readiness with which chaplains have
resigned their places, or absented themselves from the regiments, is a source
of discouragement to the soldiers and to their brethren who remain.  In the hasty opinions and sweeping judgments
of many in and out of the army, the deficiencies of some have been unjustly
attributed to others, and the failure of a few regarded as the failure of
all.  But these, you perceive, brethren,
are essentially the same difficulties, in a different form, which the minister
of God must encounter everywhere in this sinful world.  Our chief ground of discouragement, however,
is in ourselves.  With more faith in God
and more love for the souls of men, with more of the spirit of our blessed
Lord, we should behold greater and more precious results
[Jones, pp. 234, 235].

Lord graciously blessed with an abundance of “precious results.”  Faithful men of God entered the contest with
sacred zeal, wielding “the Sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God.”  Tens of thousands repented of sin and
believed in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior.

Today, we see the unfolding of what our
relatives fought to avoid.  They are
vindicated and their example steels our souls to stay on the path of truth.  Their solace and strength in their valiant
struggle to preserve freedom from Northern tyranny was coupled with the
greatest revival in our country’s history.
Many thousands called upon the Lord and knew the eternal victory through
faith alone in Jesus Christ.  Although
lies and blatant revision of our history flood our land today, our hope is
still in the Lord.  The One who showered
eternal blessings upon our forefathers in their fierce fight, is able to
preserve a testimony to His glory in our present dark hour.  “When the enemy shall come in like a flood,
the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him” (Isaiah 59:19).


William N. Buckles


Virginia-Tennessee Railroad
Hospital, Bristol, VA

Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

God in His divine providence works out the parents and
place of our origin. We do not come into this world as a result of some cosmic
accident, but we are brought forth with great deliberation and purpose. On
September 24th, 1834 William N. Buckles was born in the most eastern
part of Tennessee. Carter County borders North Carolina. Providentially he was
brought up and educated in the agrarian South. What a blessed start.

The Lord was pleased to be gracious to Buckles the
sinner and showed him His so great salvation through the Lord Jesus Christ.
George B. Taylor wrote, “Just one month, to a day, after he had reached his
majority he was baptized into the fellowship of the Old Holston Baptist Church,
Tennessee. Two years later his mother church licensed him to preach, and in
1862 he was ordained to the full work of the gospel ministry.”

When the War of Northern Aggression was brought
against his home and state William N. Buckles enlisted in Company K of the
Third Regiment of Tennessee Volunteers. He joined to fight under Colonel John
C. Vaughan. Not only was he a private in the ranks but he became a distributor
of Christian literature as well as a Confederate Hospital Chaplain in Bristol,
Virginia. Buckles was active either fighting the enemy or fighting for the
souls of men by preaching and ministering to the sick and wounded. Tending the
sick and wounded regarding their spiritual needs and burying them when they
died was the task William N. Buckles believed the Lord would have him do.

Since his call to the ministry was about the time of
the Federal invasion he had not had time to prepare himself to be a student of
God’s holy Word. Knowing he was inadequately trained, once his chaplain’s
duties ended with the conclusion of the war, he entered the old Blountville
Academy at Blountville, Tennessee where he remained for three sessions. Thus
like others before him he left to commence the ministry of the gospel. By this
time he was in his thirty-first year of age.

Having met Miss Seraphine Pyle of Sullivan County,
Tennessee he found he could not live without her so he eventually made a
request for her hand in marriage. They joined in holy matrimony and commenced
their lives together. Theirs was a happy home which was blessed with four

Pastor Buckles began as a pastor in East Tennessee. He
was also very fond of good Christian books and was a colporteur. He served a
number of churches. Also he was an instrument in the Lord’s hand in the
organization the Holston Valley Baptist Church and he led in the construction
of a building in which to worship.

The Lord led Pastor Buckles to Virginia in 1876 and he
spent the rest of his ministry there. His ministry was centered in Russell
County in the most western part of Virginia which was not far from where he was
born. He pastored the Lebanon, Bethel and Honaker Baptist Churches. His
ministry was among local churches in the New Lebanon Baptist Association.
William N. Buckles was a resident of Bristol during much of his time. The
latter part of his ministry was at Lewis Creek, Oak Grove, Castlewood, Pleasant
Hill, Green Valley, Liberty Hill and Cedar Grove Baptist Church.

Part of those years he was the moderator of the New
Lebanon Baptist Association. He was noted for his wise leadership. He was a man
who sought to be faithful to the Lord and the work that had been entrusted into
his hands.

On the Lord’s Day, February 2nd, 1908
William N. Buckles received his summons to meet with his Lord. His work was
finished. On the following Tuesday afternoon his family and a multitude of
friends gathered for his home-going service which was led by Pastor T. A. Hall.
The interment was in the Russell Memorial Cemetery where the mortal remains
await the resurrection.

Pastor Charles E. Stuart said in his obituary, “In
this day of glorious harvest we can never thank God too much for these pioneer missionaries
of the cross.”

Descendents of Confederate soldiers need to remember
these men who were Confederate Chaplains. They ministered in the most grievous
times. They have never received much acknowledgment in this world. Although
they tended many of our ancestors as they entered the next world we should be
appreciative of their labors which followed them.

Prove All Things; Hold Fast That Which Is Good


By John Huffman

[From the “Mighty Men Herald
for August 2013

“Prove all things; Hold Fast that which is good” so reads a tombstone of
one of the most splendid “mighty men” the continent of North America has ever
produced.  Before we reveal his name, let
us consider his influence.  This elegant
epitaph, drawn from the Word of God in I Thessalonians 5:21, accurately sums up
the life of this man.  The Greek word
translated “prove” here is dokimazo and means “to test” as an assayer or
a metallurgist examines the quality of the metal of a coin.  Our hero spent his long and useful life
“testing” and “examining” the various trends of his day.  He sounded warnings that anticipated some of the
greatest disasters that befell the Christian world in the 19th and
20th centuries.

Yet, our hero was misunderstood and
largely hated in his own lifetime, which was lived in the latter two-thirds of
the 1800’s.  He bore all sorts of hateful
labels.  Called an old fogey, a kill-joy,
a racist, a critic, and a complainer, our hero ignored all the mud-slinging of
his antagonists.  Most of these angry
labels were piled on him near the end of his long and useful life, and an
ungrateful people hated the man who was trying to warn them of dangers lurking
within their own homes and churches.

Born in Virginia in 1820, our hero
was one of the most eloquent and lucid writers of his age.  His background fully prepared him to handle
the many areas of life and culture he addressed.  He was a pastor, a farmer, a husband, a
father, a university professor, an army officer, a lawyer, a scientist, an
author, and a world traveller.  Nothing
escaped his penetrating gaze, and when his eyes were fixed upon something he
considered a threat to the cause of Christ, woe be to that man who stood in his
way.  His pen cut deep.  His arguments carried with them a cultivated
and keen mind.  He drew his authority
from the Scripture, and wielded it with sharp and cutting precision.  Here are some of the things that fell before
his pen.

He discerned the early dangers that feminism would bring upon a
patriarchal society.  He loved the
Biblical role of the wife and mother, being deeply devoted to the wife of his
youth.  He feared that feminism would
destroy not only Biblical femininity, but Biblical manhood as well.  He attacked it ferociously and defended the
Biblical, time-honored role of a wife and mother as the crowning virtue of

Long before the rise of Nazi-Germany, he asserted that the autocratic
policies of men like Abraham Lincoln in the United States and Otto von Bismarck
in Germany, as popular as these men were and still are in large parts of the
modern world, would eventually lead to tyranny and centralized control of
banking, education of children, farming, food production, religion, and local
affairs.  His views were not popular in
his day, and the cause for which he fought was eventually suppressed by the
brutal heel of Federal power, but our hero did not cease to warn that
centralized power would become a major problem both in Europe and in America in
the coming decades.

He also decried against Darwinian science.  Long before the modern Creation science
movement, he ferociously asserted the authority of God’s Word and the futility
of any system of Christian synthesis with Darwinian evolution.

He also asserted that the new “higher textual criticism” coming out of
the German rationalistic schools of thought would have a huge impact upon the
honor that Christians gave to the Bible.
He feared that men applying their depraved reasoning to the Bible would
try to “explain away” its Divine origins.
He feared that the rationalistic questioning of the Mosaic authorship of
the Pentateuch would lead to the undermining of the very authority of
Scripture, and give so-called “scholars” a loop-hole to live as they chose, and
take or leave the passages of Scripture they found.

But, closer to home, he also attacked things inside the church.  He warned against worldliness in Christian
families.  He wrote a long and scathing
paper against Christians engaging in popular amusements such as dancing and
theatre.  He wrote against innovation in
church music.  He asserted that novels,
even “Christian novels,” and historical novels, were dangerous reading and
should have no place in a Christian home.

For all these things, he was bitterly hated by many.  He was viewed as out-dated, cynical, and
overly harsh.  But he labored on, his
copious pen producing thousands of pages in his long and useful lifetime.

Though hated, our stalwart hero remained convinced of the Biblical truth
of the positions he so firmly maintained.
He closed one of his books with these words, “Let the arrogant and
successful wrongdoers flout our defense with disdain.  We will meet them with it again, when it
shall be heard in the day of their calamity, in the day of impartial history,
and in the Day of Judgment.”  The name of
our stalwart hero was Robert Lewis Dabney.
The words quoted above were the words with which he concluded his Defense
of Virginia and the South.

Dabney’s life was full of heartaches.
He lost two of his sons to a malignant fever.  He was stricken with malaria at the same time
which led to his eventual blindness.  He
saw bitter feuds divide the churches over which he presided.  He fought on the losing side of a war, and
saw the cause which he loved trampled into the dust by the strong arm of
centralized power.  He lived the last of
his life an exile from the university where he had taught so long, despised,
ridiculed, and only enjoying the domestic comforts of the loyal love of his wife
and children.  He was blind and he
suffered from severe pain, but he labored on, preaching and writing whenever he
had the opportunity.

Dabney delivered a series of lectures shortly before his death.  The elderly saint of God had to be led into
the pulpit, where he lifted his sightless eyes to heaven and implored God’s
blessing upon the young men and women of a new generation, that they might
learn from the mistakes of the past, and be discerning in their time, “proving
all things and holding fast that which is good.”

Shortly before his death, Dabney wrote to a friend, “Have I not
written?  My arguments, founded on
Scripture and facts, are as impregnable as the everlasting hills.  But who reads it?  The self-satisfied insolence of the
pharisaical slanders makes them disdain my work – they never condescend to hear
of it.  I have no audience.”

Although relatively few in his own generation gave heed to his warnings,
it is encouraging that  there is a rising
interest in the writings of Robert Lewis Dabney, and a number of his works have
been republished by several publishing companies.  His warnings against feminism, Unitarianism,
rationalism, statist control of education, centralized national power, national
banking, and the worldliness of the church have been fully realized, and we can
stand amazed at his prophetic insight into the creeping errors of his own

There are those that say to men like Dabney, “Judge not, that ye be
not judged.”
  But the same Christ
that said this in Matthew 7:1, went on to call men swine and dogs in just a few
verses, and to urge His disciples to beware of “wolves in sheep’s
Dabney was not being
critical or judgmental in the harmful sense that Jesus warned against.  He was being discerning, warning all who would
listen that wolves in sheep’s clothing were creeping into the Church and State.

Finally, the day came when the mortal remains of Robert Lewis Dabney were
laid to rest in the soil of his native State, Virginia.  It was 1898.
He was buried on the grounds of Hampden-Sydney College, where he had
spent the majority of his life warning against the innovations of his era.  Dabney was buried in the old Confederate
uniform he had worn serving on the staff of Stonewall Jackson.  The words said in the book of Hebrews
concerning the first martyr, Abel, apply well to the life of R. L. Dabney, “He,
being dead, yet speaketh.” 
As long
as men shall read the writings of R. L. Dabney, his life of careful discernment
will not be in vain.  As long as lovers
of truth shall make their pilgrimage to this quiet spot in central Virginia,
they will read the motto of his life inscribed in stone, “Prove all things;
hold fast that which is good.”

Some of the best works by Dabney:

of Virginia and the South

Life and Campaigns of Lt.
Gen. T. J. Jackson

and five volumes of his
published Discussions

All are available from Sprinkle Publications in
Harrisonburg, VA.


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard


Allen Penick, Sr.

(1797-1870) was born in Cumberland County, Virginia. He received an AB degree
from Hampden-Sydney College and a BD degree from Princeton Theological
Seminary. He was licensed and ordained by the Hanover Presbytery. His primary
pastorate was the Rocky River Presbyterian Church, Rocky River
Road, Concord, North
Carolina from 1837 to 1870. He died on January 8th, 1870 in Cabarrus County,
NC. Here is a sermon of his to the Confederate soldiers. At this time he was a
seasoned minister of the gospel.



Rev. Daniel A. Penick, Sr.,

 Rocky River, N. C.

Surely there are many prodigal sons in the army. They are the loved ones
of praying Christian parents, wives and sisters. They have been trained up and
educated for God. Having created them and preserved them, given his Son to
redeem them and his Spirit to quicken and sanctify them; He is emphatically
their Father, and justly claims their confidence and affection–their obedience
and devotion as his children. But they have ignored God as their Father, have
departed from Him, and chosen to have their own way. All this have they done by
neglecting his word, following their own devices, profaning his name,
desecrating the Sabbath day, restraining prayer, rejecting his Son as a
Saviour, resisting the Holy Spirit, standing aloof from his church, and joining
themselves in their preferences and associations, with his enemies. The

prodigality here charged, is not the
wasting of the goods of your earthly parents, but perverting and wasting the
time, talents and opportunities which your heavenly Father has given you. Young
men, however brave you may be as soldiers, are you not prodigals in the sense
of the parable, (see Luke, 15th chapter,) and in the sight of God your Maker?
These prodigal soldiers too are rapidly approaching a state of want,
when (they) come to themselves, they will deeply feel that they have no
spiritual nourishment, that their souls are perishing with hunger, and that
they are now eating the husks of sin, and of this wicked world. Already are
they assured that God is angry with them, their own hearts also condemning
them. They are afraid to die, and yet they may fall in the next battle, or by
disease, at any moment. Soldiers that are impenitent and unbelieving; is not
the case of prodigal son emphatically your case? Should disease or a mortal
wound suddenly place you upon the bed of death; have you any scriptural hope of
eternal life? Have you not, on the contrary, a foreboding and dread of eternal
Then, imitate the example of the scriptural prodigal in the following
particulars, viz:
1. Remember your heavenly Father, and that in his house there is enough
and to spare. In his house are many mansions, and He is plenteous in mercy. He
hath “no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked turn
from his way and live.” He has sent his only begotten Son to prepare the
way and call them back to Him; and the Holy Spirit to draw, quicken and
sanctify them. In Jesus Christ, under the influences of the Spirit, there is wisdom,
strength, righteousness, sanctification and complete redemption. He has food
for the hungry, clothing for the naked, cleansing for the polluted, and life
for dead souls. And He has made the way plain and easy to all penitent
2. As did the prodigal, form the purpose and be fully persuaded and
determined to return to your heavenly Father. Say, in your heart and by your
course of conduct, I will arise and go to my father, confess to him my sins,
and beg for his mercy. “Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before
thee, and am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired
servants.” If you remain where, and as you are, your soul will be
assuredly and eternally lost. If you continue unwilling and undetermined to return
to God, there is no hope or possibility of your salvation. God has placed life
and death before you in the gospel. You must choose between them. No one else
can choose or determine in your stead. Then, form the purpose. “1 rise and
go to my Father.” Had not the prodigal resolved, he would not have
3. But be sure to act as well its resolve, and act promptly. To delay
action is a choice of continuance in sin, and of death. It is evidence that
your great adversary, the Devil, has gained his point over you. Then, arise at
once, leave your wicked associates, and the husks of sinful pleasures and
indulgences. Cease your neglect of the Bible, and of prayer, your profanity and
desecration of the holy Sabbath. Call often and earnestly upon God in prayer,
confess your sins and unworthiness to Him. Ask him importunately for his mercy
and grace. Take no denial, but persevere in prayer, as a helpless, starving
beggar. Without a deep sense of your need, a willingness to give up all your
sins, a desire to be made holy as God is holy, and a controlling spirit of
earnest prayer to God, you have no right to expect that your heavenly Father
will ever receive you. Forget not, however, that it is not your resolves, or
prayers, or tears, or reformation that can save. But that it is the free and
sovereign mercy and grace of God alone that can save; but that He requires
repentance, faith and obedience as indispensible in terms of salvation.
4. Be encouraged, nevertheless, to resolve, arise and go to your
heavenly Father, confess and repent of your sins before Him, and ask him for
his mercy and grace, even the salvation of your souls; by the results in the
case of the prodigal son. How promptly and cheerfully did the father receive
and reinstate his returning son! He did not even wait for his son to get
through his

confession and requests. But the father
said to his servants, bring forth the best robe and put it on him; and put a
ring on his hand and shoes on his feet; And bring hither the fatted calf, and
kill it; and let us eat and be merry; For this my son was dead and is alive
again; he was lost and is found. And they began to be merry.” See Luke 15,
Soldiers, are you prodigal sons of our great and good Father in heaven?
Then, arise and return to him. Make confession and offer prayer to Him.
Assuredly, He will meet and embrace you; put the robe of Christ’s righteousness
upon you; and there shall be joy in the presence of God, as well as in your
heart. How can you stay away from such a father?

1 Come, trembling
sinner, in whose breast

A thousand thoughts

Come, with your guilt
and fear oppress’d,

And make this last

2 “I’ll go to Jesus,
though my sin

Hath like a mountain

I know his courts,
I’ll enter in,

Whatever may oppose.

6 “I can but
perish if I go,

I am resolved to try;

For if I stay away, I

I must forever


 Book Review

Southern Writing

Douglas Southall Freeman

The death of “Stonewall” Jackson in May, 1863,
redoubled the writing of verse in the Confederacy. Jackson at that time was far
more the hero of the confederacy than Lee or Albert Sidney Johnston or
Beauregard. His perfect death at the hour of his greatest glory produced more
poems than any other single event of the war….

It is with Jackson, also that the formal biography of
the Confederate period begins. In connection with it appears the name of John
Esten Cooke. This interesting man, born of high, intellectual stock, had become
a novelist before the War Between the States and, in 1854, had produced a very
creditable book, now little read, The
Virginia Comedians
. Soon after the outbreak of the war, he became a member
of the staff of “Jeb” Stuart, rose to the rank of major and proved an excellent
officer. On the march, in camp and in the revealing companionship of war, he
met most of the high-ranking Confederates in the Army of Northern Virginia; and
of many of them, now professionally, now as a Southern champion, he wrote at
length. His little biography of Jackson, published in 1863, republished in 1865
and enlarged in 1876, cannot be regarded as a distinguished work. In many
particulars it is lamentably inaccurate, but it is to him that history owes the
first adequate description of Jackson, the soldier even in the contest with
that last enemy death, crying out in his delirium: “Order A. P. Hill to prepare
for action; pass the infantry to the front.”

No less interesting than the early formal lives of
Jackson were the biographical tracts distributed to Confederate soldiers. Some
of the religious organizations of the South decided that brief sketches of
slain soldiers of known valor well might supplement the tracts that were little
more than brief sermons or spiritual exhortations. At least three of these
biographical tracts are in existence…. If publications of this type provoke the
mirth of propagandists who rely on the sharper weapon of hate, it should not be
forgotten that the “great revival” of 1862-1863 in the Army of Northern
Virginia contributed to the morale not only of the war but also of the

[This material
is from The South to Posterity]



must remember who we are and what we must be about:

SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause
for which we fought.  To your strength will be given the defense of the
Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation
of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which
you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also
cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is
presented to future generations.


 Chaplain’s Handbook


Sons of
Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged
Sesquicentennial Edition of the Chaplain’s Handbook.   It
is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic,
SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen;
there has also been added a third
burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America;
a chapter on Praying
in Public
has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public
  All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the
handbook will find it even more useful than before.  There is the same
cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to
a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication.
Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles || Anno Domini 2013 || July || Issue No. 91

2013 July 7
Comments Off
Posted by John Wilkes Booth

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Domini 2013


No. 91

“That in all
things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God,
one of our dear defenders thus to die.” Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon

SC 29607



Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



from a Confederate Chaplain

The Lord is with us at the
‘Seabrooks” hospital. We have a great revival of religion here. A greater one I
scarcely ever witnessed…. A large number are yet inquiring, ‘What must we do to
be saved?’ Those who have professed a hope in Christ seem to be in the full
enjoyment of faith.

Chaplain William
Robert Gwaltney

1st North
Carolina Infantry Regiment






Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:


bring you all greetings from the “Briar Patch” in Appomattox County, Virginia.
The month of July brings to mind many of the battles forced upon the Southern
people in order to protect their families and homes. Vicksburg, Siege at
Charleston Harbor, Manassas Gap and many other battles took place in July of
1863. The Confederate “fire-eater” William Lowndes Yancey died in Montgomery,
Alabama on July 27th, 1863. At a camp near Darksville, Sunday, July
19, 1863 a Confederate surgeon with Jackson wrote his wife. What follows is a
sampling extracted:


          I found
Ed Peck, Bob Harris, George Barger, & Green Wall sitting around a large
stump writing letters, and the rest lounging around, talking & laughing.
They stopped, and after remarking that the stump was their office, went on to
give me the particulars of the fight. All had some interesting incidents either
about themselves or some others to relate.

          Ed says
he was close to Andrew Hoge when he was killed and that he had one of his legs
cut off near his body by a shell. Bob Calvert was standing behind a tree when
an awful enfilade fire was made upon them and [was] shot in the breast, sat
down, then lay down and in a few minutes was dead. Poor Kent Ewing was not dead
when last seen but supposed to be mortally wounded.

Capt. Wade is the only officer with his company and is
quite well. I left him reading a letter which he had just rcd [received] from
home by Sam Snider who came this morning and says he saw you in Christiansburg


Harvey Black’s letter is about three and a half book size pages. Mrs. Black
received in this letter: camp information, personal information, medical
information, information on acquaintances and information on a sermon from
Chaplain Beverly Tucker Lacy from her husband.


the Mason Dixon Line in July 1863 there were draft riots in New York City and elsewhere.
Mobs stormed the draft headquarters, raided residences and looted businesses.
Police, firemen and the military were overpowered as mobs tore through the
streets wreaking havoc resulting in deaths and extensive destruction. Fires
began to consume the city. A black church and orphanage were burned as the
casualties mounted. Blacks and Federal officials became the prime targets of
the rioters. Only an army could quell the great disturbance in New York City.
The estimate was a thousand killed and wounded and property loss at around one
and a half million in 1863 money. There were riots in Boston, Portsmouth, NH,
Rutland, VT, Wooster, Ohio and Troy, NY.



In 1996 Robert H. Bork wrote a book entitled Slouching Towards Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism
and American Decline
. This volume dealt with the decline of the American
culture and how the nation is in some serious moral trouble with the
foundations thereof crumbling. In one of the concluding paragraphs the
honorable Bork confesses, “It is pointless to ask, ‘What is the solution?’
There is no single grand strategy…. Religion must be recaptured church by
church; and education, university by university, school board by school board.
Bureaucracies must be tamed.” Now we have become Gomorrah’s cesspool. 2013 has
brought a torrent of events sweeping the country into the clutches of those who
have made the country into a mirror image of Sodom and Gomorrah. Now who is
going to write Becoming Gomorrah: America
Embraces the Perversions of Sodom and Gomorrah
? Perhaps one needs to read Genesis 18 and 19.

Is your soul vexed over the events occurring around
you and especially the direction this nation has now taken as she has become a
modern form of Sodom and Gomorrah? The word “vexed” means a soul tormented or
extremely troubled. Was your soul vexed over the latest Supreme Court ruling or
the Boy Scout vote to include homosexuals? If you said yes my soul is vexed!
You have something in common with Abraham’s nephew Lot for that was his case in

Just think dear friends—“In half a lifetime, many
Americans have seen their God dethroned (at least humanly the attempt has been
made unsuccessfully, HRR), their heroes defiled, their culture polluted, their
values assaulted, their country invaded, and themselves demonized as extremists
and bigots for holding on to beliefs Americans have held for generations.”[1]
And things are getting worse! “The new Americans … have replaced the good
country we grew up in with a cultural wasteland and a moral sewer that are not
worth living in and not worth fighting for—their country, not ours.”[2]
But how do we fight or are we willing to fight for the Scriptural and
Constitutional values? How should all this impact us? Do we just throw in the
towel so to speak and give up? Do we compromise and become like these people? We
should have been as persistent for righteousness as the perverts have been to
gain American protection for their corrupt practices. But alas we lost that
round. Are we really like the proverbial frog in the room temperature water
that was heated until it died?

I think of the friend who was visiting in Thomas J.
Jackson’s home. They had a discussion of the startling news of the madness of
the Federal Government in making war on the South even requiring each state to
contribute 75,000 troops for their own destruction. (Wow! Where is that in the
Constitution?) The guest went to bed but spent the night troubled and
sleepless. The guest was surprised the next morning to find Jackson calm and
cheerful at morning worship. The anxious friend was quizzical, but Jackson
replied, “Why should the peace of a true Christian be disturbed by anything
which man can do unto him? Has not God promised to make all things work
together for good to them that love him?”[3]
Did Jackson not care that death and destruction was about to flood the South
with hundreds of thousands being killed, maimed and made homeless? Yes, he
cared, Jackson’s soul was vexed over the evil, but his faith resided in the One
who never changes. Remember Peter safely walking on the water to Jesus until he
took his eyes off of the Unchangeable One. Peter then became strictly engaged
with the fierce elements which are changeable but his help came from the Lord.
If we were not vexed over the horrendous state of corruption and sin against
our gracious God today it would mean we don’t care, but this should not destroy
our trusting and obeying our Lord.

Trust and obey,

for there’s no other way

To be happy in Jesus,

But to trust and obey.

Dr. Lloyd-Jones asserted, “There is a rule which one
can find everywhere in the Bible from the beginning to the end, and which is
abundantly confirmed by the subsequent history of the Christian church, to the
effect that the fewer the number of Christians the greater correspondingly is
the importance of the individual Christian.”[4]
Child of the King you are present in God’s world at this hour for a purpose.
How will you stand?

Please consider 2 Peter 2:1-9: “But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you,
who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves
swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of
whom the way of truth shall be evil
spoken of
. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make
merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their
damnation slumbereth not. For if God spared
the angels that sinned (and He did not spare them, HRR), but cast them
down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto
judgment; And spared not the old
world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of
the ungodly; And turning the cities of
Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes
condemned them with an overthrow, making them an ensample unto those that
after should live ungodly
; And delivered
just Lot, vexed with the filthy conversation
of the wicked: (For that
righteous man dwelling among them, in seeing and hearing, vexed his righteous soul from day to day with their unlawful
deeds;) The Lord knoweth how to deliver
the godly
out of temptations, and to reserve
the unjust
unto the day of judgment
to be punished”
(2 Peter 2:5-9, bold print by this author).

What this passage tells us is [1] God does not spare the wicked whether they
are angels, people, cities or the created world; [2] God does spare His people such as Noah, Lot, the godly; and [3] God has
a final judgment. There is therefore earthly judgment and there is an eternal

Peter warned us about what God does with those given
over to a life of sin whether they are angels, individuals, cities, nations or
the world.

  • God spared not
    the angels that sinned (2:4; Jude 6)
  • God spared not
    the old world (2:5; 3:6, 7)
  • God spared not
    Sodom and Gomorrah (2:6; Jude 7, 8)

God spare the United States when it emulates Sodom and Gomorrah? He did not
spare other nations given over to perverted lifestyles such as Sodom, Gomorrah,
Rome, Athens, etc.! Remember the warning, “The
wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget God”
9:17). Is America now reprobated as a nation? There are perhaps two ways
America has been abandoned by God. First,
she has evidently been given over to a reprobate mind to do those things which
are not fitting (Rom. 1:28ff.). Second,
America is abandoned because she has given herself up to homosexuals, deviants
and perverts. They now have a roll in all branches of government. They may yet
be in the minority but they are given the priority! Our abandonment is obvious
when one considers the kind of leaders we now have!

Peter in this passage is led by God the Holy Spirit to
record a warning to us—“And turning the
cities of Sodom and Gomorrah into ashes condemned them with an overthrow, making them an ensample unto those that
after should live ungodly
Those who would defy God’s rules for His
world are heading for eternal perdition but also for temporal judgment. The
solution to the problem is not political because those in the three branches of
government have brought us to where we are! They have masterminded this evil! And
where are we? Awaiting whatever form of judgment God chooses to send. He may choose
some other method than fire and brimstone. Could God almighty change our
situation by sending a great awakening? Could God step into the affairs of men
and send a bubonic plague or Black Death like what came in epidemic proportions
in the Middle Ages. Yes, He certainly could! He could turn loose a terrible
disease or tidal wave or cataclysmic event. Although “Western men and women may
simply live out their lives until they are so few they do not matter.”[5]

Some have been lulled into sleep. How? “Because
sentence against an evil work is not executed speedily, therefore the heart of
the sons of men is fully set in them to do evil” (Eccl. 8:11). Many think
because there is not instant judgment there will not be any. Things that appear
far off are not consequential to them but they are interested in immediate
pleasure and present gratification. Remember the warning He, that being often
reproved hardeneth his neck, shall suddenly destroyed and that without remedy”
(Prov. 29:1).





Please find in this issue our
Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief writes on
the relevance and importance of the Bible in the Southern Army. This is
entitled The Bible and the Confederate Cause reminds us that there were never enough
Bibles to satisfy the demand. Your editor has a biographical sketch of Chaplain Marion Zellner. There is a
contribution in this issue by Past Chaplain-in-Chief Alister Anderson entitled The Confederate
Army Chaplain on the March, in Battle, after the Battle and in Bivouac.
issue includes A Confederate Sermon,
submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard.  This sermon is by Rev.
to a local congregation in Richmond, Virginia. Our Book Review is by Editor
Rumburg, reviewing the volume by Michael Andrew Grissom,
Southern by the
Grace of God.


Soli Deo Gloria,

H. Rondel Rumburg

[Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’
Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have
their names and e-mail addresses.  Also, feel free to send copies of
this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it
  If you want to “unsubscribe” please e-mail the
editor or assistant editor.  Confederately, HRR]






*The Chaplain-in-Chief’s
Mark W. Evans

*The Bible and
the Confederate Cause, Rev. Mark W. Evans

Marion Zellner,
H. Rondel Rumburg

*The Confederate
Army Chaplain on the March, in Battle, after the Battle and in Bivouac, Chaplain
Alister C. Anderson

*A Confederate
Charles Minnigerode

*Book Review: Southern by
the Grace of God






fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

We are looking forward to the 118th National Reunion of
the Sons of Confederate Veterans, July 18-20.
It will be a joy to see you there. There are two events especially for
chaplains — the Prayer Breakfast, Friday, July 19, 7:00-9:00 am, and the Memorial
Service, also on Friday, 3:45-4:45 pm.
The prayer breakfast provides a time of fellowship with chaplains and
others who desire to see the Lord’s blessing through prayer.  Your prayers throughout the year have been a
great encouragement in numerous situations.
We look forward to a “prayer meeting” with our fellow laborers in the
Lord’s vineyard.  Only eternity will
reveal what prayer has meant to the SCV and its standing firm in the face of
many adversaries.  The Lord Jesus said,
“Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall
be opened unto you” (Matt. 7:7).

The Memorial Service provides an appropriate and needed time to
remember those who have entered eternity since our last Reunion.  Each year, it seems that the number
increases. Our hope is in the Lord.  What
comfort and glorious truth we find in the sacred Scriptures.  Through Jesus Christ, “death is swallowed up
in victory.”  In remembering, we look to
the Redeemer of sinners who brings each one who believes in Him safely through
this dark world and into eternal glory.
It will be a blessing to have you present with your prayers.

On a personal note, I want to thank you for praying for our 10
year old granddaughter, Elisabeth Elliott.
She has had some difficulties, but overall has done very well.  It will likely take a number of months before
the success of the surgery can be determined.
We appreciate so much your prayers and rejoice in the comfort and peace
that the Lord has brought.

Yours in Christ’s service,

Mark W. Evans






Bible and the Confederate Cause

Mark W.

Confederate chaplains, colporteurs,
missionaries, evangelists, and other Christian laborers, united in a vast
missionary endeavor during the War for Southern Independence.  Their weapons were powerful.  As in days of old, preachers stood before
their congregations proclaiming the truths of God’s Word.   Wherever the opportunity presented itself,
whether in the open air, in the rustic log shelters, or in the trenches of
Petersburg or Atlanta, the way of life was declared to the salvation of
souls.  During a meeting of the
Presbyterian Synod in Virginia, Dr. J. Leighton Wilson, Secretary of Missions

is a state of religion in the Army of Tennessee quite as interesting as that in
the Army of Northern Virginia.  The Rev.
Dr. Palmer says he has never before seen so great a movement.  Go where you will, and only let it be known
that you are to preach – it hardly makes a difference who the preacher is – and
crowds will attend to hear.  Dr. W.
thought it doubtful whether there had been anything since the days of Pentecost
equal to this wonderful work of the Holy Spirit of God in our army
[Bennett, The
Great Revival in the Southern Armies,
p. 338]


Beyond the preaching of God’s Word,
soldiers and sailors were provided Bibles and Christian literature.  Before the war, the South had mostly depended
upon Northern printing facilities and Christian societies to meet this
need.  Once the war began, many Yankees
viewed Bibles and Christian tracts as contraband.  The Confederacy was forced to create its own
printing facilities and plead with families and churches to donate Bibles.   Still, the shortage remained.    Rev. Dr. Moses D. Hoge traveled to England
and was successful in securing 10,000 Bibles, 50,000 New Testaments, and
250,000 portions of Scriptures.  However,
because of the Yankee blockades, not all the shipments arrived in the

The hunger for God’s Word continued
throughout the war.  The Soldier’s Visitor reported that “a
chaplain, at the close of a public service, announced that he had a prospect of
being able to get a supply of Testaments for the portion of the men still
destitute, and that those who wished a copy could give him their names after
the benediction was pronounced.  Scarcely
had the ‘Amen’ died on the minister’s lips before the war-worn heroes charged
on the chaplain almost as furiously as if storming the enemy’s breastworks”
[Jones, Christ in the Camp, 153].

A Southern Baptist paper reported that “a
chaplain arrived in Staunton with several large packages of Testaments and
tracts, which he was anxious to get to Winchester, but had despaired of doing
so as he had to walk, when a party of several soldiers volunteered to lug them
the whole distance – ninety-two miles – so anxious were they that their comrades
should have the precious messengers of salvation [Jones, 153].

After the war, Chaplain Jones recalled:

have an old memorandum-book filled with names of soldiers from every State of
the Confederacy who had applied to me for Bibles and Testaments, and some of
the scenes I witnessed in my work of Bible and tract distribution are as fresh
in my memory as if they had occurred on yesterday.  I had a pair of large-saddle-bags’ which I
used to pack with tracts and religious newspapers, and with Bibles and
Testaments when I had them, and besides this I would strap packages behind my
saddle and on the pommel.  Thus equipped
I would sally forth, and as I drew near the camp someone would raise the cry,
‘Yonder comes the Bible and tract man,’ and such crowds would rush out to meet
me, that frequently I would sit on my horse and distribute my supply before I
could even get into the camp.  But if I
had Bibles or Testaments to distribute, the poor fellows would crowd around and
beg for them as earnestly as if they were golden guineas for free
distribution.  Yes, the Word of God
seemed to these brave men ‘more precious than gold – yea, than much fine
gold.’  The men were accustomed to form ‘reading
clubs,’ not to read the light literature of the day, but to read God’s Word,
and not unfrequently have I seen groups of twenty-five or thirty gather around
some good reader, who for several hours would read with clear voice selected
portions of the Scriptures

Although the need for Bibles was never
fully met, the seed of God’s Word that was sown brought a glorious
harvest.  Rev. A. E. Dickinson,
Superintendent of Baptist Colportage, said in 1863, as the war was raging:

the crest of this flood of war, which threatens to engulf our freedom rides a
pure Christianity; the gospel of the grace of God shines through the smoke of
battle with the light that leads to heaven; and the camp becomes a school of
Christ.  From the very first day of this
unhappy contest to the present time, religious influences have been spreading
among the soldiers, until now, in camp and hospital, throughout every portion
of the army, revivals display their precious, saving power.  In one of these revivals over three hundred
are known having professed conversion, while, doubtless, there are hundreds of
others equally blessed, whose names, unrecorded here, find a place in the
“Lamb’s book of life”
[Bennett, pp.
73, 74].

Many servants of the Lord gave their
spoken witness in the camps, on the march, in the hospitals, in private
conversations, even on the fields of battle – declaring the “old, old Story of
Jesus and His love.”  The reading of
God’s Word convicted and pointed the South’s defenders to the only Savior.  Christian literature acted as “silent
missionaries” to call the sinner out of darkness into the marvelous light of
the Lord Jesus Christ.  Confederate
Chaplain W. W. Bennett said:

one period of the war the Baptist Board alone circulated 200,000 pages of
tracts weekly, besides Testaments and hymn-books; and with the joint labors of
other societies, we may estimate that when the work was at its height not less
than 1,000,000 pages a week were put into the hands of our soldiers.


Today, tyranny is knocking at our door.  Foundational institutions and Biblical
morality are under attack.  Although
living in a land where many Bibles are available, yet it is a closed Book to
many.  We would do well to fortify our
souls by opening our Bibles, reading, praying, and seeking to have its truth
sealed to our hearts.  Jesus Christ said,
“If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed:  and ye shall know the truth, and the truth
shall make you free” (John 8:31, 32).



Chaplain Marion Zellner


Tennessee Cavalry Partisan Rangers

Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

Marion Zellner, the third son of Arnold Zellner and
his first wife Margaret Holmes, was born July 23rd, 1817 in Lincoln
County, Georgia. When Marion was two or three years of age his parents moved to
Giles County and then to Maury County, Tennessee.

The Lord sought out Marion and during a Methodist camp
meeting in 1834 it pleased the gracious God to bring Marion Zellner to
repentance of sin and faith in Christ as his Saviour and Lord. Some time
following his conversion experience he moved to Oxford, Mississippi and here he
joined the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.

Marion Zellner’s first marriage was to Helen Whitney
in Maury County June 10th, 1837. Sorrow visited Marion and his faith
was tested when Helen died while giving birth to a daughter Margaret Helen
Marion. Two years later he remarried. This marriage was to Martha Adeline
Alexander in DeSoto County, Mississippi. His home was said to be “an admirable
place.” Their first two children were born in Mississippi. Then the Zellner
family moved back to Tennessee. They settled near the town of Hickory Withe in
Fayette County. The 1850 census for Fayette County listed that Marion Zellner
was the father of five children which included his first child by Helen. All of
his children had been born by 1860 and in his quiver there were four sons and
six daughters. His fatherhood was blessed with ten children.

Zellner began to have a concern about the ministry. He
was convinced in 1848 that God had called him to preach Christ. This led to his
being received as a candidate to the ministry under the care of the Memphis
Presbytery. His ordination to pastoral work took place in 1857. He was
described as “a successful minister.” Zellner was not privileged to have a very
extensive education but he was described as having a fine mind and this he put
to use for the Lord and His work. “By his diligence and perseverance in the use
of his mind he soon became a man of more than ordinary information. He soon
became popular as a preacher, and was ever in demand as a pastor.” Zellner
pastored the following Cumberland Presbyterian Churches: Pleasant Grove, Shady
Grove, Mt. Carmel, Morning Sun, Hickory Withe, Mt. Pleasant, Germantown,
Collierville and other places. The following churches were established under
his ministry: Morning Sun, Hickory Withe, Galloway and Bartlet.

Those who knew Rev. Zellner were aware that he was a
fine presbyter. He was very knowledgeable of church order. The ministry of his
denomination weighed heavily upon him and he did what he could to insure or
encourage growth and development. Also, Zellner became a great help to those
young men who sought to enter the ministry. By this means he had a great impact
on the future of the denomination. Many years he served as chairman of the
Committee on Examination.

Usually life is not smooth sailing for the Lord’s
people as they are tested and proved in the special providence of God. One
writing of his life said, “For many years Brother Zellner was the subject of
great and trying afflictions, but in the midst of it all he did what he could
with the greatest Christian fortitude.”

Rev. Marion Zellner saw the destructive element called
war come to Tennessee by the invasion of Federal soldiers. Therefore, he felt
it an important contribution on his part to become a minister to the
Confederate Soldiers of his area. Zellner like many ministers enlisted on
October 11th, 1862 as a private soldier. He was in Company E of the
1st Regiment of the Tennessee Partisan Rangers and Company E became
a part of the 12th Regiment of Tennessee Cavalry of the CSA. He was
after that appointed chaplain of the 12th Tennessee Cavalry. His
time was devoted to ministering to the spiritual needs of those under his care.
As with most chaplains his duties went beyond preaching and visiting the sick
and dying. There was the assistance the chaplains sought to render in any way
to help the men and the cause, which was true of Chaplain Zellner.

His ministry in the pastorate resumed after the war.
The days following the great conflict were spent catching up with his family
and reintroducing himself to the Lord’s work which was placid compared to
dealing with rapid moving and hard fighting cavalry.

One wrote of Zellner, “it may be truly
said that he fought a good fight, that he finished his course, that he kept the
faith, and that he is now in the enjoyment of that crown of righteousness which
the Lord shall give to all in that day; or to use the figure of another, ‘He
came to his grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in his season.’”

After a life
of service to his Lord the Lord’s Day morning of November 10th, 1895
the Rev. Marion Zellner’s life returned to the Lord who gave it. His passing
was said to have been characterized as peaceful. He was seventy-eight years of
age. Thirty-eight of those years were devoted to the work of the Lord. He and
Martha are buried side by side in Mt. Pleasant Cumberland Presbyterian Cemetery
at Hickory Withe, Tennessee. Martha outlived Marion many years. Not long before
her demise Martha was honored in Arlington, Tennessee for being the mother of a
Confederate soldier. The news account is interesting:

A beautiful and touching ceremony occurred in Arlington, TN last week
when Mrs. Martha A. Zellner was presented with a gold bar of honor in token of
the fact that she was the mother of a son who fought in the Confederate army
during the dark days in 1861-65. Mrs. Zellner will be 100 years old in October.

Representatives of five generations were present when the bar was pinned
upon Mrs. Zellner. It was the gift of the Southern Confederate Memorial
Association and Mrs. Charles W. Frazier, state president from Tennessee and
Mrs. C. L. Bryan, president of the Memphis association had intended being
present and had planned a formal presentation ceremony. However, Mrs. Zellner
had been very ill, and it was deemed inadvisable for anyone to be present save
members of her family and her family physician, Dr. R. E. Herring.

The box containing the bar of honor was placed in the hand of Mrs.
Zellner by her Great-great-grandson, Robert Gragg Wilson, whose picture, taken
several months ago, is shown with that of his great-great grandmother. Dr.
Herring pinned the bar upon the dress of his patient and at her request led the
family in prayer with all of them joining in the Lord’s Prayer led by Mrs.

Members of the Zellner family present included her daughters, Mrs. Fannie
McNeely and Mrs. Joanna Alexander, her grandson and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. S. Y.
Wilson, her great grandson and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Robert Wilson and
her great-great grandson, little Robert Gragg Wilson.

A gold bar of honor for every living mother of a Confederate veteran was
the “happy thought” of Mrs. M. Wilson, present general of the Confederate
Southern Memorial Association which was presented at the annual convention of
the association in October, at Atlanta. All state presidents were instructed to
find the mothers in their states, with name and credentials of their veteran
sons, and report same to the president general. Twelve applications had been
received up to Feb. 1, from Georgia, Florida, Tennessee and Louisiana, ages
ranging from 95 to 102.

Mrs. Charles W. Frazier, state president from Tennessee, has had the
honor of presenting the bar to the next oldest mother in the person of Mrs.
Zellner, who will be 100 years of age on Oct. 31, 1920. Mrs. Zellner is the
mother of the late John W. Zellner, 13th Tennessee regiment. She is the widow
of the late Rev. Marion Zellner who was appointed chaplain in the 12th
Tennessee cavalry partisans Rangers, under Col. Richardson. Both father and son
served until the end of the war, the latter dying many years afterwards from
the effects of wounds he received in service and from which he suffered
throughout his life. Mrs. Zellner, as well as her husband, was born in North
Carolina; immigrated to Mississippi, was married at Hernando in February 1842,
came to Tennessee as a bride and reared a family of four sons and five
daughters of whom one son and three daughters now live.

She makes her home with a daughter, Mrs. McNeely, who, widowed in her
youth, has devoted her life in the care and comfort of her mother. Mrs. Zellner
has 18 grandchildren, 55 great-grandchildren and 7 great-great grandchildren.
She takes an active interest in all current events and followed the course of
the world war. Her recent formal presentation of her bar … Wednesday in her own
room in the presence of her family, it was given to her by Master Robert Gragg

To know her is to love her. She is a wonderful character. She gave her
heart to God when she was a little girl. When she was a little over 22 years
old she gave her life into the care and keeping of a noble young man. They
lived together happily until the Civil War took her husband and 17 year old son
to fight for their country, leaving her alone with very small children on a big
country farm. Everyone who lived through those dark days knows what a struggle
this was. She fought on bravely alone, until the close of the war, when God
gave her back her husband to live to a ripe old age and to take his
granchildren on his knee and tell them stories of the days of the Confederacy.

Her son, John William Zellner, though wounded five times, came back to
his home at the close of the war, and later married and reared a large family
of children.

To Mrs. Zellner goes the honor of receiving the first of the bars which
will be awarded to all living mothers of former Confederate soldiers.

Martha out lived Marion and died
just a few months short of her one hundredth birthday for she had lived 99
years, 7 months and 25 days.


Sketch by Shirley Zellner
Gall or Mary Owens and Zeni Zellner Batte.

The Cumberland Presbyterian, November
22, 1900, page 586.

The Cumberland Presbyterian, January 2,
1896, page 388.

The Confederate Army Chaplain on the March, in Battle, after the
Battle and in Bivouac


Chaplain-in-Chief Alister C. Anderson


What is the most important duty that a chaplain must
carry out? It is to be present among the troops. Even before the chaplain
begins to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the troops need to see that there
was a man of God who had come voluntarily to share his life with them. He had
come to be with them in their suffering. He had come to pray for their relief
and the healing of their painful wounds; to share in their hunger and in their
separation from their wives, children, parents, other relatives and their
neighbors who were also suffering the ravages of the Yankee armies who had
invaded their homeland.

The next important duty of the chaplains following
their being present with the troops was to preach the Word of God to them. What
did most soldiers want to hear more than anything else? It was that Jesus was
with them right now. It was that He could save them from death in the coming
battle, and if it was not Jesus’ Divine Will to do so, He would save their
souls for eternal life if they believed in Him. They prayed that bedtime prayer
they learned as children, “Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray the Lord my soul
to keep, if I should die before I wake, I pray the Lord my soul to take.”

The chaplains preached that Jesus lived to show them
how to live. The chaplains preached that He suffered death through the
excruciating pain of Crucifixion to help them bear their own terrible pain. The
chaplains preached that Jesus died to atone for their own sins and that Jesus’
resurrection was proof that He would lead them to a new life in the Kingdom of
God. One of the most meaningful hymns that Confederate soldiers sang with great
passion was this:

Rock of Ages cleft for me; Let me hide myself in Thee.

Let the water and the blood; From Thy side a healing

Be of sin the double cure; Save from wrath, and make
me pure.

When I draw this fleeting breath; When mine eyes close
in death.

When I rise to worlds unknown; See Thee on Thy
Judgment Throne.

Rock of Ages cleft for me; Let me hide myself in Thee.[6]

Confederate chaplains could not carry hymnals with
them (unless they had the pocket hymnals called Hymns for the Camp or a hymnal stowed away in a haversack), and
they had no music for the tunes. They sang those hymns that they knew by heart
(some men spent time in bivouac memorizing the hymnal). It was the same for me
in Vietnam where I had to sing the words to the tunes of the hymns that I knew,
and preach the Word of God loudly enough to be heard over the roar of
artillery, rifle fire and the whirling helicopters. So it is for all chaplains
in all wars. We had to fulfill the Lord’s Divine Commission through our
preaching and administering the Sacraments of the Lord in every imaginable
place and in every difficult and dangerous situation! All military chaplains
have known and know now the Lord Jesus’ Divine Commission to us.

“All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go
ye therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the Name of the Father,
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; Teaching them to observe all things
whatsoever I have commanded you; and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the
end of the world” (St. Matthew 28:18-20).

I remember writing the words I just
quoted from St. Matthew’s gospel to the president of my seminary who had
written to me stating his displeasure that I was in that dreadful war in
Vietnam. I was shocked at his displeasure of my being there as a chaplain. Was
I not to go where Jesus would go to be with His people? Was I not to preach and
teach and baptize and anoint the sick and wounded and to bury the dead?

Speaking of Baptism, the Confederate
Army chaplains and the civilian clergy who came out to the troops in the field
baptized thousands of men. Chaplain J. William Jones wrote about his baptizing
of men in a Mississippi Brigade. He wrote in his record book:

At Peyton’s Ford on the Rapidan River, I led down into
the “liquid grave” twelve young men who had given me the most satisfactory
evidence of “repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.”[7]

term “liquid grave” means that the soldiers’ submergence in the river
represents the death of Jesus Christ who died to forgive our sins. It also
represents the sacramental death of the soldier’s sins. Then, the arising out
of the baptismal water represents the newly forgiven soldier of his past sins
just as it represents the Resurrection of Christ from the dead with the promise
that faith in Him through repentance will lead to forgiveness of sins and
eternal life in His presence. There were many “liquid graves” in my ministry in
Vietnam where I baptized over a hundred and fifty men in those muddy rice
paddies. Where water pouring out of my helmet flowed down from their heads to
their boots. Confederate chaplains did the same long before me.

Confederate chaplains conducted
religious revival services during the war. It is believed by many chaplains
that almost 200,000 men were baptized, confirmed, renewed their pledges of
faith in God and were converted to Christianity and sought membership in the
church of their choice. These revivals were the largest in numbers converted to
worshipping Our God and Heavenly Father than at any time in the history of
these United States.

Chaplain J. J. Hyman of the 49th
Georgia Regiment conducted revival services in several different locations. He
preached four to six times each day. He baptized 238 soldiers; brought about
the conversion of 5000 men to Jesus Christ and distributed hundreds of
religious tracts, pamphlets and Bibles in just a couple of months.[8]

Speaking about conversions at a
religious revival in the Army, I repeat what Chaplain A. B. Woodfin of General
Gordon’s Georgia Brigade said about one of his many revivals. In this
particular revival, Chaplain Woodfin witnessed a real conversion. He wrote in
his war notes that there was a “Captain, who was known as one of ‘the bravest
of the brave’ … and at the same time was one of the most wicked men in the
Army.” After this particular revival he ordered his entire Company to assemble
and said with profound emotion:

Men, I have led you into many a battle, and you have followed me like men. Alas! I have led you into all manner of wickedness and vice, and you have followed me in this too. I have now resolved to change my course. I have gone to Christ in sincere repentance and simple faith. I have enlisted under the banner of the Cross, and mean, by God’s help, to prove a faithful soldier of Jesus as I have been a true soldier of my country.
I call upon you, my brave boys, to follow me as I shall try to follow “the Captain of our salvation,” and I want all who are willing to do so to come, here and now, and give me their hands and let me pray for them.

Chaplain Woodfin then wrote”

 It is hardly necessary to add that the effect was electrical. The men crowded around their loved captain, tears flowed freely, earnest prayers were offered. and the brave fellow continued his personal efforts until nearly every member of his company had found Jesus, and those former ringleaders in every species of vice had become a centre of powerful influence for the religious good of their regiment and brigade.[9]

Another revival is reported by Chaplain A. Broaddus. He conducted a series of revivals for the troops of the 26


 Virginia Regiment over a period of two weeks beginning in July 1863. He reported that 175 men had professed belief in Jesus Christ in those revival meetings. I believe that Chaplain Broaddus created a new term of expression about the men who were converted. He wrote in his Pastoral Journal: “The Lord gave His grace to the backslider, so that they could slide forward the balance of their lives.”[10]
Chaplain Broaddus could have said, just as well and perhaps he did; “when backsliders turn to Jesus they will be God’s forward-sliders.” I, too, saw soldiers in the 25


 Infantry Division who once were backsliders become forward-sliders of God after they safely came back to a base camp or nearby fire-support base without being killed or wounded. Confederate chaplains saw many soldiers who experienced a dramatic, life-changing, spiritual reality in a “fox-hole” battle situation that turned them away from their earlier naiveté of thinking like an atheist or even an agnostic.
Another Confederate Army chaplain named W. H. Carroll of the 4


 Alabama Regiment wrote about the results of one of the revivals he conducted. In General Law’s brigade God

… is manifesting His love and presence in our midst in the conviction and conversion of souls. A deep and powerful conviction of sin prevails, and religion has become the chief topic of conversation with many. Many of the noble sons of Alabama, who have stemmed the tide of many battles in defence of civil liberty, are now bowing humbly at the Cross, endeavoring to throw off the shackles of sin, and seeking liberty from the thraldom of Satan. How many parents’ hearts will be gladdened when the glorious news of a revival in our camp reaches them![11]

Another chaplain, Beverly Tucker Lacy
of the Army of Northern Virginia wrote about the need for more of the clergy to
volunteer for service in the Army because sadly many military units had no
chaplain. He said, in summary, “to the political and social reasons for the War
there must be added the religious element.” The words he wrote so many years
ago were very important for the Southern people. Rev. Lacy’s Christian ideology
encouraged and spiritually demanded that all the Southern churches be more
spiritually, organically and more responsibly involved and committed to serving
in the military progress of the war. The following words are imploring,
challenging and majestic:

To patriotism must be added the mightier principle of faith. Let love of country be joined to love of God—let the love of our suffering brother be associated with the love of our crucified Saviour—let the temporal interests be connected with the eternal. One duty should not be allowed to exclude another, nor one emotion crowd from the heart the holier presence of another. The Church should clearly understand and fully estimate the relation which it sustains to the war, and the duty which it owes to the army. In an important sense, the cause of the country is the cause of the Church. The principles involved are those of right, of truth, and of humanity, as well as of law, of constitutional liberty, and of national independence. In a sense equally as true, and even more important, is the fact, that the Church, to the full extent of its ability and opportunity, is responsible for the souls of those who fall in this conflict.[12]

What other duties and hardships did
these stalwart Confederate Army Chaplains face? They had to face what the
troops faced. The troops had to march mile after mile for days on end. They had
to endure the blazing sun, the freezing cold and torrential rain. They had
little to eat and drink and what they had to swallow was often decayed, rancid
and infested with vermin of all kinds. They slept on the bare ground and had
only a thin blanket as cover over their dirty threadbare uniforms. The troops
suffered frequently from exhaustion and some of them from the continuing pain
of former wounds they had received in earlier battles. Some soldiers needed a
new pair of shoes after months of long marches. All of them needed rest and
relaxation in the long days in bivouac before the next military campaign. It
was then that the chaplains were even busier tending to the emotional, physical
and spiritual needs of the soldier. Some of the chaplains endured all of the
privations of their soldiers. But all of them endured the self-imposed rule of
the clergy brotherhood which was namely—they must not complain or swear out
loud because the soldiers around them were suffering more than they were.

What more were the chaplains expected
to do? They felt that they had to prepare the soldier for battle. What do you
say to a man or to a group of men who may be killed or seriously wounded? What
do you say to soldiers who were wounded or dying at a medical aid station or
field hospital after a battle? What do you pray and what do you say? Our
Confederate chaplains knew what to say and pray. They knew the comforting words
of Holy Scriptures verse by verse. They knew the comforting words of many hymns
and they would write comforting letters to the soldiers’ families. I did those
things for the soldiers of the 25th Infantry Division in Vietnam. I
did them, however, under easier conditions that exist in our Army today than
those which our brother chaplains faced in the armies of the Confederacy.

I conclude my thoughts about our
Confederate Army Chaplains by presenting some of the thoughts and words of a
WWI British Army Chaplain during the battles along the Somme River in Northern
France. Chaplain Tiplady speaks for chaplains in every war including our
South’s War for Independence against the wicked total war that the government
of the United States was waging against our Southern ancestors.

Chaplain Tiplady wrote about the soldiers with whom he
served. His words become mine as I think about the Confederate soldiers’
bravery and their saintliness-in-the-making as they fought in defense of the
South in the War of Northern Aggression against them. Chaplain Tiplady’s words
become mine again as I reflect upon his words about his troops along the Somme
in France and mine in the 25th Infantry Division in Vietnam. British
Army Chaplain Tiplady wrote:

Chaplains and their soldiers realized that there, amid
the evidences of man’s cruel hatred and greed, they realized most fully the
presence of Christ and the love that made Jesus die for them. They (meaning the
soldiers) cannot understand the mystery of God’s providence, but they are
assured of His presence and love. It is there, too, that they are seen at their
noblest. Often have soldiers made me feel that I was in the presence of men
“whose shoes I am not worthy to bear.” And often has my faith been shamed by
the faith and testimony of the wounded. It is at home and not on the Somme that
men grow skeptical. “You must just trust in God, and do your best,” Chaplain
Tiplady said to his soldiers on the evening before a battle. “We shall not fail
to do that, sir,” said one of them, upon whose breast was the ribbon of the
D.C.M., the Distinguished Combat Medal.

The soldiers knew, Chaplain Tiplady said, that Christ
has stooped down from heaven to be nearer the weak and wounded and dying and
sorrowful. Their favorite hymn on the Somme was:

When I survey the wondrous cross,

which the Prince of Glory died,

My richest gain I count but loss,

pour contempt on all my pride.

See from His head, His hands, His feet,

and love flow mingled down;

Did e’er such love and sorrow meet,

thorns compose so rich a crown?

Tiplady said, “They realize that in all their afflictions He was afflicted too
and His presence would save them.”[13]


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

Charles Minnigerode (1814–1894) served
as pastor of St. Paul’s Church of Richmond for 33 years.  He was best known as Jefferson Davis’ pastor
for Davis who attended St. Paul’s during the War.  It was Minnigerode who was first allowed to
visit President Davis during his imprisonment at Fortress Monroe following the
war.  He was a comfort and spiritual
guide to President Davis during this difficult time

Minnigerode was a faithful pastor and preacher of the Gospel.  His sermon “Jesus Christ and Him Crucified”
was considered a powerful presentation of the Gospel.  The New York Times in its obituary of
Minnigerode noted that “it was these words that the good old man had
on his tongue in his last hours

The following sermon was preached in at
Saint Paul’s and is a fine example of preaching the Gospel from the Old


The All of Man


thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done, is
that which shall be done; and there is no new thing under the sun
Ecclesiastes 1:9.


The Book from
which the text is taken is one of peculiar and painful interest. There is a
voice of wailing passing through its leaves, a key-note of sadness intonating
its every strain. It is the recantation of the wisest among men, of the follies
and errors into which the supposed greatness and hoped for satisfaction of this
world had led him. And in the sadness which seems to dim his eye, as he glances
over his past life and finds all his gains a blank; in the sorrow which I fancy
thickens the voice of the Royal Preacher, as he contrasts the eager pursuits
and dazzling scenes of his former life with the lesson of disappointment and
sense of vacancy they left behind, I find a depth of poetry which is akin to
the elegiac pathos of the Romance. The melancholy which breathes through the
pages of the great Scottish Poet, and which gives them that power of
fascination with which it entranced our youthful imagination, arises from the
consciousness of the writer that he dwells on men and times which are gone and
can never return; from the longing of his mind to flee from the empty present,
and relieve its prosy reality with the reproduction of the heroic forms of the
Crusaders, or the sacrifices of chivalrous loyalty in the death-struggle of the
house of Stuart. Wonderful and mysterious is the power with which the reputed
poems of Ossian move us: but that power lies less in the words we read, than in
the image they bring to our minds of the desolate son of Fingal, the last of
his race, striking his lonely harp and chanting the requiem over the loved
forms and the days of glory that had passed with the mighty dead of his family;
and which in its native wildness comes to us like the echo of the wind that
sighed over their resting-place, and swept through the fir trees that shaded
them, as through gigantic strings of the Aeolian harp.

But a greater than a poet is here: the
sage of Judah, the great king of Israel, who had lived what others could but
sing of When I read this Book, and see the monarch, in whom dwelt all the
fullness of earthly majesty, leave his throne; see the philosopher, who
surpassed by his wise sayings all the children of men, turn from his books; see
the possessor of wealth which Ophir poured into his lap and the ships of
Tarshish brought to his treasury, famished mid golden dust; see the man that
had exhausted all the sources of earthly joy, and tasted every human pleasure,
sickened with disappointment; when I see Solomon, the great, the admired, the
wise and prosperous, look over the monuments of his brilliant career, and write
upon them all, upon his throne and regal power, his life-long labors, his
riches and his untold pleasures — ”Vanity! vanity of vanities! all is
vanity!!” I learn that here I have more than a fleeting poem — an epitaph
on all human greatness ; more than the plaintive cry of farewell — a
lamentation over the vanity of every earthly pursuit; more than vain regrets
over the past — the stern lesson of a life, whose reality surpassed the wonders
of fiction: that all that this earth can give does not minister satisfaction to
the immortal soul; but that, having roamed through every department of human
life, and climbed every height of human grandeur, and searched every depth of
human wisdom, and ransacked every means of human enjoyment, he finds them all a
weariness and vexation of spirit, and learns that godliness alone, that
religion alone, can speak peace, and give lasting satisfaction to the restless
and aspiring heart; that the whole matter, the all of man, is to ”fear God and
keep his commandments.” “For God shall bring every work into
judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be

In truth I
never read this Book, but I hear the accompaniment of the spirit’s voice, which
now whispers to me with affectionate solitude, “Love not the world, nor
the things that are in the world,” and again, with the deep notes of
warning, as with a funeral knell, breaks on my ear: “Be ye also ready; for
in such an hour as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh.”

The epitome
of the wise man’s experience is contained in the words of. the text — ”The
thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done is that
which shall be done; and there is no new thing under the sun.”

I. “The
thing that hath been, it is that which shall be!” Life is the same it has
ever been, and always will be, and its experience is the same. Even the
practical unbelief in this truism, of which we all are guilty, attests its
universality. The delusion of life consists in its promise of happiness and
satisfaction, with which it charms the natural man into its bondage — at last
to pay him off with disappointment! It ever conjures up some phantom which he
pursues and never reaches; or, if he reaches it, finds that like Ixion, he
embraced a shadow! In vain that past experience teaches this lesson. In vain
that the world with one voice attests the instability and deceitfulness of
earthly hopes; that they who have reached the goal proclaim in mournful tones
that it was not worth the race. Man clings to the delusion, and foolishly hopes
that, whatever be the experience of others, he shall obtain its promises. There
is not a child in our families here present but fancies that as soon as he
shall arrive at a certain stature he shall enjoy more pleasure than he has enjoyed
in his childhood. And there is not a man of years before me but looks back to
the days of his childhood as the only season of paradisical happiness which has
fallen to his lot. The youth aspires to a settled life; the active man to
obtain, after labor and toil, a state of rest and satisfaction; but the lesson
must be learned by all, that rest belongs not to the present moment, and
satisfaction does not crown their earthly aspirations!

thing that hath been, it is that which shall be!” The experience of man is
the same now as it was in the days of the Psalmist; his “life is labor and
sorrow, so soon passeth it away and we are gone.” And, standing amidst the
wreck of all his hopes and aspirations, amidst the joys which in vain he had
sought to taste, the broken toys with which in vain he had tried to cheat
himself into happiness, he repeats the despairing cry of the preacher: ”
Vanity! all is vanity and vexation of spirit!”

I have seen
the young man, buoyant with hopes, and his heart swelling with proud
aspirations. But before they could ripen into fruit, or even open into the
blossom, the blight of this life had fallen upon them, and desolation seized
his soul! How many of your hopes have been realized? How many of your fondest
desires crowned with success? How many of your loftiest flights succeeded, your
sternest resolves been carried out? Who is there among you, young or old, who
stand precisely where they expected to stand, to whom life has brought what
they asked for and sought after? Who, among those who have reached the years of
manhood, had not to come down from the pinnacle of bliss and glory, which in
younger years they fancied they were climbing, and which their youthful dreams
had held  up to their imagination, and
been forced to content themselves with the beggarly gifts of real life?

I have seen
the student go with thirsting soul to the fountains of knowledge, and pore day
and night over the volumes of ancient lore, and labor hard to master the
mysteries of science. I looked again, and saw him vainly slake his thirst in
the muddy streams of error and hopeless speculation, and the wrinkles on his
brow attested that “in much wisdom there is much grief,” and that
“he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow!”

I have seen
the warrior, bearing the banner of victory from land to land. I looked again,
and saw him, Alexander-like, weep that he had no more worlds to conquer; or,
bound to a sea-girt St. Helena, chafe in his exile, and mourn over the passing
nature of all earthly glory!

I have seen the
monarch, glorying in regal pride, and courtiers bowing lowly, and nations taxed
for his pleasure. I looked again, and saw him tremble on the throne, the
Damocles sword suspended over him; or saw him, a fugitive, banished from his
home, and “none so poor as to do him reverence!”

I have seen
the statesman, rising on the tide of popular favor, and seize the highest
honors of the country. I looked again, and saw how cares had followed him; or
saw him dashed from his lofty position by the first storm that turned the
fickle multitude.

I passed the
stately mansion, gorgeous with wealth and replete with all that can charm the
eye and please the taste, and minister comfort. I entered, and saw its owner
stretched on the bed of lingering, and envying the poor at his door for one
hour of health, and a portion of his strength.

I have seen
the rich who trusted in his riches, with treasures in his possession that could
have relieved a starving multitude, with gold at his command that crowded his
house with flatterers, and made him the idol of hungry dependents. I looked
again, and the riches had made themselves wings and were gone; or the craven
wretch was watching his coffers with the line of care upon his brow, and fear
in his eye; or, starving amidst his hoarded wealth, still thirsting for more,
and cry “give, give!”

I have tasted
the joys of earth, and seen the gay and the reveller. I looked again, and in
that wan form, and ennui of life, I saw that this too is vanity!

I have
visited the family circle, and seen the peaceful fireside, and the children
like olive branches wreathing the table. I looked again, and there was the
vacant chair, that told the story of that stifled sob and those weeping eyes.

I looked upon
beauty, and a few summers dimmed the radiant eye, and faded the blushing roses.
I have looked upon youth, and I saw the spoiler drawing near, steadily,
certainly, to break its strength and extinguish its glow.

I have looked
upon life in all its forms — like a splendid phantasmagoria it passed before my
eye — but all its moments are fleeting, all its glory “passing away!”
In the experience of the past we have the horoscope of the future. Six thousand
years have taught us that “the thing that has been, it is that which shall

II. Ah, life
is indeed a phantasmagoria. We scarcely view it but it passes away; passes
away, brethren, into an endless future. Its shadows recede, and give way to the
realities of eternity! But that eternity of the creature begins here, and its law is written in our text: “that which
is done, is that which shall be done;” what is done here shall be done there.

a man soweth, that shall he also reap.” “He that soweth to the flesh
shall of the flesh reap corruption; and he that soweth to the spirit shall of
the spirit reap life everlasting.” As certain as the crop of the
husbandman will be of the seed he has put in the ground, so shall man, when
once put under the green sod of God’s acre, grow up in eternity, the same in
tendencies, desires, thoughts.

The same? Yet
not the same! For in this new existence, when the living soul is less confined
by the narrow limits, and less weighed down by the heavy material of this
earthly body; when the flight of his thoughts, and the impetuosity of his
desires are less checked by the disturbances and fluctuations, less broken by
the attractions and repulsions of this abode of change and unsteadiness; his
feelings, thoughts, affections, will be raised to an infinite power, and carry
with them their inherent rewards of happiness or misery, as with an almighty
force. All holy affections, all kind and charitable feelings, will enlarge
themselves without bounds to make us meet companions for Him who is perfect
Himself, and calls His creatures to perfection. The modest bud of peace and joy
below will open into the full bloom of celestial blessedness! But the embers of
sin, if not quenched in this life, will be kindled into flames, ever
strengthening in their overpowering sway, ever increasing in the torment they
bring with them; yet never dying, never destroying. Lust and hatred and
avarice, rising in greediness and vehemence, will find no object to lay their
hands of destruction on, but the soul itself which submitted to their dominion
here below.

Solemn truth:
“The thing that is done is that which shall be done.” Oh, what a
revelation of Eternity! Are you prepared, my un-Christian brother, to have your
slavery to ambitious aims continued in the world to come, in a never-ceasing
Sisyphean labor? To let the thirst for earthly pleasure place you, Tantalus-like,
before the waters of rejoicing and the fruits of satisfaction, and yet to
suffer the thirst and hunger of Eternity! Ye who devote your all to the
groveling pursuits of time that never come to an end, are ye prepared “in
the hereafter” to continue the fruitless labor, like the fabled daughters
of Danaus, filling the bottomless urn with the draughts of refreshing?

The happiness
and perfection of the good will in deed advance forever; the wretchedness and
down fall of the wicked will go on forever, and may go on forever in an
increasing ratio! Ages of a heavenly existence open new and greater stores of
beatitude; more glorious revelations of the Divine nature to the saints; and
the wrath of God endured for ages will still be “wrath to come!”

“that which is done, shall be done again.” Here in this life are the
premises and conditions of the life to come: “Where the tree falleth,
there it shall lie.” “He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; he
which is filthy, let him be filthy still; he that is righteous, let him be
righteous still; and he that is holy let him be holy still.”

And what — if
this alternative is placed before him, and such the issues of this life — what,
then, are all the pains and sorrows of this transient state to him, who knows
his home in heaven! who lays up treasures there, and has the promise of Him who
is faithful, and by faith receives even here the earnest of an inheritance
which passeth not away? And what are all the pleasures, and all the
enticements, and the golden chains, with which sin surrounds and binds us here,
to him who looks beyond and has “respect to the recompense of

But oh, the
unbeliever! the ungodly! Like that pale, that unhappy poet of our land — whose
every hope was in the past, and whose presence bore no flower of happiness; who
vainly sought nepenthe for his sufferings; “whom unmerciful disaster
followed fast and followed faster,” till his song one burden bore, —
“Till the dirges of his hope one melancholy burden bore of never —
nevermore!” whose nightly vision was disturbed by the croaking voice of
the bird of destiny which answered to all his pleas, the hopeless word of
“nevermore!” — like him he vainly asks of his gods: “Tell me
truly, I implore, — Is there, is there balm in Gilead? tell me, tell me, I
implore !” — But the echo returns only the raven’s bitter cry of

III. Alas,
brethren, “there is no new thing under the sun!” This earth,
Antaeus-like, cannot revive your strength; there is no power under the sun
which can restore you to that bliss which must be sought without sin! All your
schemes of reform, all your proud resolutions cannot raise you into God’s
favor. All your sacrifices, all your rites, all your superstitions, all your
charities, cannot restore in you the image of God, and change the cursed ground
into an Eden! There is no stream that purls up from the earth in which to wash
our sins away, and draw draughts of renewal: “there is no new thing under
the sun.” There is no salvation!— unless from above the sun, from the
Father of Light, from the fountains of the upper sanctuary, flows down upon you
the flood of healing, the stream of salvation! unless God Himself bares His
holy arm to bring life and immortality to light; unless you are born again of
the spirit, unless a new heart is given you, through the grace of Christ!

Oh, that I
had the power of speech, and the gift of persuasion! Oh, that the angel of God
would touch my lips, and give me words of fire! Believe me; believe one who has
as vile a heart, and passions strong as yours; one who has roamed far and wide
to satisfy the yearnings of a selfish and unsubdued spirit; who has drunk deep
of the cup of life, and tasted its sorrows and its delights; one who has too
many recollections left him of the world not to understand its fashion and the
power of its influence; and yet has been taught the vanity of all, and the
bitterness of his own heart. Believe me; and, if you will not believe a
fellow-sinner, believe Solomon, who rises above us in the knowledge of all that
this world can give and bring, and the acquaintance with its every source of
strength, and comfort, and pleasure, and happiness, as a Patagonian giant among
mere pigmies! And if you will not believe one that could fall as low as
Solomon, believe one “greater than Solomon;” one who was “holy,
harmless, undefiled and separate from sinners,” — that there is no healing
balm except in the Gospel; that there is no peace except in Christ; that the
infinite yearnings and aspirations of man can never be satisfied; that his
doubts, and the riddles of his earthly existence can never be solved; that the
fears of an awakened conscience can never be quieted, except in the religion of
the Atonement; and that there is no happiness for man, no lasting joy and bliss
and hope, but in the faith and love of Christ, in the pursuit of holiness, and
the obedience to the law of God.

And may God
have mercy upon you, that now, ere the evil days come, and the years draw nigh
when ye shall say ” we have no pleasure in them,” ye may learn the
conclusion of the whole matter: —

God and keep His commandments, for this is the all of man.”

“For God
shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be
good, or whether it be evil!”


 Book Review

Southern by the Grace
of God

By Michael Andrew

©1990, Pelican Publishing
Company, 572 pp. Hardback

Reviewed by H. Rondel Rumburg

The very
title of this Southern gentleman’s book, Southern
by the Grace of God
will give a Southern person, with awareness, a sense of
Southern credibility. Here is Southernness on display for it is by the grace of
God that we are saved by grace and Southern. If you draw a drop of blood from
Michael Grissom you will find he bleeds Southern. Read this book if you are
Southern and you will not be accosted with harsh words against your beloved
South. Read this book if you are Northern and you will be given a dose of the
real South and not the one conjured up by Federal Propagandists. Read this book
and you will not be denigrated over your Southern accent or be put on a
politically correct guilt trip although we are not ashamed to rebut these
Federal Change Agents.

Oh, how nice
to be able to read a book that you do not have to read between the lines to
find the booby traps of assaults and innuendos that are anti-Southern, for you
will find none. I put this book on my Southern Best List. Neither will you find
the new South propaganda corrupting
the content. When you have read this tome you realize here is an honest and
true friend of the South who is not apologetic for our people and their noble
deeds. Actually one finds himself refreshed to be drinking from the sweet
nectar dripping from the true flower of our Southern history.

Our author gives
insights into the window of our history. The things that have long been hidden
in the shadows lest some buzzard of political correctness swoop down to carry
it off as carrion because it has been left for dead, but our writer does not
feed these buzzards but gives us the true living South.

author Grissom gives us a much needed warning:

I don’t know whether our past glory lives on in fewer of us, or if it
lives less well in all of us. One thing is for sure – we are edging ever more
closely to the point of losing our southern heritage. If we become even a tiny
bit more lethargic than we already are and fail to pass it on to our young, it
truly will be found only in books. It can be lost in only one neglected
generation. If we fail to perpetuate so glorious a legacy, then it truly may be
spoken of us what Tacitus wrote of those who frivolously existed under the
Roman Empire: We cannot be said to have lived, but rather to have crawled in
silence, the young towards the decrepitude of age and the old to dishonorable

Later the
author wrote of the pity of watching “our heritage being dismantled year after
year at the very hands of southerners
themselves.” Oh, how sad indeed. Southern people today often parrot the
propaganda of the North. Grissom said, “Now the Yankees lie back and watch this
new breed of loud southerners do their braying for them. This new bunch had
decided to call themselves the New South.”

We are
reminded in these pages of what God said through Hosea His prophet, “My people are
destroyed for lack of knowledge.” The pseudo-history propagated by the
government misinformation agency called public schools is filling the heads of
Southern children with bogus history. Instead of these children being given the
heritage of truth they have lies about the very people God requires them to
honor—“Honour your father and your
mother; which is the first commandment with promise; That it may be well with
thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.”
Our great grandparents are
to be honored as well as our immediate ones.

One finds
such penetrating quotes as

“Corporal Sam R. Watkins, of Columbia, Tennessee, was living proof that
Reconstruction had failed to diminish devotion…. Writing in 1881, he said,
‘Secession may have been wrong in the abstract, and has been tried and settled
by the arbitrament of the sword and bayonet, but I am as firm in my convictions
today of the right of secession as I was in 1861. The South is our country; the
North is the country of those who live there. We are an agricultural people;
they are a manufacturing people…. We believe in the doctrine of State rights,
they in the doctrine of centralization.

‘John C. Calhoun, Patrick Henry, and Randolph, of Roanoke, saw the venom
under their wings, and warned the North of the consequences, but they laughed
at them. We only fought for our State rights, they for Union and power. The
South fell battling under the banner of State rights, but yet grand and
glorious even in death.’”

Grissom, who
is as unreconstructed as Sam Watkins and this reviewer, went on to conclude,

“Let none among us disparage our southern
ancestors. Let us only hope that even a trickle of the revolutionary blood that
flowed in their veins has remained in ours. It is ironic that the very code of
honor, which the Yankees thought four years of cruel war had eradicated, was
the same standard that silently sustained us through Reconstruction. It’s that
inner faith and stamina, particularly southern in nature, that makes us what we
are – Southern, by the grace of God.”

This volume
is replete with Southern Treasures of prose, poetry and pictures. We are
reminded of the group Alabama and a
stanza from their My Home’s in Alabama.

I’ll speak my
southern English

Just as
natural as I please;

I’m in the
Heart of Dixie—

Dixie’s in the
heart of me.

In this
volume Southern by the Grace of God
one finds essentially A Southerner’s
Handbook of History
, biographical sketches of famous Southerners, two
hundred old photos, a section on Southern Folklore, a correct view of the War,
Reconstruction, etc.

parents need to use this book in educating themselves and their children. The
old South was Christian without apology and loved God’s Word the Bible. The Old
South did not use its Constitution to foist every form of perversion condemned
in the Bible on its citizens!!!!!!!!!!



must remember who we are and what we must be about:

SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for
which we fought.  To your strength will be given the defense of the
Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation
of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which
you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also
cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is
presented to future generations.


 Chaplain’s Handbook


Sons of
Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged
Sesquicentennial Edition of the Chaplain’s Handbook.   It
is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic,
SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen;
there has also been added a third
burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America;
a chapter on Praying
in Public
has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public
  All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the
handbook will find it even more useful than before.  There is the same
cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to
a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication.  Contact
SCV headquarters or for a copy.

[1] Patrick
J. Buchanan, The Death of the West,

Buchanan, 6.

[3] R. L.
Dabney, Life and Campaigns of Lieut.-gen.
Thomas J. Jackson
, 180-181.

[4] D. M.
Lloyd-Jones, Expository Sermons on 2
, 145.

Buchanan, 266.

The Rev. Fr. Alister Anderson served as a chaplain in the U.S. Army. He served
in combat in Vietnam (1967-68) and was in Germany during the “Cold War”
(1956-60 and 1973-75). He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy from which he
graduated during WWII. In 1947 he responded to the Lord’s Call and resigned his
regular Naval Commission and enrolled in Union Theological Seminary in NYC and
graduated in 1950.

[6] Prayers and Other Devotions for the Use of
the Soldiers of the Army of the Confederate States
, Charleston, SC, Female
Bible and Prayer Book Social Society, Charleston, SC, 1861.

[7] Christ in the Camp, p. 376; or Religion in the Confederate Army, J.
William Jones, Richmond, VA 1887 republished by Sprinkle Publications,
Harrisonburg, VA 1986.

[8] Ibid, p.

[9] Ibid, p.

[10] Ibid,
p. 318.

[11] Ibid,
p. 322-323.

[12] Ibid,
p. 232-233.

[13] The Cross at the Front, Fragments from the
, p. 154, 155, Thomas Tiplady, Fleming H. Revell, London, 1917.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles || Anno Domini 2013 || June Issue || No. 90

2013 June 16
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Anno Domini 2013


Issue No. 90

“That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God, one of our dear defenders thus to die.” Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon Drive,

Greenville, SC 29607



Editor: Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



Quote from a Confederate Chaplain

I am still hopeful of success; our cause is in God’s hands…. I am confident that our final success is recorded in the mind of Providence, but it is not yet announced.

Chaplain Marcus B. DeWitt

8th Tennessee Infantry Regiment



Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:


This is the 90th issue of the CCC. What a milestone!  Thanks are due unto our great and glorious one true and living God in three persons Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Appreciation is directed to all those who have written articles, those who have helped circulate this e-journal, those who have prayed for its usefulness, etc. Please keep this e-journal and our chaplain-in-chief ever before the Lord in prayer as well as the SCV and its leaders. We all need your prayers. We all need our gracious God and Saviour Jesus Christ and His constant care. This journal has a purpose: “That in all things Christ might have the preeminence.”

 Also, the very essence of this publication is to be informative relative to the Chaplains Corps, the life and service of Confederate Chaplains and to make a clear presentation of the faith and history of those men along with the South. The ever present desire is to bring the truth to all the readers of this journal. Our hearts and prayers go out to the widow of Chaplain Len Patterson who received the summons of the Captain of his salvation.



Often we are tested by what some may call “contrary providences.”

How do you cope with the events in life that smash you in the face as it were? How do you handle events contrary to your best interests? Do you believe that all things bad and good work together for your best interests if you love God (Rom. 8:28)? Or are you a believer in an Alice in Wonderland type of religion? What about catastrophic events? There are on average of 171,000 Christian’s martyred for their faith annually in the world in which we presently live. Did everything work for their good?

Are you a Christian? If you said, “yes,” then do you believe the will of God for your life and family is always for the best? Can you honestly say with God’s faithful servant Paul, “I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content” (Phil. 4:11)? Some of us have loved ones lost to us, some have battled cancer, some have faced overwhelming events in their lives, but have we been contented with those things as God’s will for us and therefore providential? Or have “contrary providences” led to the questioning of God or cursing God or anger toward God? Life has many valleys we must go through and some cast the ominous shadow of death; also, life may have some mountain tops reflecting the brightness of manifold blessings. Paul learned contentment and then said that he knew how to be abased and how to abound; he knew a full tummy and hunger; he knew abundance and suffering need (Phil. 4:12) but he was “content.” “But godliness with contentment is great gain” (1 Tim. 6:6). Are you contented with the so called “contrary providences?” When things go your way it pleasures you, but what do you do when things go contrary?

There are many today that believe when you become a follower of Christ your life should take on a perspective comparable to looking through rose colored glasses. Yes, everything is supposed to come up roses. Is this a Biblical concept? Remember what Jesus said, “If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me” (Luke 9:23). Christians have crosses to bear! What we must remember is that “there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother” (Prov. 18:24) as we take up the daily cross. As a Christian goes through the valley of death’s gloom he can truly say, “I will fear no evil: for thou art with me; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me…. Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: and I will dwell in the house of the LORD for ever” (Ps. 23:4, 6). The child of God does not escape troubles but he has one who goes with him and who never leaves nor forsakes—“… be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. So that we may boldly say, the Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man shall do unto me” (Heb. 13:5-6).

Do you remember the three Hebrew children Shadrack, Meschach and Abed-nego? The spiritual atmosphere in Babylon had become intense and demoralizing to the people of God. Nebuchadnezzar had set up an image and upon the sound of the playing of an instrument such as a cornet all were to fall down and worship the golden image of Nebuchadnezzar. Those refusing to fall down and worship were to be incinerated by being cast immediately into the fiery furnace (Dan. 3:3-7). Some accused the three Hebrews of not being obedient in personally bowing to the image (vv. 9-12). This accusation infuriated the heathen ruler and in his rage he interrogated the three young men—“Is it true?” he asked. Since this had been an accusation he put the three to the test. If they would worship at the next sound of the instrument they would be exonerated. However, if they did not the ruler asserted, “who is that God that shall deliver you out of my hands” (Dan. 3:15)? He thus declared foolishly that he was sovereign over the God of the Bible, who is the only true sovereign. The three young Hebrew men said, “O Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up” (Dan. 3:16-18). Essentially the three young men said, Our God can do anything for He is all powerful, all knowing and everywhere present. He may deliver us out of imperial hands or He may not be pleased to deliver us but either way we will not sin against Him by worshipping your gods. In essence they said, God’s will and honor is of more importance than anything else to us and we will be willing to accept the results. This was Job’s sentiment exactly; “Though He slay me, yet will I trust in Him” (Job 13:15). Paul wanted Christ magnified in his body whether by life or death (Phil. 1:20). Do you want this? Do you want God’s will done and Christ magnified regardless?

What have we learned from these men? We have learned that death is preferable to life if it be God’s will and for His glory. Yes, it is true that the Lord God overruled in the case of the three Hebrew lads and delivered them from the fiery furnace. However, many others were not so delivered. Some escaped but “others had trial of cruel mocking and scourging, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment: they were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented” (Heb. 11:36-37). What many consider as “contrary providence” is not really so if it be God’s will. Why? All things good and bad are working for our good. “Do you believe this?” Chaplain R. L. Dabney wrote that Romans 8:28 was “a living reality” to “Stonewall” Jackson. Jackson believed, “It robbed suffering of all its bitterness, and transmuted trials into blessings.” Do you believe as did Jackson?


Please find in this issue our Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader regarding the Chaplain’s Conference. Next we have the Report of the Funeral Service for ATM Chaplain Len Patterson by Chaplain Rod Skelton. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief expresses the value that the Confederate Christian Soldier was to the Southern Army. This is entitled Faith and the Christian Soldier. There is much we can learn from our ancestors in this day of shallowness. Your editor has supplied Part II of Some Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains. We have a poem by Ken Temples on When Jackson Knelt to Pray. Also we have Part II of A Tale of Two Sermons presented by Chaplain Studdard at the Chaplain’s Conference. Also, we have Pastor John Weaver’s message on The Primacy of Preaching that was given to the Chaplain’s Conference. This issue includes A Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard.  This sermon is by Rev. Joel W. Tucker to a local congregation in Fayetteville, NC in 1862 it is titled “God’s Providence in War.” Our Book Review is by Editor Rumburg, reviewing the volume by John L. Dagg, A Practical View of Christian Ethics.


Soli Deo Gloria,

Editor H. Rondel Rumburg

[Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’ Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have their names and e-mail addresses.  Also, feel free to send copies of this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it.  If you want to “unsubscribe” please e-mail the editor or assistant editor.  Confederately, HRR]



*The Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans

*The Funeral of Dr. Leonard Patterson, Chaplain of ATM, Chaplain Rod Skelton

*Faith and the Christian Soldier, Rev. Mark W. Evans

*Some Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains (Part II), Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

*When Jackson Knelt to Pray, Ken Temples

*A Tale of Two Sermons (Part II), Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

*The Primacy of Preaching, Pastor John Weaver

*A Confederate Sermon, Rev. J. W. Tucker

*Book Review: A Practical View of Christian Ethics



Dear fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

Our hearts were deeply moved when we learned that Dr. Len Patterson, Chaplain of the Army of Trans-Mississippi, had crossed over the river to rest under the shade of the trees.  He went to be with his Lord on May 27, 2013.  I first met him at a SCV Reunion several years ago, and we formed an instant friendship in our glorious Savior.  He loved Christ and the old, old story of Jesus and His love.  He also had a deep affection for the Southern cause and his Confederate heritage.  He rightly saw the connection that some miss – the history of the War for Southern Independence cannot be rightly separated from the Christian foundations that kept many of our ancestors rejoicing and undaunted in the face of our adversaries.  His email “Sunday Messages” were a blessing to many.

In one of his “Messages,” after mentioning that General Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson, along with all the “boys in gray” were Confederate heroes, he reminded us that they were not the only Confederates.  He said, “You see, their wives, mothers, and children back home were Confederates, too.   My Great-great-grandfather was a Confederate soldier, but my great-great-grandmother was a Confederate civilian, as were all citizens of the Confederacy. And many of them were also Confederate heroes.”  This observation is a good reminder for us to remember Brother Patterson’s widow and family in prayer.  We look to our God and Father, through our only Mediator, to supply the grace that is all sufficient and the strength that is made perfect in weakness.  “Faithful is He that calleth you, who also will do it” (I Thess. 5:24).  Praise God, we serve the God who cannot lie, and all the His promises are “yea and amen” to those who are in Christ Jesus.

I asked Chaplain Rod Skelton to send information about the funeral.  He did a wonderful job.  We are including his report, along with his comments presented at the funeral service, in this issue of the Chronicles.

The 118th National Reunion, Sons of Confederate Veterans, is planned for July 18-20, 2013.  I hope you will be able to attend.  The Reunion provides an excellent opportunity to meet other chaplains and enjoy Christian fellowship.  Please plan to attend the Prayer Breakfast, Friday, July 19, 7:00 – 8:00 a.m., and the Memorial Service, also on Friday, 3:45-4:45 p.m.

Thank you for your prayers for the requests we send to you.  You have been an encouragement to many.

Yours in Christ’s service,

Mark W. Evans



The Funeral of Dr. Leonard Earl Patterson

Friday, May 31 at 2 p.m.

Lakeside Baptist Church, Trinidad, Texas


Comments by Brigade Chaplain Rod Skelton

John H. Reagan Camp 2196

Death is always a solemn and sad experience. It is not of necessity a gloomy, melancholy subject. For the Christian it can be one of God’s most wonderful blessings. Today we come to share in that blessing; to share with one another a time of celebration and rejoicing, celebrating
Christ’s victory over death and rejoicing that our Brother Len Patterson is at home in heaven with Jesus. John tells us in Revelation that in the new heaven,” There shall be no more death, neither sorrow nor crying, neither shall there be any pain; For the former things have passed away.”  As of Monday May 27, 2013, Bro. Len Patterson experienced joy unspeakable as he left all pain behind, and entered into his mansion especially prepared for him in glory.

The life of Bro Len Patterson abounded with the wonderful blessing of numerous friends, many of whom are here today, to share with you, the family, in your loss and to support you through their presence and in their prayers.

Bro. Len was a man of strength, great character, and many fine qualities. He was a man of conviction who was trustworthy and dependable. He knew and understood the meaning of commitment. This was evidenced in his life through his devotion to God, family, country, and
the Sons of Confederate Veterans. He had a special love for Janet, his wife of 32 years.  He was a world class chess player, and loved black powder weapons. He served with honor and pride in the United States Marine Corps.

Bro. Len saw that all around him the world was moving at a very rapid and complicated pace – yet, he believed that life should be characterized by love and simplicity. Even though he worked hard and stayed busy, his life was not one of “busy-ness.”  The philosophy by which Bro Len lived was one that he would leave with us all–that we should make certain that we do not complicate our lives to the extent that we forget our very purpose for being here.

Bro. Len exhibited an attitude that life should be sipped and not gulped. He enjoyed the little simple things of life that are so often taken for granted. His life was motivated by God’s love which he exhibited again and again in the love that he had for his fellowman and for nature. He seemed to always make it a practice of finding ways to give of himself, knowing that little or nothing could be given or expected in return.

Heritage is a word that means something left by one to another. Bro. Len Patterson leaves a strong heritage. He was not wealthy by worldly standards, but by God’s standards, he was very wealthy. He had an abundance of things that really count for life-things such as love, friendship, honesty, loyalty, and integrity; for through his life we know that these are not extinct virtues — but virtues he practiced on a daily basis. Len Patterson left something that will be a steadfast
support for his family and friends.

   The Bible tells us-how fleeting our days-how short our lives — so we must constantly be alert in filling each day with that which will enrich both our own lives and the lives we come in contact with. This was Len Patterson. The heritage of Bro. Len Patterson is not one that is written in a will or testament, rather it is written in the hearts, minds and lives of those who knew him.
Today we celebrate the home going of our brother, Len Patterson. I am reminded of the analogy of the ship as it set sail — as we stand on the shore waving good-by and saying there he goes. And then on the other shore are those who are waving a welcome as they shout, Here he comes.  Len has reached the other shore-happy and excited about the great reunion for all that are in Christ that will one day join him in a home for eternity. Today, Len Patterson has the victory.



Friday, May 31 at 2 p.m.

Lakeside Baptist Church, Trinidad, Texas

A Report by Brigade Chaplain Rod Skelton

John H. Reagan Camp 2196

The music at Bro. Len’s funeral was superb. The songs were “Amazing Grace,” “Ten Thousand Angels,” and “The Blood Will Never Lose Its Power.”  The best line in the music was “The battle is over, the victory is won.”

Bro. Todd Owen spoke of Bro. Len as an advocate and intercessor—one who stands beside and who comforts. He was so encouraged by Bro. Len.  He stated that Bro. Len was always there for him.  Bro. Len was such a humble and such a great person.  He was a statesman, a friend, and a true Southern gentleman, who moved us all in a heavenward direction.

Bro Chuck McMichael shared that he was so very humbled and honored to speak at Bro. Len’s funeral. He, like others, spoke very highly of Bro. Len. When Bro. Len Patterson was awarded the Christian Service Award, he accepted it with such gratefulness and humility. Dr. Len Patterson not only set the standard for all of us to follow–he was the standard.  He had fire and excitement to share Jesus with others. His fire was strong and could not be extinguished. Bro. McMichael’s closing words were, “with the passing of Bro. Len Patterson–earth is less and heaven is more.”

Bro. Lloyd Loven, Pastor of Lakeside Baptist Church, brought a wonderful message from John14:1-6.  The points of the sermon he stressed were:
1. God wants us to know something–Him.
2. God wants us to have complete trust in Jesus Christ.
3. God wants us to know that we and our loved ones have a special place with Him
4. God has a promise for us; I go to prepare a place for you.
5. When I get your place ready, I will come for you.
6. Jesus is the only way to heaven.

At the end of the service, compatriot Doug Smith led us in singing Dixie.  The SCV Color Guard folded the Battle Flag and presented it to Brigade Commander Johnnie Holley, who presented it to Texas Div. Commander Granvel Block. Commander Block presented it to Mrs. (Janet) Patterson, who then placed it in the casket with Bro. Len.  We then proceeded to Mankin Cemetery.

The flags, rifleman, cannoneers and other troops formed at the cemetery entrance. Commander Holley and Chaplain Skelton led as the riderless horse, drummer, bugler, troops and the Order of the Confederate Rose followed. Commander Holley began the graveside service. The Division Chaplain gave the invocation.  After Commander Holley spoke, Chaplain Skelton led in prayer.  Compatriot Doug Smith of The John H. Reagan Camp 2156, sang The Bonnie Blue as the ladies placed roses on the casket.  The flag detail folded the Battle Flag that wrapped the casket.  It was presented to Mrs. Patterson by Texas Div. Commander Granvel Block.  There  was a three round volley by the rifles and the cannon. Roses were gathered and given to the family.  Commander Holley then covered the furled Battle Flag in black. The color guard then marched out, followed by the rifleman, Black Rose, Riderless horse, and the Commander and Chaplain.  The Commander dismissed the troops at the exit.    The services at the Church and the Cemetery were outstanding. I think Bro. Len was very pleased as he looked down from heaven.  Mrs. Janet Patterson commented that it was such a beautiful service.   It was such an honor to be a part of this.



Chaplain-in-Chief’s Article


Faith and the Christian Soldier

Mark W. Evans

     Christianity in the Southland, during the War for Southern Independence, had an essential part in maintaining the fighting edge of the men in gray.  Chaplains and other Christian workers labored for an eternal harvest by proclaiming the truths of God’s Word. Not only were souls saved, but an unconquerable spirit was instilled in the hearts of the South’s valiant defenders.  They fought for a righteous cause and performed their duty with peace of conscience in the sight of God.  This part of the South’s history is often overlooked, yet it is necessary to understanding the true character of many who fought the illegal invader. Confederate Chaplain, Rev. J. C. Granberry, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, said, “How grateful then to us should be the story of what divine grace did for those brave men; how it exalted and hallowed their character, comforted them amid all their risks and sufferings, inspired the dying, whatever may have been the issue of the day, with immortal triumph and continues to be in peace as in war the guide and joy of those whom battle, accident and disease have spared” [J. William Jones, Christ in the Camp, 13, 14].

Chaplain Granberry described the sermons that brought such glorious results:  “Eternal things, the claims of God, the worth of the soul, the wages of sin which is death, and the gift of God which is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord – these were the matter of preaching.  The marrow and fatness of the Gospel were set forth.  The style was not controversial, speculative or curious, but eminently practical and direct; hortatory, yet also instructive.  There were pathos and urgency of appeal.  The hearts were besought to immediate and uncompromising action, for the time was short” [Jones, 14, 15].  The fruit of such preaching was remarkable.  Chaplain Granberry said, “Not recklessly, but with thoughtful and prayerful solemnity, they went into fierce battle; yet the peace of God which passeth all understanding kept their hearts against alarm; and if a ball shivered a limb, or entered the body, a smile of resignation lit up the rugged faces as they were borne off to the hospital and surgeon, or with words of victory they on the field yielded up their spirit to the God in whom they trusted.  To God be all the glory [Jones, 16]!

Colonel William Welford Randolph, leader of the Second Virginia Infantry, Stonewall Brigade, fell in the Wilderness Campaign, while demonstrating Christian valor.  In a sketch of his life, Colonel John Cooke wrote, “These lines can give no adequate idea of William Randolph.  It was one of the bravest of the brave who thus followed Jackson in all his hard campaigns; marching, musket on shoulder, in the ranks; who mounted the works at Gettysburg, and faced the fire unmoved; who was everywhere in the fore-front of battle, leading, cheering, and inspiring all; and who fell at last on the bloody field of the Wilderness, soon after uttering the grand words, ‘Jesus can receive the soul of the warrior on the battlefield as well as on the softest couch’” [Jones, pp. 440, 441].

Another Christian soldier, Louis Magoon Rogers of Accomac County, Virginia, caught the notice of General Henry A. Wise.  He saw that the young man’s Christian character affected those around him for good. In time, he also received the benefit.  General Wise wrote Rogers’ father concerning the impact of his son:  “His companionship as a Christian was a blessing to me.  He never obtruded a homily, yet his soft, meek, deprecatory look would often allay a passion or stay a profane word.  He was as quick as lightning to perceive, yet so conscientious that he never assumed to act without full intelligence of what he was to do.  I could trust him as well absent as present, and he never failed me.”  Rogers was eventually promoted to the rank of Lieutenant and fell while fighting to save Petersburg in June, 1864.  He lived until August 25, entering into eternity with these words, “Father, into Thy hands I commit my spirit.”  General Wise wrote, “His example taught that the best soldier of the Captain of Salvation made the best soldier of the Confederate camps.  His eternal parole is that of the Prince of Peace” [Jones, 450-452].

In the summer of 1863, Rev. Dr. E. H. Myers of the Southern Christian Advocate, exhorted his readers with words that have some application to our present dark hour:   “Our temporal condition looks none the brightest.  God is trying us in a fiery furnace of war; and for the present, the battle seems to go against us.  The high hopes for our country and of a speedy peace, which we entertained a few weeks since, have been in a measure disappointed, and we may be doomed to yet greater disappointment.  But there is a refuge for the soul in every storm.  God’s peace and comforting influences of the Holy Ghost, are not subject to human circumstances; and they may be ours amid every variety of calamity.  But these are the fruits of the cultivation of personal religion; and, independent of every other consideration, the uncertainty of all other sources of comfort alone should be an inducement to us to betake ourselves to that refuge, to watch closely, pray much, believe with all our heart, and to cleave the closer to God, the louder the storm swells, and the more furiously the billows dash upon the wreck of earthly hopes.”  Dr. Myers concluded, “He who, in the dark hour, feels that he grows in grace and maintains soul-communion with God, stands upon a rock.  He shall never be moved” [Bennett, The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 319].

As Confederate Christian soldiers rested their souls upon the Solid Rock, Christ Jesus, we are comforted to know that He is still mighty to save.  He is the same yesterday, today, and forever.  His promise will stand for eternity:  “All that the Father giveth me will come unto me, and him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out” (John 6:37).  The battle for truth is still raging, but those who are walking by faith in the Lord Jesus Christ have a certain hope:  “No weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn.  This is the heritage of the servants of the Lord, and their righteousness is of me, saith the Lord” (Isaiah 54:17).


Some Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains


By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


Part II

One who is called by God to preach will first of all be regenerated or born again by the Holy Spirit and embrace Christ by faith. There must be a work of grace in one who would preach that grace. Christ Jesus lived an impeccable life and died a substitutionary death in order to provide eternal salvation to one who believes on Him for salvation. Men who preach the gospel need a call from God. The old adage is “You are called to preach if you have a sense of God’s call and cannot do anything else and be happy.”

After Timothy’s conversion he was called to preach.  Paul urged Timothy to not neglect “the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery” (1 Tim. 4:14).  That was reinforced in the next letter to Timothy—“Wherefore I put thee in remembrance that thou stir up the gift of God, which is in thee by the putting on of my hands” (2 Tim. 1:6).  He had been set apart for the ministry. Paul explained to the church at Philippi his own understanding of the calling and quality of Timothy as a minister—“But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timotheus shortly unto you, that I also may be of good comfort, when I know your state. For I have no man like-minded, who will naturally care for your state” (Phil. 2:19-20).  This reveals something important.  Paul and Timothy were “like-minded” or “equal of soul.”  Paul remembered how Timothy had acted previously—“But ye know the proof of him, that as a son with the father, he hath served with me” (Phil. 2:22).




Paul’s words give us a wonderful reminder that God’s calling is a special matter and not lightly to be considered. He asked:

“How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? and how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!”  Romans 10:14-15

God’s call to a man to serve Him brings with it an awesome responsibility. The ministry of the sacred Word of God is a blessed privilege as well as responsibility. None should lightly enter this office. Truly God called men should honor such a calling. Preacher/General Mark Perrin Lowrey who was an instrument in the great revival in the Army of the Tennessee was once offered a senatorship, his reply was, “Gentlemen, I appreciate it, any man must appreciate such an honor, but I have a higher commission to preach the gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ.” The Apostle Paul magnified his office, “I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify (or glorify) mine office” (Rom. 11:13). In order to magnify or glorify the calling to the ministry one must preach the unsearchable riches of Christ (Eph. 3:8).

There is a great paradox relative to the ministry, for saved sinful men are called to preach to sinners. A calling to the ministry has a divine impetus to it. Just as Jonah could not run away from it neither can any man whom the Lord sets apart for such a calling run away!  A. C. Craig asserted, “The paradox of the pulpit is that its occupant is a sinner whose chief right to be there is his perpetual sense that he has not right to be there, and is there only by grace and always under a spotlight of Divine judgment.”

“And I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who hath enabled me, for that he counted me faithful, putting me into the ministry” (1 Tim. 1:13).

Now let us look as some of the chaplains relative to the call of God:


Beverly Tucker Lacy, Second Corps Chaplain

Beverly Tucker Lacy, a Southern Presbyterian, was born in Prince Edward Country, Virginia on February 21st, 1819 and went to be with the Lord on November 3rd, 1900 in Washington, D.C.

There is certainly a sense of unworthiness that is natural to God’s call. Stonewall Jackson’s chaplain Beverly Tucker Lacy represented such a sense in a letter to his grandmother (his mother passed away when he was young) for he was overwhelmed with the responsibility of the sense of this high calling:

I am just where I wish to be if every place in the world were offered to me or at my disposal. I have as much to be thankful for, and as much to encourage me to diligence and to increase in knowledge and piety as could be asked but with all this, I am woefully deficient in everything which should qualify me to be a minister of Christ. Above all the defect is in my own heart, at times I am awfully discouraged. I ask your prayers that I may be able by the grace of God to be fitted in his hand for the great work. I am thankful that I was enabled to come to this Seminary at the time I did.

Tucker Lacy thus spoke of his sense of unworthiness for such a high calling, but he had received the call of God and thus his dilemma. All who have such a holy calling should recognize their need before the Lord.

William Edward Wiatt Chaplain of 26th Virginia

William E. Wiatt, a Baptist, was born in Gloucester County, Virginia on July 31st, 1826 and entered eternity February 14th, 1918.

Wiatt spoke of the most profound event in his life, and by that remark he had reference to his calling to the ministry. This was authenticated by his call to a local church in April, 1854. The Hickory Grove Baptist Church in Lowndes County, Alabama, extended a call to him. This call was extended upon the prospects of his ordination which occurred in that year. Thus his calling to the ministry to serve the God of his salvation had a profound effect upon him.

In the midst of war and its fierce attributes Chaplain Wiatt made an observation that showed his commitment to his calling. Wiatt was able to visit his home Wednesday, October 26th, 1864 and walked over a part of his property. The following account he wrote about in his diary:

Oh! How it has gone down; a good deal of my fences burnt and woods also; My fields grown up in briars & bushes; almost everything seems to be going to ruin; my heart was made sad, but Oh! Lord, help me to say “Thy will be done,” and give me grace to endure all for Thy Cause and my Country…. Oh! How my beloved native County has suffered; what desolation & ruin are seen everywhere; Lord! Give us grace to submit to thy righteous & sure will.

These are word written by a man committed to God’s calling. Previous to writing this Wiatt’s wife had died and he had to send his children to live with his wife’s family in Alabama.

Chaplain William Wiatt’s calling was expressed in his diary in different ways. On Tuesday, September 22nd, 1863 he tells us of his concern to give out the gospel, “Walked down to the Stone River; on return came up in a boat with four Irishmen; They were … quite unreligious; I gave them a lecture on temperance and preached Jesus to them…” he wrote.


Alexander Davis Betts Chaplain 30th North Carolina

Alexander D. Betts, a Southern Methodist, was born in Cumberland (now Harnett) County, North Carolina on August 25th, 1832 and he crossed over the river on December 15th, 1918.

The call of God and its attending attributes were manifested in such men of God. Chaplain A. D. Betts on the march to Gettysburg went to see a friend in College Grove, PA.  He met Dr. Johnson the president of Dickinson College, and while there Johnson’s daughter asked Betts some questions.  “‘Mr. Betts, what was your object in joining the army?  Was it to help the rebellion?’ I told her I could not have taken the oath of office as Chaplain if I had not been in full sympathy with the Confederate cause, but I did not think it so weak as to need my help.  I told her my love for souls led me into the work.” Betts had received a summons from God to preach the gospel, and the love of Christ constrained him.

Randolph Harrison McKim, Chaplain 2nd Virginia Cavalry

Randolph H. McKim, a Protestant Episcopal, was born in Baltimore on April 15th, 1842 and death occurred at Bedford Springs, Pennsylvania on July 15th, 1920.

Chaplain Randolph H. McKim had entered the army as a common soldier, but after a while he realized God had a call upon his life. He explained, “The inward call to preach Christ to my fellow men pressed strongly upon me in my camp life” which he said gave him a “sense of responsibility in relation to it.”

When McKim became a Confederate soldier he parted from his father and mother to never meet again for they were in Maryland. When McKim’s ordination approached in April of 1864 he wrote, “My father, I ask to be remembered at the family altar, that God may prepare me for the responsible office which I am about tremblingly to undertake after seven months’ study.” Because of the war his seminary training had been compressed into a short period of time.

Charles Todd Quintard, Chaplain 1st Tennessee

Charles T. Quintard, a Protestant Episcopal, was born in Stamford, Connecticut on December 22nd, 1824 and entered the Promised Land February 15th, 1898.

Chaplain Charles T. Quintard was a physician. It was said of him: “No secular calling, however, would satisfy his conscience. He felt himself moved by the Holy Ghost to a sublimer work. He therefore commenced the study of theology, under the direction of the Right Reverend J. H. Otey, D.D., LL.D., and was admitted by him to the holy order of deacons in January, 1855. Resigning his professorship, he now commenced the duties of his sacred calling, to which he has ever since devoted all his energies. In January, 1856, he was ordained priest (Protestant Episcopal Church in Confederate States); and a year afterward he accepted the rectorship of Calvary Church, in Memphis. He was greatly attached to his people, and received from them every token of affection; but felt it his duty to resign his position after serving them one year, in order to take the place of Rector of the Church of the Advent in Nashville, left vacant by the death of the lamented Charles Tomes” [Joseph Cross, Camp and Field, 249]. Quintard became a chaplain in the Confederate Army.

John Lipscomb Johnson Chaplain 17th Virginia & then became Hospital Chaplain in Lynchburg, VA

John L. Johnson, a Baptist, was born in Spotsylvania County, Virginia on August 12th, 1835 and was called home to glory on March 2nd, 1915.

While Johnson was attending the University of Virginia he was greatly impacted by Dr. John A. Broadus who was chaplain and pastor of Charlottesville Baptist Church. Johnson was a child of God and pursuing his education. The Lord used Pastor Broadus greatly in his life and calling.

‘The Call of the Ministry’ was a most frequent topic with him and doubtless Sunday after Sunday many a young man went home from church asking himself what he ought to do about it….  Finally, he developed one day some points I had not thought upon very much, including, if I mistake not, (1) the world’s great need of the preached gospel, (2) my ability as an individual to supply that need, and (3) what reason for not doing it was satisfactory to myself?  The points were all against me, and I submitted the case without argument.  I could do something to help supply the demand.  There was nobody dependent upon my labor for support.  If Christ was the only hope for my soul, I ought to be willing to give Him the service of my life and gladly do His will.  That same day … I announced my decision, and there was great joy among my friends.  That argument was my call.  I know nothing about Paul’s ‘woe’; I was giving my life for love to Him who gave His for me for love.

Many of the young men at that time were called to preach under the ministry of Broadus.  Also, some of these young men were ordained to the gospel ministry in the Charlottesville Baptist Church.  Their lives would impact many in the future as a result of the call of the Lord.  This would translate through the work of God the Holy Spirit into the conversion of many Confederate soldiers during the coming war.


These Holy Spirit regenerated and God called chaplains faced difficulties that marked them for life. Some would not make it to the end of the conflict and finished their ministries before 1865. How were they to face massive discouragement? Were they merely looking for the easy way out or were they men driven by the constraining love of Christ? An example of their behavior under great duress occurred in the Army of the Tennessee which proved to be a rather unusual event.

About the time the chaplains … were consulting as to the propriety of disbanding and going home, the chaplains in Bragg’s army were in consultation over the … proposition. A meeting of all the chaplains in that army had been called to consider the question of resigning and going home en masse. The feeling was quite common that war and religion were incompatible, and that no good could be accomplished by preaching to soldiers. A few of the chaplains responded to the call. After the proposition to abandon the chaplains’ work had been made and discussed for a few minutes, the Rev. Mr. Millikin (Chaplain Leonard H. Millikin of the 13th Tennessee Regiment), of the Baptist church, offered some resolutions to the following effect:


1. That the souls of this vast multitude are too precious to be abandoned to perdition.

2. That God is able to give his own called ministers the victory even among soldiers.

3. That the chaplains should enter into a covenant to pray for each other, and that all should at once begin protracted meetings in their several regiments, claiming this whole army for the King of kings.

These resolutions were adopted. One week from that day the chaplains met again to report results. The number present was much larger than on the former occasion. The bowed heads were lifted up. Every chaplain who had entered into the covenant one week before, reported that a revival had already begun in his regiment. This work of grace went on till the armies of the Confederacy were disbanded [B. W. McDonnold].

Interestingly one of those chaplains was George L. Winchester of the 6th Tennessee. After he had entered this covenant with his fellow chaplains he went back to his regiment and began a series of meetings. That next week he was able to report a glorious revival going on and the soldiers requested more preaching. Various regiments were destitute of chaplains. Since this was true, Chaplain Winchester began a series of services in one of those regiments without a chaplain, but at the same time he kept up the meetings in his own regiment. He had forgotten his own mortality or ceased to care for he persisted in doing double duty “for a considerable time, until, in the midst of his labors, he suddenly fell and was gone to heaven before his fellow chaplains knew that he was ill.” As a result his regiment was like an orphaned family mourning over their father’s death. Nearly all of them had been led to the Saviour by Winchester. Their criteria for selecting a new chaplain was to find one like their chaplain, George Winchester or one he would have endorsed [McDonnold].

The calling of God, the love of Christ, the compassion for souls, and the need of the lost, wounded and dying soldiers were the powerful constraints pressing the Chaplains Corps.  The Confederate chaplain had a purpose from God on high to minister to the needs of men below. They were not chaplains for the earthly remuneration, for the grandeur of position, for the glamour, for accruing benefits or any earthly reason. The chaplains faced danger, disease, dysentery, death and many other uninviting prospects. No, they were serving the Lord of heaven and earth because of heavenly constraint. The love of Christ constrained them.

There was a great agreement among the chaplains on the matter of salvation through Christ alone. A Cumberland Presbyterian chaplain was sent for by a wealthy lady of the Episcopalian church. Her words to him were substantially these: “I have seen the time when I would have preferred risking the death of my boy out of the church to having him placed under the instruction of any minister who is not an Episcopalian; but I have got past that. My son is in your regiment. I am looking daily to hear of his falling in battle. He is not ready to die. I want you to see him and talk to him about his soul’s salvation, and I ask you to press the matter upon him at once” [McDonnold].

Oh, the preciousness of a soul, our Lord said the soul was of greater value than the world. What of your soul? Have you been renewed by the Holy Spirit? Is Christ your only hope and salvation?

When Jackson Knelt to Pray

Soldiers carefully marked their steps, as they walked nearby his tent,

Cause, they knew his heartfelt needs would soon be heaven sent

A breeze was gently blowing, and the leaves began to sway,

You could feel the presence of the Lord, when Jackson knelt to pray.

He pleaded with God for mercy, and asked Him for His grace,

As he lifted up his army for protection in this place

At times his voice would quiver, when emotion came his way,

For every soldier was lifted up when Jackson knelt to pray.

Whether in the evening forest alone or in the early mist of dawn,

His soul would pant for God as for water did the fawn

Stonewall was seen as a ‘Sword of God’, being used to cut a way,

Into the hearts of those in doubt, when Jackson knelt to pray.

To look upon his shadow, when highlighted by the lamp,

Was to see a man upon his knees, surely Christ was in the Camp

General Ewell was one of those, who Satan held at bay,

Until that night he stood and paused, when Jackson knelt to pray.

He’d pray for his colored Sunday school, so dear to his faithful heart,

And for his dear wife Anna, as his duty kept them apart

But officers that served beneath him, and men that wore the gray,

Could be found praying for Jackson, when Jackson knelt to pray.

When Stonewall crossed over the river, to rest beneath the trees,

General Lee lost a warrior, who fought also upon his knees

What a legacy Jackson left us, as an example for today,

God help us to remember thy grace, when Jackson knelt to pray.

Written by; Ken Temples 2010

In honor of every knee bent to Christ

during our struggle for Independence

A Tale of Two Sermons:

The Life and Ministry of the Reverend John Jones

Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

Part II

Wartime Service

Jones would serve as the chaplain of the unit of the soldiers who assembled in his church in Northern Virginia for six months in 1861. They were a part of the Eighth Georgia Regiment.  A recent work on the Eighth Regiment had the following observation of Jones’ work as chaplain: “‘We have a good Presbyterian preacher to preach for us,’ Martin, a good Methodist, wrote to his parents.  He noted that Jones would go through the camp every evening, talking to the boys and asking them to come to the preaching services ‘in such a way that they are obliged to go.’  He handed out Christian tracts as well.  He preached outdoors, to large and appreciative crowds, and on those Sundays when the Eighth happened to be deployed out of camp on picket duty, he found equally ready listeners in neighboring regiments.” (Steven E. Woodworth and Warren Wilkinson, A Scythe of Fire: Through the Civil War with One of Lee’s Most Legendary Regiments, p. 105)

Jones arrived in Richmond in July 1861on the eve of the First Battle of Manassas.  He wrote to his sister, “We reached Richmond on Friday the 19th, attended the opening of Congress on the 20th, and heard the reading of the President’s message.  The message being delivered and Congress opened, our noble President that night prepared for the conflict and left Richmond at 3 A.M. the 21st by special train for Manassas, and arrived in time to mingle in the battle…On Sunday the 21st at 9 A.M. it was rumored in Richmond that a battle was going on at Manassas.  Rumors multiplied as the day advanced.  At 4 P.M. I went out three miles to the camp of instruction and preached to the soldiers (mostly Georgians)…At 7 P.M. a dispatch from the President to Mrs. Davis announced that we had gained a great but dear-bought victory, that night had closed in with the enemy flying and our troops in full pursuit.  All Richmond rejoiced, and the excitement was intense.”

Yet for Jones and his wife it was an extremely anxious time because they did not have news of their son, Dunwoody.  He continues in the letter, “We (my dear Jane and myself) rejoiced with trembling, for dispatches arrived announcing the death of Colonel Bartow [their son’s commander], and that his regiment was terribly cut up after the most gallant conduct.  That night we slept but little.  I left in the morning for Manassas, starting in a rain which poured incessantly for twenty hours.  Because of many cars, incessant rain, we were all day and all night in going one hundred twenty-five miles, reaching Manassas at sunrise.  The sadness and anxiety of that dark rainy night can never be forgotten.  In the night we passed trains of wounded men coming down to Richmond and intervening points.  I ran out and went from car to car making anxious inquiry.  I called out: ‘Are there any Georgians in this car?’  A feeble voice answered, ‘Nobody here but crippled men.’  I passed to others with the same inquiry.  No Georgians to be found.  I asked after the Georgia 8th Regiment (Bartow’s); the uniform answer was: ‘Terribly cut up.’  That was my satisfaction and anxiety increased every mile.  Arrived at Manassas, and I left the cars to be lost in a wilderness of camps and tents and soldiers.  My anxious eyes ran over the thousands of soldiers to recognize one familiar form.  After an hour’s search I found our boy and ran and threw my arms around his neck and kissed him as one lost and dead suddenly found again….It was a bloody battle.  Dunwoody was severely wounded in the hip.”  (Myers, p. 727, 728)  Letters sent during the war refer to the family’s concern for their son’s well-being and the father’s concern over his spiritual state.

The Summer of 1863found Jones preaching to the Texas Rangers who were stationed in Rome.  Over 30 professed conversion.  The work was continued by his successor as well as other faithful chaplains after his departure.  The session minutes for the Rome church for August of 1864 recorded that 29 members of the 8th Texas Rangers and the 1st Kentucky Cavalry had professed faith and were received into the church.

Jones left Rome in the Fall of 1863 and would refugee in South Georgia for the duration of the war, serving and planting churches in the area.  He desired to return to the chaplaincy, but was unable to.  In a letter to his niece dated July 1, 1864, he stated why.  “How wonderful the late testimony of our chaplains and physicians that so many of our mortally wounded die in peace, and seem to go to their everlasting rest!  How wonderfully has God the Holy Spirit wrought in our camps, and thus prepared thousands who were appointed to death.

I often desire that I could return to a chaplaincy in our army-that I could do more in this great struggle.  And then I know not how I could leave home.  I have been compelled to give up my overseer, and to assume in a measure new and most uninviting duties, and distracting and unceasing cares.  And then my little churches need fostering care.”  (Myers, p. 1190).

With the war’s end, Jones found himself in great difficulties as did other Southerners.  He wrote to his sister in August 1865, speaking of the great suffering that they faced.  He waivered in despair, yet he knew that the Lord was in control.  “The hand of the Lord is upon us!  Oh, for grace to be humble and behave aright before Him until these calamities be overpassed!  I confess that I often feel brokenhearted, and tempted sometimes to rebel and then to give up in hopeless despair.  Either extreme is wicked, and the antidote for each is a refuge in the sovereignty and righteousness of God.”  (Myers, p. 1292)

In 1866 he was called to the pastorate of the church in Griffin, serving the church until 1870.  His final place of service was as evangelist of the Atlanta presbytery, a position he would hold from 1870 until his death in 1893.  During this period he also was chaplain of the Georgia House from 1872-1882 and chaplain of the Georgia Senate from 1882 until his death.

Little Alec’s Funeral

In 1883, Jones would perform his last service to the Confederacy when he preached the funeral sermon of noted Georgia statesman and Vice President of the Confederate States, Alexander Stephens.  He had known Stephens from his college days and had served as his pastor at the Washington Presbyterian Church.

Stephens was elected Governor of Georgia in 1882.  He died only four months after being elected, having contracted pneumonia during a state function.  His entire life had been given in service to his beloved state.  He was an example of the many godly men who served in positions of leadership in the Confederate States of America.

On the day of the funeral his body was carried into the hall of the Georgia House.  The choir sang as a voluntary, I waited for the Lord, following which was the opening prayer by the Rev. Clement A. Evans.   At the conclusion of General Evans' prayer, the choir sang "How Blest." The scene was deeply impressive, as the hall, unused to such sweet and solemn sounds, resounded with the music to the beautiful words.  Dr. Adams of
Augusta, read a chapter from the Bible, and following him was the funeral discourse by Rev. John Jones, Chaplain of the Senate.  His text was 2 Sam3:38. — " Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" and Job 5: 26. — " Thou shalt come to thy grave in a full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in, in his season."
He opened with the following words: “"This is an occasion of solemn and tender interest. Mingled emotions are struggling in our hearts. A commonwealth, a nation mourns. Georgia, by her unnumbered representatives, is here today to testify her love and sorrow for the most filial, the most consecrated, and, in many respects, the most distinguished of her sons. To her he gave his youth, his manhood, and his mature age. And as we shed our tears and flowers on that precious dust, and hearts become impetuous with emotion and anguish half suppressed, let us pause and be patient, and say, God hath done it. "He appointeth our bounds, beyond which we cannot pass. The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord!" Let us first acknowledge the Judge of all the earth, and thus be prepared to bestow an affectionate memorial on the illustrious dead. "Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" How appropriate are these words to our departed friend!”

Jones then reflected on Stephens’ life and character.  “We state generally that he had a remarkable character. Character is that which forms individuality. It comprises the intellectual, and especially the moral features. The word character is derived from another which means to mark, to cut, to engrave.  As the features designate an individual for beauty or homeliness, so character marks a man for good or evil.  Mr. Stephens’ noble character was deeply outlined; it was clear-cut, full; it stood out in bold relief; its developments were many. First, he was a live man—wonderfully impressible by nature. With him, scenes, memories, and words were things. Hence his live, retentive memory of principles and facts, of mankind, faces, names, events; hence his live communion with the past, the present, and the future. He was an intensely earnest man. We remark, secondly, that his live earnestness was sustained by amazing energy and tireless industry. Patient in toil, he mastered every subject he touched. He was one of the hardest and most successful workers of the nineteenth century. His intellectual labors were not confined to law and statesmanship. In these, he had few equals on this continent. But he traveled into regions beyond, and made grand conquests in science and history. He was both an accurate and universal scholar. But we remark, thirdly, that his industry was controlled and stimulated by an amazing will-power, another development of his strong character. It was this positive, despotic faculty, the executive power of the soul, that forced his mind to constant, steady action, although often pleading the clogs of a feeble body. It was his will-power, under God, which supported him through so many seasons of death-sicknesses, and enabled him to make a journey of more than three score years and ten in so feeble a vehicle. Oh! What wonders were wrought, and work accomplished in that frail tabernacle of clay. Hence, in the fourth place, his remarkably successful life. Success was the natural, the crowning result of earnestness, industry, and will-power.”

After briefly reviewing Stephens’ life, Jones sought the cause of his greatness.  “A question arises, what has been the secret of his successful life? We answer, that in addition to his earnestness, his industry, and will-power, was added the distinguishing feature of his character— his incorruptible integrity. From the strictest rules of honor, truthfulness and justice, he has never swerved. He always held the respect of opponents, and even enemies. Truthful, conscientious and undisguised, all men knew where to find him. Although a candidate for the suffrages of the people, he would not purchase their favor by fawning or duplicity. He would not flatter Neptune for his trident, or Jupiter for his thunder.”

Coupled with this was the very heart of Stephens.  Jones added. “In close association with his spotless integrity, we mark wonderful benevolence, tender love of kindred, and uniform sympathy with mankind, yea, even with the brute creation. He was instinct with the most intense humanity. His love to his immediate family was beautiful and tender. His grief at the death of kindred was wonderful and painful to behold. His generosity knew no bounds. He had aided over a hundred young men in securing an education. He was an utter stranger to the emotions of covetousness. His hospitality was princely. His house was the home, the resort of friends and strangers of all classes, condition and color.

Such was Alexander Hamilton Stephens, a prince and a great man in our American Israel.”

Finally, Jones examined the faith of Little Alec.  “Mr. Stephens was the subject of early religious impressions, and a great student of the Bible in early boyhood. He was trained in the nurture and admonition of the Lord, and united with the Presbyterian Church at the age of fifteen, at Washington, Ga., September 8th, 1827. He had the profoundest reverence for the word of God, and most happily interwove it as golden shreds in his speeches.

During a severe illness a few years ago, in answer to a question touching his spiritual condition, he said: “In church connection I am an Old School Presbyterian, and my hope for salvation rests entirely on the merits of the Lord Jesus.” He believed in the use and efficacy of prayer, and said he endeavored to live as though each day might be his last.”

He then summarized his faith.  “In this summary of Mr. Stephens’ faith, we recognize the cardinal doctrines of repentance, regeneration, faith in the Lord Jesus, humility, love to God and man, trust in a special Providence, and the privilege and comfort of daily secret communion with God. And there is an absence of self-righteousness and vain-boasting of his unnumbered charities. In such a practical religion, we apprehend the secret of his great power. For, as a prince, he had power with God and with men, and prevailed.

To his live earnestness, his pauseless energy, his will-power, his integrity, wise forecast, intense humanity and benevolence, there was superadded the glorious crown of that piety which made the God of the Bible his strong habitation, whereunto he might continually resort.

His conscientious declining to enter the ministry was doubtless divinely ordered, that he might illustrate to the whole country the model of a Christian statesman—one who would often turn from the shallow cisterns of human wisdom to the fountain of living waters.

But his toils and pains are ended! The throbbing heart and weary body, the brilliant eye and tireless mind, have closed their mission. From that placid face, so beautifully serene in death, gentle whispers seem to murmur, and to say : ” I have entered into rest—strange, sweet rest! The first I have known in seventy long years ! All is peace !—’ the peace of God that passeth understanding !’”

His death is a great public calamity; but we must not sorrow as those who have no hope.”

Having performed this last great service for his friend, Jones returned to his work as Presbyterian evangelist and chaplain of the Georgia Senate.  Ten more years would pass before he too departed this world.   His last few years were spent in blindness yet he continued to serve the Lord.  On November 26, 1893 Jones died at his home in Atlanta.  The Legislature was in session at the time and they adjourned to attend his funeral as a  body.  He was buried in Oakland Cemetery beside his beloved wife, Jane, who had preceded him in death nine years before.

The words of the Apostle Paul could well be applied to this faithful man of God.  “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will award to me on that Day, and not only to me but also to all who have loved his appearing.” (2 Timothy 4:7-8, ESV)  We would do well to emulate his life service and faithfulness to the gospel.


ISA. 55:8-11

Past Chaplain-in-Chief John Weaver


Intro.  J. William Jones wrote and asked for men to preach and become chaplains.  He wrote:

“Send us the names of good men, and I here I repeat, we want none others – our object being not merely to fill up the regiments with nominal chaplains, but to fill the vacancies with efficient, working men.  We want effective Gospel preachers, whose burden shall be Christ and Him crucified.  It is a common mistake that anybody will do to preach to soldiers; ….The great business of the chaplain is to preach Christ publicly, and from tent to tent, and the temporal welfare of the soldiers should be made subordinate to this…

What benefit do we have from the preached Word of God?  Who are God’s preachers and how does God regard them.  Nehemiah Rogers gives us the following:

The great benefit we have by the Word preached, few do or indeed can conceive: and therefore the Lord doth teach it us by sundry comparisons and similitudes such as every man can understand and judge of.  Sometimes God’s people are called (1) the Lord’s building, his house and temple, (1 Cor. 3:9; 2 Cor. 6:16) and preachers resembled to builders and carpenters, who must both lay the foundation and set up the frame (1 Cor. 3:10).  (2) Sometimes God’s people are called God’s household (Gal. 6:10; Eph. 2:19); and then the ministers of God’s Word are resembled to stewards, who must give everyone their portion of meat in due season (Lk. 12:42).  (3) Sometimes the godly are called the sons and daughters of God, as in (2 Cor. 6:18), and then preachers are called both spiritual father, by whom they are begotten unto God (1 Cor. 4:15) and spiritual mothers, who travail in birth with them (Gal. 4:19) and nurses, by whom they are fed while they are babes in Christ (1 Thess. 2:7).  (4) Sometimes the people are called the Lord’s pleasant garden and fruitful orchard, (Song of Sol. 4:12-13); and then ministers are called the planters and waterers of it (1 Cor. 3:6).  (5) Sometimes the church is called the Lord’s husbandry (cultivated soil) and cornfield, (1 Cor. 3:9), and then we are called both his laborers, who by stubbing and dunging and plowing, must prepare it (1 Cor. 3:9); and his seedsmen who must sow it (Mk. 4:26); as also his reapers, who must get the corn down, and bring it into his barn (Jn. 4:38).  (6) Sometimes the people are called pilgrims who travel in a way unknown and dangerous (1 Peter 2:11) and then are we ministers compared to guides (Heb. 3:7) and unto lights (Matt. 5:14) because we light the candle and hold it forth to direct you in the way of life.”

Preaching the Word of God is the chief duty of the minister!  God’s preachers must preach or perish.  This must be done or they are undone.  There is a necessity backed with a woe in preaching.  The Apostle Paul said very clearly in 1 Cor. 9:16: For though I preach the gospel, I have nothing to glory of: for necessity is laid upon me; yea, woe is unto me, if I preach not the gospel!

Robert Trail asked and answered the question; “By what means may ministers best win souls?”  His answer: “the principal work of a minister is preaching; the principal benefit people have by them is to hear the Lord’s Word from them.”

Ask yourself these questions: Why is preaching so important?  Why is there so much emphasis placed upon preaching in the Word of God?  Why is preaching primary?  Why should you faithfully attend the preached Word of God?  Allow me to answer these questions and hopefully many more.  Please consider the following.


If there was no other reason to attend the preaching of the Word of God, this reason alone should be sufficient.  Why did God ordain preaching?

A. First, because it pleased Him to do so.  Look in 1 Cor. 1:18-21.  “It pleased God” verse 21. Note 5 things that preaching accomplishes in this brief passage.  1. It dooms and damns the foolish and unbelieving – v. 18.

2. It confounds the wise – v. 19.

3. It destroys carnal reasoning – v. 19.

4. It silences the disputers by revealing their foolishness – v. 20

5. It calls out those who believe – v. 21.

B. God Himself in a unique way engaged in preaching.  Look closely at Gal.3: 8: And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.  This passage refers back to Gen. 12 where God preached to Abraham.

C. The Messiah’s chief joy and work was preaching as His Father ordained. Compare Isa. 61:1 with Luke 4:16-21, 43; Ps. 40:7-9.

D. The servants of the Father and His Christ are ordained and sent for the chief work of preaching.  See Mk. 3:13-14; John 20:21; Rom. 10:14-15; 1 Tim. 2:7; 2 Tim. 1:11.


In our Lord’s high priestly prayer, He not only prays for the method, but also for the men who will use the method.  There is a good reason for His prayer.  John Flavel explains it in the following quote:

“The labors of the ministry will exhaust the vary marrow from your bones, hasten old age and death.  They (God’s preachers) are fitly compared to the toil of men in harvest, to the labors of a woman in travail, and to the agonies of soldiers in the extremity of a battle.  We must watch when others sleep. And  And indeed it is not so much the expense of our labors, as the loss of them that kill us.  It is not with us as with other laborers!  They find their work as they leave it, so do not we.  Sin and Satan unravel almost all we do, the impressions we make on our peoples’ souls in one sermon vanish before the next.  How many truths have we to study!  How many wiles of Satan and mysteries of corruption to detect!  How many cases of conscience to resolve!  Yea, we must fight in defense of the truths we preach, as well as study them to paleness, and preach them and all; welcome pained breasts, aching backs, and trembling legs; if we can by all but approve ourselves Christ’s faithful servants and hear that joyful voice from His mouth: ‘well done thy good and faithful servant’ all will be well.”

Preaching must be important not only for God the Father to ordain it but also for God the Son to pray for its success.  I must add that the intercession of Jesus Christ is the basis, the ground, the foundation of the success of the gospel through the preached Word.  What an encouragement for preachers!  I know that preaching will succeed!  God the Son prayed for its success and His prayers are always answered.


As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed’s seed, saith the LORD, from henceforth and for ever.

In light of this passage, we may now understand why Christ quoted Isa. 61:1 when he began His ministry.  2 Cor. 3:1-6 confirms the work of the Holy Spirit.  Also, the promise of the new covenant includes the work of the spirit in Jer. 31:31-34 and Ezek. 36: 22-32.

Preachers may be likened to the rotten cast clots that Ebedbelech used to pull Jeremiah out of the dungeon.  They were worthless in and of themselves but when quickened and activated by the Holy Spirit they were made the effectual means of deliverance.


I am not referring to the hirelings, the professionals, or the mama called and daddy sent men but rather, the true men of God who have been called and sent by Him – men who labor in doctrine and teach the Word of God.

What think ye of the ministers of Christ?  Are they someone to be despised, hated, maligned, or someone to lift up, follow, and respect and the angels of God?  Is he that brings the true message of God a contemptible person?  God calls them His angels, His messengers, His mouth-pieces, His servants, and His prophets.

How can one tell when a people, state, or nation is blessed of God?  Jer. 3:15 answers that question: And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding.

How can one tell when a people, state, or nation is cursed of God?  He either removes His preachers from them as He did Elijah in 2 Kings 17-18 or He leaves them among the people but does not allow them to preach to or pray for the people as He did Jeremiah in Jer. 7:16, 26-28; 11:14; 14:11.

Can anyone disdain, despise, and disregard the gifts of Christ without offending the One who gave the gifts?  2 Kings 2:23-25 gives a graphic picture of those who despise and mock God’s true preachers.  Moreover, 2 Chron. 36:15-17 confirms the same as applied to a people or a nation.

When one despises, disdains, ridicules, and mocks the messengers of God is to do the same to God Himself.  Our Lord instructs us in Matt. 10:40: He that receiveth you receiveth me, and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.  The opposite is also true – he that refuses the messengers of Christ refuses Christ.  He that refuses Christ refuses the Father who sent Christ.


This passage demonstrates the primacy of preaching in great detail.  2 Cor. 5: 11-19 demonstrates that Paul is referring to preachers as being “ambassadors” for Christ.

The phrase “as though God did beseech you by us” uses the Greek word dia, which means “through us or in us”. Our message is to be regarded as the message of God. It is God who speaks. What we say to you is said in his name and on his authority, and should be received with the respect which is due to a message directly from God. The gospel message is God speaking to men through the ministry, and entreating them to be reconciled.  This invests the message which, the ministers of religion bear with infinite dignity and solemnity; and it makes it a fearful and awful thing to reject it.

Greater plainness is used in the next phrase, “we pray you in Christ’s stead.”  The words translated “for” and “stead” is the word huper.  It is a primary preposition and is also translated as “in one’s stead.”  The word is even clearer when Paul uses it in regard to Onesimus in Philemon 1:13: Whom I would have retained with me, that in thy stead he might have ministered unto me in the bonds of the gospel.  Simply put, Onesimus would have replaced Philemon.

We speak of Christ dying in our stead.  What do we mean?  He took our place.  We should have died but He died in our place.  It is the same truth here; God’s preachers are here in the place of Christ.  We are here in behalf of, for the sake of, and in the place of Christ.  We are now doing what He would be doing if He was here on earth – preaching the Word of the Father.

The pope is not the Vicar of Christ.  In the truest sense of the word, every true preacher is the representative of Christ for he is here in His stead.

Let me demonstrate from Scripture.  Look in Eph. 2:17.  Ask yourself, when did Christ preach to the Ephesians?  We know that Christ was a minister of the circumcision (Rom. 15:8) sent only to the lost sheep of the House of Israel (Matt. 15:24).  We know that He never left the land of Israel.  How then did He preach to the Ephesians?  The answer is through the Apostle Paul and others.

Look in 1 Peter 3:18-20.  How did Christ preach to those antediluvians – those who lived before the flood?  It was through Noah (verse 20) and compare verse 20 with 2 Peter 2:5 where Noah is explicitly called a “preacher of righteousness.”  God speaks through His preachers.

Romans 10:13-15 is a passage that must be understood in light of this truth.  First, everyone can quote verse 13.  It is the verse that is usually given in evangelism.  While it is true that those who call upon the Lord are saved, we must ask why men call upon the Lord.  Is calling the evidence of salvation or salvation itself?  Obviously it is not salvation itself for Eph. 2:8-9 would contradict that interpretation.  If you will read verse 14, you will discover that something must precede “calling upon the Lord.”  How can they call on him in whom they have not believed?  Faith or belief in the Lord precedes calling.  Calling is an evidence of salvation, not salvation itself.  Go further and ask what is the basis or foundation of faith that prompts one to call upon the Lord?   Verse 14 further asks: “and how shall they believe in Him, of whom they have not heard?  In order to believe, you must hear Christ!

Notice the verse did not say “hear about Christ” but, rather, it said “whom they have not heard.”  When you hear about someone, he is not there.  When you hear someone he is there!  In order to believe, one must hear Christ.  We must ask another question, how do we hear Christ?  Verse 14 asks “and how shall they hear without a preacher?”  Simply stated Christ speaks through His preachers as they preach His Word.  Therefore, verse 15 tells us that He sends His preachers for this explicit purpose.

Paul emphasizes this truth in 1 Thess. 2:13 when he states: For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.

Thus, in the office of Christ as the Prophet, He not only opens to us the will of the Father but He is also present inwardly and spiritually to teach the heart with the Word that is preached outwardly and externally to the ear.  We must look upon Christ as the chief prophet and the chief preacher regardless which of His servants is preaching.

Preachers become the vehicle of this saving ordinance only when they expound, explain, interpret, and apply the Word of God.  Philip used this method in reaching the eunuch in Acts 8:29-35.


1 Cor. 1:21 tells us that it is “by the foolishness or preaching” that God chose to save those who believe.  1 Peter 1:23 declares: Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever.  Ps. 19:7 informs us: The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.

Thomas White in his writings declares: “The most ordinary means of our effectual calling is the preaching of the Word…and though by other means men may be called, yet seldom or never any are called that neglect and condemn this.”

Elnathan Parr states: “The gospel is the power of God unto salvation, not written in leaves, but preached.  Without the preaching of the gospel, there is ordinarily no salvation.”

In his catechetical instructions the question is asked: “Shall none be saved but those who hear sermons?”  The answer is: “No, ordinarily.”

Thomas Goodwin called preaching “God’s great converting ordinance.”

The Bible knows nothing of individual being converted who neglect, spurn, reject, and despise the preaching of the Word of God.  Remember, hearing unto salvation is peculiarly connected with preaching and preaching is vitally connected with being sent by God.  I believe the reason we do not see very many conversions in these days is because there is very little real preaching!


In Acts 20:32, Paul says: And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.  In 1 Thess. 3:10 Paul wrote to the Thessalonians and said: Night and day praying exceedingly that we might see your face, and might perfect that which is lacking in your faith?  How could Paul “perfect” their faith?  The answer is by preaching and teaching the Word of God.  In Phil. 1:21-26 Paul expresses a desire to remain with the Philippians for the joy and furtherance of their faith.  It is accomplished through preaching and teaching.

Heb. 13:20-22 informs us: Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant, Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.  And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the word of exhortation: for I have written a letter unto you in few words.  How would God make them perfect and work in them that which is well pleasing in His sight – by their suffering or allowing the word of exhortation – teaching and preaching.

In 2 Cor. 1:15-19 reveals that the “second benefit” was none other than the opportunity to preach and teach the Corinthians a second time.  If our hearts are prepared we are benefited by the Word of God.  God know what it takes to perfect or mature the saints and He tells us in Col. 1:28: Whom we preach, warning every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom; that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus.  The saints cannot be matured and completed except by preaching and teaching.


1.  To neglect, reject, despise, and disregard the preaching of the Word is to: deny the purpose of the Father, despise the prayer of the Son, dishonor the ministry of the Holy Spirit, and disregard the gifts that Christ gave to His church.  What an insult to the Most High!

2.  The preaching of the Word of God will accomplish two particular tasks.  First it will call out the elect and secondly it will condemn the unbeliever.  Look closely at 2 Cor. 2:14-16: Now thanks be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in every place.  For we are unto God a sweet savour of Christ, in them that are saved, and in them that perish: To the one we are the savour of death unto death; and to the other the savour of life unto life. And who is sufficient for these things?

3.  Your response to preaching reveals which group you are in – the elect or the condemned.  Look in John 8: 2-3, 58-59; Acts 13: 39-48, 52.  Some got mad and some got glad – which group are you in?  Do you love and rejoice in the preaching and teaching of the Word or is it a drag and a drudge to you?  One may examine himself spiritually by his response to the preaching of the Word.


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

Joel W. Tucker was a Methodist Episcopal Church South minister who was born in Virginia. In 1845 he was received on trial as a minister in the North Carolina Conference. During the War of Northern Aggression he pastored in Fayetteville, NC.

God’s Providence in War;

A Sermon, Delivered by Rev. J. W. Tucker,

to His Congregation, in Fayetteville, N. C., on Friday, May 16th, 1862

“I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things.” Isaiah 45:7.

We have met together in obedience to the proclamation of our beloved President, to supplicate the blessing of God upon our arms. Our Chief Magistrate in making this call to prayer, and this congregation in cheerfully responding to it, alike recognize the hand of God in the origin and progress of this conflict. As a Christian people, we look not to fortune nor to accidents for help in this hour of our country’s peril, but to the God of battles and of nations. The reason is apparent: If the teaching of the Bible and the revelation of the Christian religion be true, there is no such thing as fortune; there can be no accidents. An accident is an effect without a cause; fortune is an act or a series of acts, without an agent. But it is an axiom in Philosophy, and a first principle in all religion, that there can be no effect without a cause; no acts without responsible agents as their authors. What is generally regarded as accident and fortune, are those effects, the causes for which are unknown, and those acts, the agents producing which are unseen. But are we to conclude that because we are ignorant of the cause producing a certain class of effects, that therefore, they have no cause? or that as the agent in a certain series of actions is unknown to us, that they must of necessity be acts without an agent? We certainly cannot pretend that we know all the causes, and are acquainted with all the agents operating in God’s vast empire. There can be then no such thing as fortune or accidents–everything is of providence and under the control of God. Every power in nature and man works for God. Everything that happens comes to pass by the permission or the decree of God. All acts are provided for in God’s plan and over-ruled by his providence, for the advancement of his glory and the well-being of his people. It will not do to say that God cannot prevent men from acting as they do without destroying their moral agency, and that therefore, sin is in the world, not by the permission, but in defiance of all the perfections of God.

We pray to God to prevent the wickedness of men, every day, without destroying their moral agency. Every prayer we address to God asking him to succour our friends in temptation; to bring them to repentance; to give our enemies better hearts and change their purposes of wickedness towards us, is a request for him to do the very thing that it is here assumed he cannot do.

He certainly controls some men in perfect harmony with their moral liberty. Every good man is an illustration of this. He lives and acts under constant divine influences and attains his highest freedom under this divine control. If God may, and does thus control some men without infringing upon their moral agency, why may he not thus control all men? As everything is either decreed or permitted by God, he certainly has a purpose in all he permits or decrees. No intelligent or rational being would act or permit others to act without a purpose. It is a mark of intelligence not to act without a motive or reason for acting. Whenever God, who is the supreme, the infinite intelligence, acts, in decreeing that others shall act, or in permitting them to act, he has a purpose for doing so.

This being true, it is evident that God has a plan and a purpose in reference to all nations, revolutions and wars. All these things are brought about in accordance with the divine plan, and in fulfillment of the divine purpose, which was drafted in the mind of God before the world was called into being. He has a providence in all national revolutions. He directs, controls, governs and regulates them. They are made to subserve his purposes, to advance his glory, and to promote his cause.

1st. This is clearly taught in the Bible–”Is there evil in the city and the Lord hath not done it. I form the light and create the darkness: I make peace and create evil: I the Lord do all these things.” “All things work together for good to them that love God: to them who are the called according to his purpose.”

2d. Men have universally believed this. The heathen nations who have no revelation, and are therefore, guided alone by the light of nature and their own moral and spiritual intuitions, recognize God’s providence in all social convulsions and national revolutions. They consult their oracles in reference to wars; they ask God to give them victory on the day of battle, and turn away from them the ruin of defeat. In the hour of victory they return unto him thanksgiving, and offer sacrifices in token of gratitude. Christian nations act under the influence of the same conviction, in appointing days of national humiliation, fasting and prayer for the blessing of God upon their arms. Is this universal faith without a foundation in truth? Does the race act under the influence of a falsehood? That which is universal is natural; that which is natural is divine–”The voice of nature is the voice of God.”

3d. Without this sort of divine control, there could be but little providential protection afforded us. It would afford us but little protection, to save us from the storm and tempest, the flame and the flood, pestilence and famine, and then turn us over without protection to the tender mercies of wicked men and devils. What sense of security could we have under God’s providence, if it was confined to the material world, and the whole sphere of its operations was circumscribed to the domain of matter? God’s providence is in this war. It must be so if he watches o’er the destiny of men and nations. It was the purpose of no party to bring on this war. All parties tried to prevent it. No one believes, that had all the slave States seceded at once, that there would have been any attempt at subjugation, coercion, or the reconstruction of the Union by force of arms. But the simultaneous secession of the whole South was the plan of the original secessionist. They advocated it as a peace measure; as the only measure that could secure permanent peace, and prevent a bloody war, either in or out of the Union. The war was not desired nor planed by the Union men, either North or South; they deprecated it; it was what they feared–the evil they labored long to prevent; they refused even to consider the question of secession, lest it should result in a bloody war. They pleaded and begged for a compromise, but it was unavailing. The very means they used to prevent it was the very means that resulted in bringing it about. The manifestation of this strong union feeling confirmed Lincoln in his purpose to put down what he is pleased to term the rebellion by military power. This called forth his proclamation, and this proclamation brought on the war. The Black Republican party North did not desire war; they used all the power of the government to prevent, yet their efforts to prevent it kindled its baleful fires from the banks of the Potomac to the shores of the Rio Grande. In the South we should not criminate each other in regard to the origin, progress and rapid development of this conflict. We all labored, earnestly, honestly, to prevent it, yet that providence which “shapes our ends, roughhew them as we may,” overruled these very means to bring it about for some wise purpose. We are in the midst of it, and we should all try, unitedly and earnestly, to fight through it. American society being what it was, no earthly power could have prevented it. God in his providence did not prevent it, though the whole American people earnestly prayed for him to do so. Though we cannot understand it, we cannot question that it is to answer some wise and benevolent purpose in the progressive development of God’s great plan for the elevation of the nations and the salvation of the world. God is with us in this conflict; we think he is on our side in this struggle. We believe this, first, because our cause is just; we have acted and still act purely on the defensive; we have asked nothing but the rights secured to us in the constitution–the privilege of self-government Having failed to secure this in the Union, we proceeded to come out of it, either in the exercise of the natural right of revolution or the legal right of secession. I care not which you call it: whether natural or legal, it was identically the same sort of State action that took us out of the Union, that was used to place us in it. If it was a legal process when used to place us in the Union, it was equally a legal process when employed to take us out of it. We went in by Sovereign State action; we came out in the same way. Whether in doing this we exercised a natural or a legal right, or both, I care not. It was right if the privilege of self-government is right; and the conflict necessary to the defense of this action, is, as far as we are responsible for it, a righteous conflict. It is not of our seeking; we could not avoid it. It has been forced upon us. The fires of fanaticism had been slowly consuming the foundation of our government for years, until at last the nations of the earth were startled in horror by the throes of a political earthquake, that shook into ruins the proudest Temple of Liberty that the sun of heaven ever shone upon. We saw the war cloud as it began to rise slowly but surely; and we used every means in our power to arrest it. Statesmanship, compromise, legislation were all employed, but in vain. It at last covered our political sky with the blackness of darkness, and broke upon us in a fearful storm of fire and blood. Our cause is just, and God will defend the right. Second, God is on our side–is with us in this conflict–because we have had reverses. “Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. If ye are without chastisement, then are ye bastards and not sons.” The wise and affectionate father will punish, correct and chastise the children of his love for their good. This principle of the divine administration applies to nations as well as individuals. This must be so because the nation is constituted of individuals. God was evidently with his chosen–the people Israel; but he suffered them to endure the bondage of Egypt. He afterwards brought them out of Egypt with a high hand and an out-stretched arm; but he suffered them to meet with sad reverses in the wilderness. He was evidently with his own chosen nation–the Jews; but they were often defeated in battle by the armies of the surrounding nations.

God has without question been with his church in every age of the world; but he has found it necessary to preserve his people with the salt, and purify them by the fires of persecution. God was with our Revolutionary fathers in their struggle for independence; but he suffered them often to be defeated in their seven years conflict with the mother country; but the eagle bird of Liberty gathered strength while rocked by the storms and tempests of a bloody Revolution. So, God has sent our reverses for our good. They were necessary to humble our pride; to stop our foolish and absurd boasting, and to make us feel the importance of the conflict in which we are engaged. They have tried our patriotism, and have shown to the nations of the earth that it is as pure as the gold which has been tried by the hammer and the fire. Third, Our victories indicate the presence of God with our armies in this conflict. Who can read the reports of the battles of Bethel, Bull Run, Manassas Plains, Ball’s Bluff, Springfield, Shiloh and Williamsburg, without being convinced that God gave us the victory, and that to him we should render thanksgiving for the glorious triumph of our arms. Every soldier who moved amid the perils and dangers of these bloody conflicts, must feel that the “Lord of host is with us; and the God of Jacob is our refuge.” Fourth, Another evidence that God is with us is seen in the remarkable preservation of the lives of our troops under circumstances of the greatest apparent danger. The bombardment of fort Sumter is a miracle and a mystery. The result can only be accounted for by admitting divine protection. Nor was God’s protecting providence less evident in the bombardment of the forts of Hatteras, Port Royal, Roanoke Island and Number Ten, than it was in the result at Sumter. In every case there was employed the most formidable armament that the world has ever known, from which there was thrown into our forts a storm of shot and shell, without a parallel in the history of warfare. And yet, ah! mystery and miracle of providence! not fifty of our men were killed in all the engagements. So signally has God manifested his approbation of our cause by the protection of our troops under circumstances of the greatest peril, and most appalling danger, that it should make our whole people grateful to him as the great Giver of all good and the kind Preserver from all evil.

We will close by a few practical remarks:

1st. There is nothing in the present aspect of things, nor in the late reverses to our arms, to cause us to doubt our final success and ultimate victory. The loss of our cities and towns, on the sea-board and large rivers, is the natural result of going into this conflict without a navy; with a people that at present probably has the most formidable navy in the world. We have not had the time nor the material for the construction of a navy; but as ours is an agricultural, and not a manufacturing and commercial society, our strength and national vitality is not in our large cities, on the ocean, but in our rich and fertile fields in the interior These places are not our whole country; the loss of them is not the loss of our country, nor does it render our cause hopeless. We have got an army of five hundred thousand men in the field, well equipped, well drilled, well-armed and constituted of as good fighting material as any in the world; an army that has never been whipped by the same number of men on any field; an army composed of the heroes of Bethel, Manassas, Ball’s Bluff, Springfield, Shiloh and Newbern. Such an army in an open field and fair fight can never be vanquished. Then why should we fear? Doubt of success in a just cause with such an army, and the God of nations and of battles on our side! If, as a people, we deserve to be free, ultimate failure in such a cause and under such circumstances with such an ally is impossible.

2nd. We must have confidence in our government and in our army. There may have been errors in administration, but neither our President nor his cabinet profess to be infallible; they are but men–with all the infirmities of men. We should expect them to commit errors. We should not look for perfection. The fact is the government under all the circumstances, has been a remarkable success. The severe criticism in which we sometimes indulge, in regard to the action of our generals, and the valor of our troops, is irrational, unjust and ungrateful. We are incompetent to criticize the actions of our generals, for two reasons–

First. We know nothing about the science or the art of war, therefore we should not give a criticism on a subject of which we are totally ignorant. But even if we had military talent, and military training and experience, we, at home know nothing of the circumstances and necessities under which they act. To form and express an opinion, disapproving their course, is to show our own ignorance, and to treat them with great injustice, by condemning them unheard. They understand it–we do not; they know the facts–we do not; they are responsible–we are not; they make the sacrifices, and face the dangers–we stay at home; therefore good sense, modesty, justice and gratitude should make us careful how we censure them. When Johnson evacuated Harper’s Ferry, the whole country rang with complaints at the movement; but we now know that it was that movement that gave us the victory at Manassas When General Albert Sidney Johnson fell back from Bowling-Green and Nashville, the whole family of croakers were loud in their censure; but it was that movement that gave us the victory of Shiloh. Now with these facts before us, we should be careful how we complain of our government, our generals, and our troops. Judging of the present by the past, we should infer that the falling back from Yorktown, the evacuation of Norfolk, and the withdrawing our troops from New-Orleans, are movements of as much strategy as those which have been attended with such fine results. These men, with brave hearts and strong arms, stand as a wall of fire between the invading foe, and our homes, our property, and our loved ones; and for this we owe them a debt of eternal gratitude. Shall we repay their sacrifices for us and ours with a want of confidence?

We should pray to God to give success to our cause, and triumph to our arms. God will defend the right. We may approach him then in full assurance of faith; with strong confidence that he will hear and answer and bless us. Prayer touches the nerve of Omnipotence; prayer moves the hand that moves the world; prayer is the rod in the hand of faith, that extracts the fiery curse from the burning bosom of the dark storm-cloud, and turns from our country and our homes the thunder-bolts of divine wrath. Prayer will convert darkness into light–our night into glorious day–our defeat into victory–our disasters into triumphs–our sorrow into joy–our weakness into strength–our feebleness into might.

Our cause is sacred. It should ever be so in the eyes of all true men in the South. How can we doubt it, when we know it has been consecrated by a holy baptism of fire and blood? It has been rendered glorious by the martyr-like devotion of Johnson, McCulloch, Garnett, Bartow, Fisher, McKinney, and hundreds of others who have offered their lives as a sacrifice on the altar of their country’s freedom.

Soldiers of the South, be firm, be courageous, be brave; be faithful to your God, your country and yourselves, and you shall be invincible. Never forget that the patriot, like the Christian, is immortal till his work is finished. You are fighting for everything that is near and dear, and sacred to you as men, as Christians and as patriots; for country, for home, for property, for the honor of mothers, daughters, wives, sisters, and loved ones. Your cause is the cause of God, of Christ, of humanity. It is a conflict of truth with error–of the Bible with Northern infidelity–of a pure Christianity with Northern fanaticism–of liberty with despotism–of right with might. In such a cause victory is not with the greatest numbers, nor the heaviest artillery, but with the good, the pure, the true, the noble, the brave. We are proud of you, and grateful to you for the victories of the past. We look to your valor and prowess, under the blessing of God, for the triumphs of the future. Then

“Strike till the last armed foe expires,

Strike for your altars and your fires,

Strike for the green graves of your sires;

God and your native land.”

Women of the South. We know your patriotism, your bravery, your nobleness of soul. It is not your privilege to fight. You cannot move amidst the dangers, the perils, the blood and the carnage of the battle-field, beside your fathers, brothers, husbands and lovers. But you can do a work quite as important. You can gird them for the conflict, and with words, looks, glances and smiles, cheer them on to victory and to glory. Every letter you write them from home, should be filled with “thoughts that breath and words that burn,” that will catch and kindle from man to man, and heart to heart, until all along our lines shall blaze with a martyr’s courage and zeal for country and for home.

You can also, by your fortitude, patience, courage and strength of spirit, shame into silence the fearful, trembling terror-stricken, craven-hearted men in our midst, who are constantly predicting our failure in the glorious struggle in which we are engaged. They absorb all the rays of light, and reflect none–they act as non-conductors in the social chain that arrest the flow of the currents of patriotism through society–their influence is like the blighting frost upon the flowers. It blasts the hopes of the timid and chills the hearts of the desponding. By destroying confidence in the stability of our government, in the success of our arms, and the ultimate triumph of our cause, they prepare the way, to the extent of their influence, for the ruin of the country by the destruction of our credit and the depreciation of our currency. Wise men, if they cannot be made brave should be taught silence. They should not be suffered to do us harm by their cold comfort, and damn our cause by faint praise.

You can also pray for God’s blessing and protection on the loved ones who are absent. Every home should be a sanctuary–every dwelling a Bethel–every spot an altar, from which prayer should be offered for our country, and for our loved ones who are braving the dangers of the battle field for us, and all we hold dear.


 Book Review

A Practical View of Christian Ethics

By John L. Dagg 

©2006 (1859), Sprinkle Publications, 374 pp. Hardback 


Reviewed by H. Rondel Rumburg

We live in a day when there seems to be no moral compass guiding us nationally. Corruption, robbery and lying seem to be the way of Washington. State governments too often replicate those ways. There was a day when school children were taught ethics from a Biblical perspective, but now that political correctness has replaced the Constitution they are left to follow the ever decaying culture which imitates Sodom. Is there anything we can do? As God fearing people we can encourage others to began teaching a proper ethics. However, being obedient to God is one thing but the transformation of a culture is another—only God is able to transform!

The book I am about to review was first printed in 1859 and was used in many Southern schools to teach Southern young people and young adults. The original title of the book was The Elements of Moral Science by J. L. Dagg (1794-1884) the former president of Mercer University. I came across a copy of this book some thirty or more years ago in a used book store in Rome, Georgia. It had been a well-used school book for the years immediately following 1859. There were many books in that era written on Moral Science or ethics, but this one is certainly a keeper.

Why are we in moral shambles? In a world that rejects God’s rules for behavior and says “I’m ok, you’re ok,” everything is relative, and it can’t be wrong if it feels so right, the end will be disastrous. Dagg warned,

Every wrong action tends to corrupt the character and ruin the soul. No evil can befall us so great as to do wrong, and no benefit arising from an evil act, can countervail the mischief and damage accruing. We ought, therefore, in deliberation on the performance of any act, to inquire with chief solicitude, not whether it will secure pleasure, honor, or wealth, but whether it is right.

The modern culture only wants to know if it makes you feel good. If it does make you feel good then do it. Moderns say, “Whatever is, is right.” Only the Bible is able to make us “thoroughly furnished unto every good work.” Dr. Dagg said, “Let us study it (the Bible) for the management of the heart, the tongue, the hands, the feet, the eyes, the ears. Let us study it in the daily business of life, in the family, in retirement, and on our knees….”

Sprinkle Publications changed the title to A Practical View of Christian Ethics because the original title would be misleading to most people today. Of course Christian Ethics is dealing with the study of moral issues. There is right and there is wrong. Judgment Day will affirm this truth to the Lord’s satisfaction! After all what God determines is right is all that really matters. Jesus said, “Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you; depart from me, ye that work iniquity” (Matt. 7:22-23).

Dr. John L. Dagg a minister of the gospel as well as an educator produced, during the years of his spiritual maturity, A Manual of Theology and A Treatise on Church Order.[1]  He wrote theology from the heart to the heart. His A Manual of Theology “is remarkable for its clear statements of religious doctrines.”[2] His writings are characterized by Biblical integrity, deep spiritual incite and prudence. His writing does not have the dusty dryness of many theological writings.  Some theologians are as orthodox as one would wish, but are like the depiction of one weary soul who said that “Dr. So-and-So can dive deeper and stay under longer and come up drier than anyone.”  Dagg was not of that mold at all, for his words are like water that comes from the cool springs and not from a lukewarm cistern. His pen was dipped into the springs of living water.

He began the book on ethics the summer of 1858 and concluded it in the summer of 1859.  This volume, as previously mentioned, was republished by Sprinkle Publications as A Practical View of Christian Ethics.[3]  What a blessing this reprint will be to another generation who studies it. This book, in the estimation of Dagg, was the completion of his system of theology.  He expressed as much in his Preface,

In the Manual of Theology, recently published, the externals of religion are discussed only so far as they relate to ceremonies and church order. To render that work a complete system of divinity, a supplement is needed on Christian Morals.

Ethics is a vital subject dealing with the Creator’s requirements for those created in His image. Ethics comes from the Greek eqoV  (ethos) meaning custom or practice as prescribed by law.  Morality comes from the word mores which describes the patterns of behavior in a society.  Ethics has to do with the foundation rule for behavior or what we ought to do, and morality is a description of actual behavior. What we ought to do—ethics, and what we do—morality.

Christian ethics deals with the principles being acted out in life as derived from God through His Word. Dagg explained, “A true system of ethics must necessarily refer to the Bible, the highest standard of morals.” Dagg believed that ethics is essentially based on the nature of God,

The distinction between right and wrong is founded on the nature of God.  We find moral obligation operating on the will of man; and here, taking hold of the clue, we follow it up to the will of God; and here the clue stops: but we trace moral quality further. Were moral distinction founded on his will, his own perfections would be without moral excellence, since these do not originate in his will; and were it so, cruelty, fraud, falsehood, and hatred of God would have been virtues, if God had so willed; and to say that God has a right to govern the world, would be to use language without meaning; for there could be no right or wrong antecedent to the will of the governor.

Dagg’s last major writing was The Evidences of Christianity (1869). Robert G. Gardner related regarding Dagg’s primary works, “His reputation as a theologian and ethicist rests on these four works. All were used as textbooks and enjoyed wide circulation and commendation into the twentieth century. The first two are still in print.” Sprinkle Publications has reprinted them. “Our venerable and learned Brethren have watched the productions of his pen with marks of the highest regard.”[4]

Oh, how we need to return to the study of Christian ethics. Here is a Southern book by a great Southern minister that will be of great help. The book even deals with Public Duties and Powers of Civil Government. He also gave an excellent treatment of Abolitionism.

In this volume Dagg noted,

The right of property is violated when property is taken without the knowledge of the owner. This is theft…. It is no justification that the amount taken is small, that the owner will not miss it, that he has an abundance left, that the thief needs it more than the owner, or that the thief has never consented to the unequal distribution of property which prevails in society. With such pleas dishonest men may strive to appease their consciences and harden themselves in crime; but God’s command, ‘Thou shalt not steal,’ is sufficient to set aside all such pleas.

During the War of Northern Aggression Dagg endorsed circulating Christian literature to the Confederate Armies. And what was his reasoning?

That the truths and words of counsel it contains may reach those so peculiarly exposed to death, we suggest to our brethren the propriety of aiding in this good work. We are assured that nothing is more welcome to the soldier than religious papers, and that they are always read with avidity.  It is but a short time only that we have to benefit our brave and self-sacrificing soldiers in this way, and we should hasten to embrace opportunity to the extent of our ability.

John Leadley Dagg died June 11, 1884 in Haynesville, Alabama and his body was interred there to await the glorious morn of the resurrection in Christ Jesus his Lord.


 We must remember who we are and what we must be about:

The SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought.  To your strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is presented to future generations.


 Chaplain’s Handbook

  Sesquicentennial Edition

Sons of Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged Sesquicentennial Edition of the Chaplain’s Handbook.   It is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic, SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen; there has also been added a third burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America; a chapter on Praying in Public has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public Use.  All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the handbook will find it even more useful than before.  There is the same cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication.  Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

[1] The Manual of Theology was published by the Southern Baptist Publication Society in 1857 at Charleston; and his Church Order was published by the same publisher in 1858.

[2] George Braxton Taylor, Virginia Baptist Ministers, Fourth Series, 141

[3] During the antebellum period what we now call Christian ethics was known as Moral Science. Webster in the 1828 edition of his An American Dictionary of the English Language defined ethics as “The doctrines of morality or social manners; the science of moral philosophy, which teaches men their duty and the reasons of it.”   Most schools of that era had a course on the subject because it was considered vital in daily living.

[4] The Baptist Encyclopædia, William Cathcart (Editor), 306

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles | Anno Domini 2013 | May | Issue No. 89

2013 May 5
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Posted by John Wilkes Booth

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Domini 2013


No. 89

“That in all
things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God,
one of our dear defenders thus to die.” Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon

SC 29607



Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



from a Confederate Chaplain

Character is that which forms
individuality. It comprises the intellectual, and especially the moral
features. The word character is derived from another which means to mark, to
cut, to engrave. As the features designate an individual for beauty or homeliness,
so character marks a man for good or evil.

John Jones

8th Georgia Regiment



Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:


          The Chaplain’s
Conference is now history, but we trust by God’s grace that it will bear
spiritual fruit in the future for the glory of our great God in Three Persons.
There was a sense of the Lord’s hand upon hearing the presentations and
fellowshipping. Thanks Chaplain-in-Chief Evans for all the work such a good
conference. We send a big thank you to Pam Evans, Mark’s helpmeet, for the food
she prepared, including the good Southern barbeque. The Conference was a
spiritually enriching and pleasant experience.

For those who would like to listen to the
presentations and messages of Pastor John Weaver, Dr. Charles Baker, Dr. H.
Rondel Rumburg, Pastor Lloyd Sprinkle and Chaplain Kenneth Studdard they are
available at $3 per message or $15 for all this includes postage. Send your
request and payment to


Pastor Lloyd Sprinkle

PO Box 1094

Harrisonburg, VA 22803


          When traveling to the
Chaplain’s Conference your editor was privileged to providentially find a book in
an antique shop that had been in the possession of David K. Shreckhise who was
3rd Sergeant of the 52nd Virginia Regiment, Company G. He
wrote his name and the information of his unit in the front fly leaf of the
book on April 1st, 1862 at Camp Alleghany.  This soldier was
greatly wounded in the chest two months later at the Battle of Cross Keys which
essentially ended his military service. Shreckhise’s book is by the excellent
minister John Angell James whose writings were very popular among Christians of
that era and his books are being reprinted today. This writer has a number of
titles by James. The book owned by this Confederate Soldier was titled The Church in Earnest and was published
in 1857. I was excited to purchase the well worn volume used by a noble
Confederate soldier. When I first opened the book my eyes lighted on the
passage at the bottom of page 78 and I began reading into the next page. Here
is what I read:


If asked to point out the specific and
prevailing sin of the church in the present day, we cannot hesitate in
replying, a pervading worldliness of
mind, heart, and conduct
. She is fearfully secularized in the spirit and
temper of her members. The love of the world is become the master passion,
before which other and holier affections grow dim and weak.


After having read those lines it was as if they were written especially
for our present situation. How prophetic and needed are these words, especially
during these days. Then James went on:


In this commercial country, it is difficult even for
the professors of religion to escape the contagious spirit of speculation,
eager competition, and over-trading. The determination, as well as the anxiety,
to be rich, will, without great watchfulness, rush into the church: it has done
so, and those who profess to have overcome the world by faith, appear almost as
eager as others in all the schemes for getting wealth in haste, and by almost
any means. But it is not only in the way of doing business that this secular
spirit is seen, but in the general habits and tastes of professing Christians.
Their style of living, their entertainments, their associations, their
amusements, their conversation, evince a conformity to the world, a minding of
earthly things, a disposition to conform themselves to the world around, and an
apparent desire to seek their happiness from objects of sense, rather than from
those of faith, which prove the extent to which a secular spirit is bearing
down the spirit of piety.


Needless to say this man whose writing ministered to our Confederate
Compatriot in April 1862 ministered to me as well.


Please find in this issue our
Chaplain-in-Chief’s message to the reader regarding the Chaplain’s Conference.
Then our Chaplain-in-Chief expresses to us the moral state in the Confederate
camps at the beginning of the war contrasted with how the work of God in
revival changed the men. This is entitled Overcoming
There is much we can learn from our ancestors in this day of
shallowness. Your editor has supplied Part I of Some
Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains.
Also we have
Part I of A
Tale of Two Sermons
presented by Chaplain Studdard at the Chaplain’s
Conference. This issue includes A
Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard.  This
sermon is by Rev.
George Foster Pierce
to the Georgia General Assembly in 1863. Our Book Review is by Editor
Rumburg, reviewing the volume by Jedediah Hotchkiss,
Make Me a Map of the Valley: The … Journal of Stonewall
Jackson’s Topographer.

Soli Deo Gloria,

H. Rondel Rumburg

[Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’
Corps or others who would like to receive this e-journal, please let us have
their names and e-mail addresses.  Also, feel free to send copies of
this journal to anyone you think would like to receive it
  If you want to “unsubscribe” please e-mail the
editor or assistant editor.  Confederately, HRR]



Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans

Evil, Rev.
Mark W. Evans

Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains (Part I), Dr. H.
Rondel Rumburg

*A Tale of Two
Sermons (Part I), Chaplain
Kenneth Studdard

*A Confederate
George Foster Pierce

*Book Review: Make Me a
Map of the Valley



fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

are grateful to the Lord for allowing us a joyful and edifying Chaplains’
Conference.  Pastor Lloyd Sprinkle, his
wife, and others of the Providence Baptist Church, Harrisonburg, Virginia,
provided a wonderful setting for our meeting and fellowship.  The singing was honoring to our Savior and
included special numbers written by Mrs. Sprinkle about the sacrifices of our
Confederate ancestors.  Past
Chaplain-in-Chief John Weaver brought the first message, giving us a clear,
Biblical presentation on the subject of the preaching ministry.  Past Chaplain-in-Chief Charles Baker provided
an important history of the office of chaplain in the SCV, especially in recent
decades.  We learned of God’s blessing in
providing a significant role of leadership within our heritage
organization.  Past Chaplain-in-Chief Ron
Rumburg taught us important truths concerning the work of the Holy Spirit in
the new birth as revealed in the Scriptures and seen in the lives and labors of
Confederate chaplains.  We rejoiced to
hear Pastor Sprinkle open God’s Word, declaring many Biblical truths on the
subject of “good works” from Titus 3:8.
Chaplain Kenneth Studdard, who has contributed numerous reviews and
other writings to the Chaplains’ Corps
, concluded the conference with an excellent presentation
focusing upon the life of Confederate Chaplain John Jones.  During the conference, our hearts were often
moved to greater faithfulness to our Savior and steadfastness in staying on the
old paths of the Godly chaplains who have gone before us.  We praise the Lord for all who attended and
for those who prayed for our conference.
The intangible part, which we cannot put into words, was the encouraging
and edifying fellowship.   It was more
than a meeting – it was a refuge that refreshed our souls.  “Great is His faithfulness.”

you for praying for the requests we send to you from time to time.  Many have been encouraged by your
faithfulness.  I hope you can attend the
118th National Reunion in Vicksburg, Mississippi, July 18-20.  It would be a blessing to have you present at
our Prayer Breakfast and Memorial Service.


W. Evans






Mark W.

Immorality, atheistic philosophies, false
religions, and blasphemies have blanketed our land.  Spiritual leaders of the Confederacy saw the
coming storm.    Dr. Benjamin Morgan
Palmer, pastor of First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, said on November 29,
1860:  “To the South is assigned the high
position of defending before all nations the cause of all religion and of all
truth.  In this trust we are resisting
the power which wars against constitutions and laws and compacts, against
Sabbaths and sanctuaries, against the family, the state, and the church, which
blasphemously invades the prerogatives of God and rebukes the Most High for the
errors of His administration” [Singer, A
Theological Interpretation of American History,
p. 86].  Today’s false beliefs and moral degradation
have their roots in the ideas propagated in the Northland before our relatives
ever shouldered their muskets.  The
Southern people, as a whole, held to orthodox Christianity and did not imbibe
the radical views of Yankees.
Nonetheless, the war brought a spiritual crisis to Dixie’s warriors who
were away from their homes, churches, and other spiritual influences.  From foot soldiers to high ranking officers,
sinful practices prevailed.  Confederate
Chaplain J. William Jones recorded the words of a Southern editor:  “The prevalence of vice, of drunkenness and
profanity in our camps on the Potomac and elsewhere is attributable to the
officers themselves.  A large number of
the officers of our Southern army are both profane and hard drinkers, where
they are not drunkards.  It has been
prophesied that the South will lose the next battle on the Potomac, and lose it
by drunken officers.  We are satisfied
that God alone can prevent it.  If the
battle soon to transpire near Manassas is lost, we shall be satisfied that whiskey whipped our men” [Christ in the Camp, 269].

Within the dark atmosphere, faithful
Christians resolved to stay true to their Savior and to give a clear witness to
His saving grace.  There were also others
who were not Christians, but sensed their need to prepare to meet their
God.  Confederate Chaplain W. W. Bennett
said, “A true moral courage was requisite, in this early period of the war, for
every old believer and every new convert.
The camps, it is true, were almost filled with vice; swearing, gambling,
and drunkenness abounded, and one might have supposed that all were leagued
against religion; but in the midst of all this many were found earnestly
seeking light from God’s Holy Word” [The
Great Revival in the Southern Armies,
By the sides of careless soldiers were Christian laymen and even
ministers.  Charles F. Pitts, in his
book, Chaplains in Gray, wrote,
“[F]rom all evidences there were more clergymen fighting as soldiers of the
line than there were chaplains, evangelists, missionaries, and colporteurs
combined” [p. 31]. There were also Christian officers of high rank who had a
burden for the spiritual welfare of those under their authority.  Pitt wrote, “Among the troops were many noted
and devout officers, most of whom had been influential laymen in happier
days.  These, too, agreed with the
pastors that the cause of the South was just.
Numbered among them were such well-known Christians as Robert E. Lee,
“Stonewall” Jackson, D. H. Hill, T. R. Cobb, A. H. Colquitt, Kirby Smith, J. E.
B. Stuart, J. B. Gordon, C. A. Evans, A. M. Scales, ‘Willie’ Pegram, and
others.”  As the war progressed,
Christian denominations sent a spiritual army of dedicated chaplains, evangelists,
missionaries and colporteurs to labor among the defenders of Dixie.  They found the fields “white already to
harvest” (John 4:35).

Evil was never completely removed from the
camps, yet an incredible change occurred.
Cursing, gambling, drunkenness, and other vices greatly declined.  Revival came and tens of thousands called
upon the name of the Lord Jesus Christ for salvation.  Chaplain
Jones said of the Army of Northern Virginia, “But when we came back from
Sharpsburg to rest for a season amid the green fields and beautiful groves, and
beside the clear streams of the lower Valley of Virginia, there began the
series of revivals which went graciously and gloriously on until there had been
over fifteen thousand professions of conversion in Lee’s Army, and there had
been wrought a moral and religious revolution which those who did not witness
it can scarcely appreciate” [Christ in the
273].  One South Carolina
chaplain, writing to the Southern
near a camp in Richmond, said, “I am both astonished and I
trust grateful to see how attentively officers and men listen to the preached
word, and how eagerly they read the tracts which I have been able to
supply.  It would gladden the heart of
many a pious friend at home if they could be permitted to listen to the chorus
of manly voices which blend in singing the sweet songs of Zion amid the green
trees of our bivouac.  The tone of
morality is much higher than I dare to hope” [Christ in the Camp, 273].  A
contemporary witness said of General Johnston’s army in Georgia, “Twelve months
after this revolution commenced a more ungodly set of men could scarcely be
found than the Confederate army.  Now the
utterance of oaths is seldom, and religious songs and expressions of gratitude
to God are heard from every quarter.  Our
army seems to be impressed with a high sense of an overruling Providence.  They have become Christian patriots and have
a sacred object to accomplish – an object dearer to them than life” [The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 377].

The Bible gives a glorious promise, “Where
sin abounded, grace did much more abound” (Romans 5:21).  Our country seems like rotten fruit ready to
drop off the tree.  This spiritual
crisis, in fact, is a vindication of our ancestors’ resistance to Biblical and
Constitutional tyranny.  Our hope is
still in the Lord.  He is still mighty to
save.  “Pray ye therefore the Lord of the
harvest, that He will send forth laborers into His harvest” (Matthew 9:38).


Some Essential Characteristics of Confederate Chaplains


By Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


Part I

What kind of men were
these Confederate Chaplains? When considering the men who made up the
Confederate Chaplain Corps generally speaking they were men seeking to do the
will of God. Fakes were short-lived being detected by the soldiers and being
overwhelmed by the sheer mass of hard and dangerous work.

What characterized them
as men? Essentially they were men of God, men who had experienced the new
birth, men who had been cleansed from their sin by Jesus’ precious blood, men
who hated their sin against the holy God, men who had been purged from
unrighteousness, men who had been divinely called to preach, men who placed
God’s value on the soul (what was that value that the soul was of greater value
than the whole world), men who believed the sacred Word of God by practicing
it, men who were concerned over the depraved nature of men, men who not only
hated sin in themselves as well as in others, etc.

Certainly men cannot
preach a redeeming Christ with power unless they have experienced that
redemption via regeneration and conversion.

THE NEW BIRTH: The Call of God to Salvation


The Lord
Jesus Expressed the Nature of the New Birth

a man be born again he cannot see the kingdom of God”
(John 3:3)

What do I mean by “the
new birth?” The new birth is an act of God the Holy Spirit imparting spiritual
life to one who was dead in trespasses and sin. Jesus had some important things
to say to us about this subject not the least of which was that without the new
birth a person will never become acquainted with heaven.

John’s Gospel records
our Lord’s account of this critical subject. There was a man of the Pharisees
who had been publically exposed to the preaching of Jesus with the result that
he was awakened to a personal need. He sneaked through the night seeking Jesus
while under spiritual distress. This struggle was brought on by the Holy
Spirit. Being frightened of others he had secreted himself in order to have an
encounter with Jesus? What frightened him? He was afraid because of being
awakened to some strange goings on in his unsettled heart. This we call

What makes this case
even more intriguing was the way Jesus handled this encounter. The Saviour
answered the ruler of the Jews in a confounding way! What was interesting and
unusual regarding the questions bothering Nicodemus was that Jesus answered his
heart felt questions before they could be asked. Nicodemus called Him “Rabbi … teacher come from God” and
discussed Jesus’ miracles as an indication that he believed God was with Him
(John 3:1-2) but he did not at this point believe that Jesus was God in the

Jesus’ first words to
him were, “Verily, verily, I say unto
thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God”
3:3). God’s Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, was quite assertive in these words.
There is no doubt about it, without the new birth there is no resolution of
sin, no forgiveness and no reconciliation to the holy God of the Bible. Many do
not understand this any more than did Nicodemus when he first heard it directly
from the lips of Jesus. Only one who has been born again or born from above can
understand. This knowledge cannot be experienced by intellectual prowess or
emotional excitement.

Jesus began to explain
to the inquisitive heart of Nicodemus: “That
which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is
spirit. Marvel not (or stop being astonished) that I said unto thee, Ye must be
born again. The wind bloweth where it listeth (or desires), and thou hearest
the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth:
so is every one that is born of the Spirit”
(John 3:6-8). Here Jesus was
dealing with misunderstanding. What was Jesus saying? He said that the natural
birth produced a fleshly being and a spiritual birth produced a spiritual
being. The physical new born did not cause his own birth any more than a
spiritual new born could cause his own birth. Being born from above is not
something caused by human decision or action!
Nicodemus was told by Jesus to not be astonished for the new birth is
essential, but can only be accomplished by the Holy Spirit.

Jesus then used the wind
as an illustration of something in the natural realm which can be heard but
cannot be seen or controlled by man. Jesus explained that this is true of
everyone born of the Spirit. Nicodemus was still without a clue when he asked, “How can these things be?” Jesus said to
Nicodemus, You are a master or teacher of Israel and are ignorant of these
things; in your position you are supposed to know and teach these things (John
3:10). Jesus spoke from His certain knowledge and what He had personally
witnessed, but Jesus charged Nicodemus with rejecting that perfect testimony
(John 3:11).

Next, Jesus pointed out
that if He spoke of everyday things relating to earthly life and Nicodemus
would not believe Him; what would Nicodemus do if Jesus told him about heavenly
things (John 3:12)?  Jesus in essence
asked, “Nicodemus how can you find out about heavenly things?” The Saviour said
in essence, you cannot discover spiritual things on your own! Why? It takes a
divine work. Only one who has ascended to heaven could find them out or the Son
of Man who came down from heaven He can reveal it (John 3:13). The very one who
could explain these things to Nicodemus is being ignored. Certainly Nicodemus
could not ascend to heaven to find the answer. Salvation must depend on God not
man or no one would be saved. What causes a person to seek forgiveness of sin
through Christ? The Holy Spirit gives an awareness of need and reveals that
Christ Jesus meets that need.

Jesus then referred
Nicodemus to Scripture, “And as Moses
lifted up the serpent in the wilderness even so must the Son of man be lifted
up: that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life”

(John 3:14-15).  Thus in these words
Jesus was picturing His own crucifixion as the atoning Lamb of God to take away
sin. The declaration was that those trusting in Him alone shall not perish but
have life eternal.

Then Jesus uttered the
most well known verse in the Bible: “For
God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever
believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life”
(John 3:16).  God the Father gave His “only begotten Son” as a substitutionary sacrifice to pay for the
sin debt of those who are granted faith in God’s Son for salvation (Eph.
2:8-9). Those thus believing on God’s Son shall never, no never perish but have
everlasting life. “For God sent not his
Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might
be saved. He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not
is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only
begotten Son of God”
(John 3:17-18). In these words God is saying,
“Nicodemus you need to understand that I sent My Son to save those who believe
on Him. These will be eternally saved and will not be eternally condemned!”
Those who remain in unbelief are already condemned or judged. All who believe
are the same ones for whom Christ died, they were judged for their sin in the
suffering and death of Christ Jesus who took their place.

This is all summed up in
the words, “He that believeth on the Son
hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life;
but the wrath of God abideth on him”
(John 3:36). The one who believes on
the Son already has eternal life, but the unbeliever shall not experience
eternal life, but God’s wrath remains on him forever and ever. Rev. B. M.
Palmer (Commissioner from the Presbyterian Church of the Confederacy to the
Army of the West) in a Sermon from John 3:18 declared: “The Lord Jesus came
from heaven to be the exponent of God’s love to sinful men, to show its depth,
and to open the channel for its eternal outflow upon the redeemed. In rejecting
Him, therefore, we turn away from God in the most persuasive revelation of
Himself…. The climax of resistance would seem to be reached, when we sin
directly against the heart of
Infinite Love” [Sermons, Vol. 2,
76-77]. The rejection of the perfect and holy Son of God in his perfect
obedience and atoning death is an affront to God. One of the Confederate
Chaplains preached a sermon titled “Unbelief in Christ the Greatest of Sins,”
and that was Chaplain John Lafayette Girardeau of the 23rd South
Carolina Regiment [Sermons by John L.
, 351].

Have you been awakened
to your need of the new birth? Have you cast yourself for mercy upon the Lord
Jesus Christ alone to be your substitute and salvation? Have you cast yourself
upon the mercy of the Lord? Jesus said, “Him
that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out (or turn away).

Next we consider the new
birth experience of some Confederate Chaplains. These should be good examples
of the way the work of grace occurred in their hearts.

New Birth of Basil Manly Sr., Chaplain
to the Confederacy


Basil Manly was a
Baptist chaplain born in Chatham County, NC on January 29th, 1798
and left this world for the better one on December 21st, 1868 in
Greenville, SC. Basil’s father was an unbelieving man, but his mother,
Elizabeth Manly, had a great impact on her son as is usually the case.  However, her conversion, when he was a boy,
had the greatest influence on him.  Her
transformed life and testimony, by the grace of God, would bear fruit.  Son Basil was in regular attendance at the
house of God on the Lord’s Days, with his mother.  This was also a time of the sowing of the
precious gospel seed through the faithful preaching of God’s Word.

While Basil was
attending school at the Bingham Academy in Orange County, North Carolina he
came under great conviction of his sins against the Lord.  He was sixteen years old at this time and the
year was 1814.  Due to a troubled
conscience he was walking in a cornfield not far from the school he attended,
and the weight of his sins against the Lord had become too heavy to bear.  His lost condition was expressed in a time of
weeping.  About this time he heard a
voice in the distance and began to walk toward it.  As he got closer he recognized the voice of
an old black slave who was interceding with God and making a plea for the Lord
to speak to “Mas Baz.”  Basil Manly being
overwhelmed fell on his knees beside the old intercessor.  The old servant assisted him in praying.  The weeping and praying of the old servant
and the teenager attracted the attention of other servants and white folks from
the family where Basil was boarding.
Tears of joy soon replaced tears of sorrow over sin. Also, there was
rejoicing in heaven as a sinner had repented of sin and embraced the Lord Jesus
Christ as his Saviour.  Yes, Jesus had
said, “I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner
that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, who need no
(Luke 15:7).

New Birth of
Francis Asbury Mood, Post Chaplain, Charleston, South Carolina


Francis Asbury Mood was
a Methodist chaplain who was born in Charleston, SC on June 23rd,
1830 and entered glory on November 12th, 1884 in Texas.

Mood described when his
spiritual impressions began, “I could not have been more than three or four
years old.” Thus from early days his minister father and faithful mother, who
were a devoted Christians, began to teach their children. Francis’ mother made
a great impact on his life. As a little boy he had a sense of remorse for sin
and thought of himself as lost. He attended worship services and Sunday School
regularly, was taught hymns, the catechism by his mother and was taken to camp
meetings. Francis Mood noted:

preaching of the camp-meeting was all calculated to arouse, awaken, and call to
action the religious sensibilities. Judgment, Hell, Heaven, Redemption,
Conscience, the Shortness of Time, were the topics urged with great directness,
earnestness and eloquence; and seldom an occasion of worship passed, that
penitents were not … invoking the prayers of God’s people. Young as I was, I
was conscious that I had sinned, and I always went forward for prayer, because
I feared that if I did not, I would grieve God’s Spirit.

Mood said that he could
not explain his feelings but knew he did not love God and feared this was

As a nine year old in
April of 1839 as usual the family attended the camp meeting and this one was a
great awakening. After returning home Francis spoke with his wise mother about
joining the church. She in a very affectionate way advised him to wait till he
understood spiritual things better. He obeyed but thought his mother wrong.

In April of 1841 a
number of young people joined the church. Francis did not consult his mother
but on April 21st, 1841 went for membership. He was given a ticket
of probation and he later attended a special class. The result he described:

years had passed since that memorable day when I gave my hand to the minister
and my name to the church records. Three years of legal obedience, three years
of darkness, of struggle, of sadness. My good old class-leader expounded,
encouraged, exhorted, but I found no relief. I read my Bible regularly, but
abhorred the duty, for it was full of condemnation to me. I attended class
regularly, but abhorred the duty, for its return brought only rebuke and
suffering to my heart. I attended every service of the ministry, but abhorred
the duty, for the sermons only chided me and did not interest me. Sunday was
the darkest day of the week to me.

The Sabbath was no
delight to him. Obviously the new birth had not yet been experienced by Francis
Mood. At a camp meeting in April 1844 wherein each service was a time of self-condemnation
he was conflicted. He confessed and I record his own words:

My burden grew heavier. It was Saturday night of the meeting….
I walked forth into the darkness, and wandered around the circle of tents in
abject sorrow and wretchedness of soul. Passing one of the tents I heard
singing within. I paused and recognized the voices of some of the young
converts. They were engaged in a prayer meeting. I entered. It was dark, for
they were within an inner room. The intense darkness of the room seemed to
typify the intense darkness that filled my soul, and my agony became intolerable.
I went forward reaching for the inner door. My strength utterly failed me. I
fell to the ground prostrate, crying from the great depths of my soul. “Lord
Jesus, have mercy on me.” A moment afterwards I felt that I could trust Jesus
as my Savior then. At once my burden was lifted, my sorrow had fled, a light
supernal beamed into my soul, and I was filled with gladness. It seemed to me
that my whole frame would melt into thankfulness, and I remained sobbing on the
ground. As the young men within arose from prayer, in an interval of silence,
they heard the sobs of someone outside. Billy Capers opened the partition door
to see what it meant, and found me lying at the threshold. He lifted me up—my
heart filled with rapture and tears of gladness choking my utterance. My
friends recognized me; they saw in my countenance the joy and peace I felt
within, and rejoiced with me.

But how shall I describe
the great change that my inward consciousness told me had passed upon me? I
went to our tent, all had retired, I drew out my little box, and got out my
red-covered Bible that my mother had given me; for the first time in my life I
felt eager to read it. Before, I had only found condemnation in its pages, now
I found them filled with blessed consolations and promises. I lingered upon
passage after passage, and after offering a prayer and thanksgiving, with a
fervor, and earnestness I had never before known, at a late hour, I retired for

The blare of the morning
trumpet awoke me at day-light, and now a fresh wonder filled my soul. For the
first time in my recollection I was glad to welcome God’s holy Sabbath. I
listened eagerly for the trumpet to sound the opportunity of worship. I was
glad, when they said unto me, “Let us go into the house of the Lord….” How delightful
the sermon was! Every word, every sentence, every illustration, exactly right.
I had no thought of criticism. Ah! the fact in the case was, I was thirsting
for the word, and how that disarms objections!

How clearly did my own
experience prove to me, “that by the deeds of the law there shall be no flesh
justified.” That by no processes of education can the power and the joy of a
religious life be imparted, that “Except ye be converted, and become as little
children,”—“Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” From
that hour religion was a reality and a blessed experience. I walked carefully
before the Lord, and though in the years that have intervened, I have, too
often, been negligent and unfaithful, and too often willfully departed from the
path of duty, I thank God that I have never doubted the reality of the change
of heart experienced on that memorable occasion, and I doubt not but, that
Saturday night of 1844, will be a point of time, which I will look back upon
through all the rolling ages of the coming glory,

“The happy day

When Jesus washed my
sins away. ”

New Birth of Chaplain Jeremiah Bell
Jeter, Post Chaplain Richmond, VA


Jeremiah B. Jeter was a
Baptist chaplain born in Bedford County, Virginia on July 18th, 1802
and entered the presence of the Lord on February 18th, 1880. We
shall let Chaplain Jeter relay to us his account of his experience of grace in
an abridged form.

‘Experience,’ as it was
generally called, occupied a much more prominent place in sermons and in
religious conversation … years ago…. I had an experience.… I was brought up
without special religious instruction.… In my boyhood I cherished the hope that
… I would be converted.… I remember distinctly the first prayer that I ever
uttered. It was in the summer of 1819.… As I was plowing alone my thoughts were
suddenly arrested by the presence and majesty of God. I was overwhelmed with
awe, and falling on my knees pleaded with God for mercy.… For days I went with
a downcast countenance.… For several weeks I carefully concealed my emotions,
but continued to pray for Divine aid. In this time I became quite
self-righteous.… In a few weeks my impressions were effaced and my fair
resolutions were abandoned.… I have referred … to the revival which commenced
in my neighborhood in the year 1821. In the early summer I attended a Sabbath
service at Suck Spring Baptist Meeting House.… It was communion season.… At
first I amused myself …. Soon my own attention was arrested by it and I burst
into an irrepressible flood of tears.… This was the commencement of my second
effort to become a Christian. I betook myself to reading the Scriptures,
meditation, and prayer. In a few days I attended the burial of a young man I
had known.… The eyes and mouth of the corpse were stretched wide open, and
neither force nor skill could close them. The unfortunate death of the young
man, and the horrid appearance of his ghastly face made a deep impression …
that had been weakened by anxiety and sleeplessness.… I deliberately came to
the conclusion that, to get rid of my nervous trouble, I must suppress my
religious convictions, and, for the present, at any rate, abandon all hope of
salvation.… Here ends the second chapter in my religious experience.… I have
given a pretty full account of the commencement of the great revival at
Hatcher’s Meeting House, in August, 1821.… Sunday morning we [Jeter’s friend
Daniel Witt and himself] rode together to church.… The services continued till
late in the afternoon. When I raised my head and opened my eyes I was
astonished to find that all the congregation excepting a few of my friends were
gone. Even … Witt … had left an hour or two before. My purpose to become a
Christian was now fixed.… It was not merely my purpose to enter the kingdom of
heaven, but to out-strip all my associates in the celestial race.… My aim was
to become good enough for Christ to receive me.… A short time after the
memorable meeting at Hatcher’s Meeting House there was an appointment for a
night service in the neighborhood of my abode. There was a crowded house. Of
the sermon I recollect nothing. At the close of it the minister said: ‘If any
person desires prayer, let him manifest it and I will pray for him’…. The
struggle was short. In a few moments I said distinctly: ‘Pray for me.’ I have
said many things since which I have had cause to regret, but I have never been
sorry that I made that request.… I left the house with far less hope of salvation
than I had when I entered it. A few weeks later another night meeting was
appointed at the same place.… The meeting was crowded and the religious
excitement was intense. Among the inquirers was a rough, uncouth, and ignorant
lad named Bill Carter. Occupying a prominent position he opened wide his mouth
and roared like a lion. The scene was indescribably ludicrous, and, in spite of
the solemnity of the occasion and my deep concern for my salvation, I burst
into an uncontrollable fit of laughter.… After weeks of anxiety, watchfulness,
prayer, and mourning I seemed to be much further from salvation than I was at
the first.… About this time, hearing of the conversion of a young female
friend, who was awakened some weeks after I was, it seemed a reasonable
conclusion that I had missed the road to heaven.… About two months after the
memorable meeting at Hatcher’s Meeting House, I attended a night meeting in a
private house near the same place.… A song was sung … it made an indelible
impression on my mind.… Is it possible, I inquired, that the Son of God
suffered and died for such a corrupt and guilty creature as I am?.… As
instructed by one of my religious guides, the Rev. William Leftwich, I had
often attempted to adopt the words of the father of the demoniac child: ‘Lord,
I believe; help thou my unbelief.’ … The sentence invariably changed in my lips
to: ‘Lord, I would believe; help thou my unbelief.… I feared
that I did not believe, and my words were deceitful.… After all my doubts and
reasoning, the impression came over me that I did believe, and I repeated the
words with emphasis: ‘Lord, I do believe; help thou my unbelief.’
The burden of guilt and anxiety, which I had borne so long, instantly departed.
My mind was in a calm, pleasing frame, which to me was inexplicable, and which
I was not careful to analyze.… No wave of trouble rolled across my peaceful
breast.… I strolled to a retired spot, at the head of a ravine, where I might
engage in secret prayer.… Till then I had never offered a petition for any being
but myself. This morning I prayed for my parents, my brothers and sisters, my
remoter kindred, my friends, and I continued to extend the circle of my
intercession until it comprehended the whole world.… As I returned to the house
… I met Elder Harris.… I told him as well as I could the exercises of my mind
as stated above. ‘You are converted,’ said he. This was a revelation to me. I
had not even suspected that I was converted.… I had heard no voice, seen no
light, felt no shock, and had no strange manifestation. I was willing, aye, and
resolved, to forsake my sins and serve Christ; but conversion must be something
more wonderful than this.… Elder Harris commenced and related to me his
experience. It bore a striking resemblance to my own. Of the genuineness of his
conversion I had no doubt.… The gratitude, hope, and joy of my heart broke out
in smiles and tears, as I met the pious friends who had so long sympathized
with me and prayed for me.… More than half a century has passed since I had the
experience that I have imperfectly related.… Conviction for sin, godly sorrow, …
despair of salvation by works, trust in Christ, love to Him, joy in the Holy
Ghost — in short an experience which comprehends the struggles of a soul in
passing from death unto life — are indispensable to the existence of genuine
piety, and a reasonable hope of eternal life.”

New Birth of Moses Drury Hoge, Chaplain of Camp Lee,


Chaplain Moses Drury Hoge was a Presbyterian
chaplain born at Hampden Sydney, VA on September 17th, 1819 and was
called home January 6th, 1899.

Hoge confessed in a letter to his mother in 1837: “I
cannot say that I am a Christian. I can only say that upon a close examination
I always find many things that disquiet and depress me; yet I am never left
without some hope that I have experienced a change of heart…. I may be
deceived…. Since I have been here (college), I have had clearer views of the
enormity of sin, not only in the abstract, but my own.”

The Holy Spirit seemed to be working in the heart of
Moses D. Hoge. There was a continued awareness of spiritual need. He wrote that
he hoped God had commenced working in his unfeeling heart.

Hoge could write his mother in February of 1838: “I
know, my dear mother, you will join in the prayer that it may be a profitable
season to me. I think it very important that the first approach should be made in a right frame of mind. I feel that
no event that has ever happened to me is as solemn and important in its results
as the time when the sinner acknowledges publicly his submission to God…. May
God give me grace to make a more unreserved surrender of all that I have and
am, at that time, that I have ever done before! I had rather be the meanest and
humblest Christian on earth than to enjoy all the pleasures the world can give,
even if I could enjoy them forever.” Moses Drury Hoge had passed from death
unto life.

New Birth of Henry Allen Tupper, Chaplain of the 9th


Henry Allen Tupper, a
Baptist chaplain, was born on February 29th, 1828 and entered his
eternal reward March 27th, 1902 in Richmond, Virginia.

Henry Tupper gave the
following account of how he was brought to Christ. Tupper explained, “In 1837
Dr. (Richard) Fuller preached in our church from the words: ‘My son, give me thy heart.’ I wept until
I was ashamed.”  Tupper reflected that he
had a constant fear. This fear commenced when he was going to and was in
church. There he feared coming under a conviction of sin that would expose him
before the congregation. As a result of this fear he tried to hide in the
gallery, but his parents had put the gallery off limits to him. His greatest
fear was realized during a protracted meeting. Tupper confided:

I went to the door (of
the church), but was afraid to enter. Next morning before breakfast I went and
took my seat by the door. Mr. Crawford came to me. The devil took possession of
me and I began with my skeptical arguments. He sent Mr. Wyer to me. Though very
tender and affectionate, he finally arose and said: “Young man, your infidelity
will damn you.” I was greatly offended. Instead of going home to breakfast, I
walked out of town full of anger and with the words ringing in my heart—“Will damn you.” “Will damn you.” “Will damn
.” I concluded that I would be damned…. I went again to the meeting.
Dr. Fuller spoke to me. Sent Mr. Wyer to me, who said: “You are not far from
the Kingdom,” but I knew that I would be damned. I talked wildly to mother
about my sins and ruin. Went to father’s office, paced up and down the back
store praying for deliverance. Tut (my brother Tristram) came in dancing and
singing. I burst into tears and told him: “I will be damned, but you must not!”
I made him kneel down and prayed for him. Then I hid myself in the hayloft and
poured out my distressed spirit to God. Going home, I found that Dr. Fuller had
left for me James’ Anxious Inquirer.
The devil again entered me. I vowed I would not go again to hear Dr. Fuller and
I would resist salvation even if it were forced upon me. Mother chided me
kindly but wisely. My conscience pricked me. My sins seemed like a mountain
crushing me to perdition. I read The Anxious Inquirer almost all night. I was
relieved and alarmed. The idea of a false hope terrified me. In the morning I
went to the Inquiry Meeting. In reply to my fears Dr. Fuller said: “If you go
to hell I will go with you and we shall preach Jesus there until they turn us
out, and then where will we go?”

This state persisted for
several weeks and Tupper confided “I was bowed down because I could not feel my
sins. On Sunday night I went to hear Mr. Francis Johnson. He preached on ‘The
Law of God.’ I was overwhelmed and fell down on my knees in the pew and burst
into tears.” But when morning came Tupper went to see Mr. Johnson. Johnson told
him he was as converted as he. Tupper protested that he was lost. Johnson told
him to go to his closet and plead with God for the fulfillment of His promise–“That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth
the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from
the dead, thou shalt be saved”
(Rom. 10:9). Obviously the Spirit of God had
acted upon Tupper and he said:

I did so. I believed and
rejoiced in the words: “Thou shalt be saved.” The whole world was changed. It
was a delight to live. I could have encompassed the universe in my love…. At
the church door next day I saw (an acquaintance). I offered him my hand. In an
hour or so he rode up and handed me a note, asking if my hand was offered as a
retraction of the insult of cutting his acquaintance. I drew him upstairs and
implored him to repent and believe. I carried him to see Dr. Fuller. We prayed
together and were baptized together by Dr. Fuller on the evening of the 17th of
April 1846 (upon profession of faith in Christ as Saviour and Lord)…. The
night I was baptized Dr. Fuller said to the congregation: “This young man wants
to go to Africa, but we need him at home.”

This revival went on for
almost six weeks. Dr. Richard Fuller preached nightly for that entire period.
There were around 500 people brought to Christ in Charleston. Of this number
some 200 joined Baptist churches.

A Tale of Two Sermons:

The Life and Ministry of the
Reverend John Jones

Chaplain Kenneth

Part I

John Jones was the pastor of the First Presbyterian
Church in Rome, Georgia in 1861 when Georgia seceded from the Union.  He would also serve as a Confederate chaplain
for six months during the War.  The famed
Georgia historian, Lucian Lamar Knight, noted of Jones: “He was a cousin of Dr.
Charles C. Jones, Sr. and was sometimes called ‘the Fighting Parson’ because of
his courageous mettle, but there was never a man whose life was more sweetly
attuned to gentleness.”  (Knight, Georgia’s
Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends volume 1, p. 743)  Jones figures prominently in the monumental
work, The Children of Pride, a
collection of letters written between the various members of the Jones family
during the War.  This afternoon I want us
to look at A Tale of Two Sermons: The
Life and Ministry of the Reverend John Jones
.  Two monumental sermons were preached by
Jones, one on the eve of the war and one almost twenty years after it ended.

Jones was born in Liberty County, Georgia on his
father’s plantation on November 15, 1815.
He would be raised in the Midway Congregational Church.  Knight noted of this church, “From this
parental stock have sprung hundreds of the most distinguished men in the public
life of the nation.  It has produced two
Signers of the Declaration of Independence, two Generals of the Revolution,
besides numerous officers of lower rank, two Commodores, one President of the
United States, three United States Senators, four members of Congress, four
Governors of Georgia, and at least six judges of the Superior Court.  In advance of the rest of the Province the
first bold stand for independence was here taken and the Colonial flag on Fort
Morris was the last to be lowered when Georgia was overrun by the British. Not
less than six counties of the State bear names whose origin can be traced to
the Midway settlement. Two of the most eminent of modern scientists were
natives of the Parish of St. John. The list also includes two University
Chancellors, three Presidents of Female Seminaries, one President of the State
Normal School, one United States Minister to China, six authors of note, two
historians, six editors, eight foreign missionaries, and scores of successful
business men, together with a host of other notables including soldiers,
statesmen, educators, inventors, doctors, lawyers, and ministers of the
gospel.  Can any other religious
organization in America exhibit such a record? The explanation is to be found
in the substantial pabulum upon which the offspring of the settlement were
nourished, the emphasis put upon moral and educational values, the sturdy
examples which were set before them, and the fear of God which was an ever
present factor in the lives of these devout people. To what depth the vital
truths of religion struck root in this fertile soil may be gleaned from the
fact that eighty two clergymen have come from the Midway settlement. Fifty of
these have been Presbyterians, seventeen Baptists, three Episcopalians, and
thirteen Methodists, one of whom attained to the high office of Bishop. ”
(Knight, Georgia’s Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends volume 1, p. 136, 137)

undertaking to mention by name the various ministers of the gospel who have
come from the Midway settlement, it may be said that, under the preaching
of  the Rev. Daniel Baker, himself a man
of very great note, were converted Bishop Stephen Elliott, of the Episcopal
church. Dr. Richard Fuller, one of the most noted Baptist divines in the South,
and Hon. Rhett W. Barnwell, member of Congress from South Carolina, and
President of South Carolina College. The first native born Presbyterian
minister in Georgia was also a son of old Midway:  Dr. Thomas Goulding. The list of eminent
preachers also includes, Patrick Hues Mell, Baptist theologian. Rev. Robert Quarterman,
who was for twenty-four years pastor of the Midway church and the first native
of the settlement to become the shepherd of the flock, must not be omitted. Dr.
James Stacy, the historian of the Midway church; Dr. Charles Colcock Jones, Sr.
and his son-in-law, Dr. R. Q. Mallard, for years pastor of the Napoleon Avenue
church, of New Orleans; Dr. Donald Fraser, for years pastor of the Presbyterian
church, at Decatur, Ga.”  (Knight, Georgia’s Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends
volume 1, p. 742, 743)

Despite never having more than 350 members, the
church’s influence was far beyond its size.
Due to the aftermath of the war and declining population, it would
essentially cease its ministry in 1867.
The historian of the Midway church noted, “The church was never formally
dissolved, but simply exhausted itself by repeated colonization, together with
numerous departures to other localities.”
“The last record in the session book bears date of October, 1867.  ‘Thus, after one hundred and thirteen years,
this old church, venerable with years and abundant in fruit, yielding to the
stern demand of an imperious necessity, laid aside her armor and, drawing
around her the drapery of her couch, laid herself down to rest.”   (quoted in Knight, Georgia’s Landmarks, Memorials,
and Legends volume 1, p. 736, 737)

John Jones would graduate from Franklin College (now
the University of Georgia) in 1836 and the Columbia Theological Seminary in
1839.  He would pastor a number of
Presbyterian churches in Georgia.  His
first pastorate was in Bryan County at Bryan Neck church from 1841-1843.  He then served at Darien from 1843-
1847.  He served Marietta from 1848-1853,
donating the land on which a new church was built.  He served First Savannah from 1854-1855.  Jones served as pastor of Sand Hill Church
for 6 months in 1855.  He was the pastor
of the Washington church in 1856.  In
1857 he would be called to pastor the First Presbyterian Church of Rome, Georgia.  He would serve the church until 1863.  Jones seems restless, rarely staying at a
church for any length of time.  Rome was
his longest pastorate, lasting almost seven years.  Even there, he spent a good deal of time away
from the church refugeeing during the times that the city was threatened by the
Yankees.  Yet, I believe that his
restlessness reveals a pastor’s heart.
He often took charges that were new or struggling churches and spent a
brief time among them establishing the work.
He had an evangelist’s heart, which would come to the forefront in the
latter years of his life.

The Sermon of 1861

 The Spring of
1861 found the peaceful town of Rome, Georgia on the brink of war.  Little did the citizens know what sufferings
lay ahead of them.  While there would be
no major battle in the town, there would be skirmishes, deprivations and in
1864 a burning of the downtown by Sherman.
Many of the best and brightest men of Rome and Floyd County would march
off to battle, never to return.  They
went with the firm belief that their cause was just and they were willing to
die if necessary.  It was not a war about
abstract principles.  They were defending
their homes against an invading army.
They fought for family and for their newborn nation.  They saw themselves as heirs of the patriots
of 1776.  John Jones sought to distill
these thoughts in a message to the first men who marched off to war.

On Sunday May 26, 1861 Rev. Jones preached a momentous
sermon in the First Presbyterian Church in Rome, Georgia.  Prominent in the congregation were two local
companies that would leave for service in Virginia the following day.  The Rome Light Guards and the Miller Rifles
would serve with distinction as part of the Eighth Georgia Regiment.  This was the third message in a series of
three messages on the impending war that Jones had preached to the
congregation.  Over two hundred uniformed
members of the two units sat in the front of the church.  The pastor sought to remind them of why they
were fighting while at the same time comforting them with the good news of the
Gospel.  In a letter to his sister, Jones
described the service:

“The day was
bright, and an overflowing audience (at least one thousand) was present.  They were attracted by the occasion and their
deep interest in the soldiers.  Many sat
in chairs in the aisles, and a number stood up during the service, which was
protracted.  I never witnessed such
solemnity and tenderness in my life.  It
was a most trying position for a minister and a father.  There was my own son among the volunteers,
and looking very solemn and attentive.”
(Myers, p. 690)  His son,
Dunwoody, was 19 years old and was not a Christian, a matter that lay heavily
on his father’s heart.

The message was a powerful sermon.  I want to share with you some of the choice
passages.  Jones began by addressing the
soldiers: “Soldiers of the Rome Light Guards, and Miller Rifles, Volunteers for
the active service of the Confederate States of North America!!!

In responding to your request to address you on this
occasion, and in thanking you for the compliment, I acknowledge myself
oppressed with a responsibility, strange, peculiar,

painful. This is the first time, in a ministry of
twenty years, that I have been called to address men whose marching orders are
onward to the battle-field, whose motto is victory or death. The probability,
nay, the bare possibility, that I may be delivering my last message to some,
perhaps to many of you, fills my heart with inexpressible anguish. I feel
therefore deeply solicitous to meet the responsibilities of this hour, in a
manner becoming a watchman for souls.

I have therefore earnestly sought divine wisdom, and
have endeavored to place myself in your position, and to realize the duties,
the denials, and the dangers of a soldier.

As a basis, therefore, for profitable meditation, we
have selected the following passages from 1st Samuel, 4th chapter. 9th verse;
and 2nd Chronicles, 20th chapter, 15th verse “Be strong and quit
yourselves like men, and fight” “For the battle is not yours, but
God’s.” ‘

The pastor challenged the men to consider their position.  “In advancing to a closer consideration of
our text three questions are suggested to the man who is bound for the war.
First, does he realize what he is doing? Has he counted the cost? the great
bodily exposure? to burning suns and drenching dews, to summer’s heat and
winter’s cold? The surrender of ease, comfort, and home, sweet home? The
sacrifice of interest and business; and the jeopardizing, perhaps the loss of
life, perhaps of soul? Has he said to himself, I shall soon appropriate the
words of David to Jonathan, “there is but a step between me and
death”? A second question asks, Why these sacrifices? Are the causes
adequate, do the reasons justify? Am I about to peril comfort, interest, and
life, without a proper reason? Have I taken my place in the ranks, from a
momentary impulse, or with reference to some ultimate self-aggrandizement? Let
every soldier scrutinize his motives and ends! He is a reckless man who goes to
war, and cannot give the reason why.  As
a third question, let each soldier ask, am I prepared for these sacrifices? Am
I prepared with a sound body, a brave heart, and a willing mind? Am I ready to
endure hardness as a good soldier? and above all, am I prepared for those
solemn alternatives, death and judgment? It is appointed unto men once to die,
and after death, the judgment. Said the Pilgrim, I find from the book in my
hand, that I am to die, and then to go to judgment; and I am unwilling to do
the first, and unprepared for the second. Soldiers, how do you stand on this

During the sermon Jones dealt with history as well as
politics, seeking to view them through the lens of Scripture.  He gave seven reasons for the South’s course
of action in seceding.  He drew one
particularly striking contrast between the two sides in the coming

“Soldiers, you
are struggling for the Book of Books. It is a war of principles as well as a
war of peoples. The Bible against falsehood, God against the infidel. The
present reign of terror at the North, reminds one of the French revolution of

You are engaged
in a holy war! If the rescue of the holy sepulcre from the infidel Moslem,
induced three millions of men to lay their bones in the East, shall we not
willingly contend to snatch the word of God from the modern infidel who is
ready to trample it under foot, when not according to his furious principles?”

Jones understood the biblical principles that underlay
the conflict.  It was a conflict between
those who submitted to the authority of Scripture versus those who put human
reason above all.  He understood that
man’s chief end is to glorify God, and to enjoy him forever and that the Word
of God, which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, is
the only infallible rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him.

He then charged the men who were soon to face the
perils of the battlefield.  “Soldiers be
strong in your cause, and realize that honor and interest, patriotism and
piety, loved, loving, and dependent ones, your existence, and the prosperity of
true religion mid the authority of God’s word, all are committed to your
keeping. If Providence favors our cause, bright and glorious days are m reserve
for us, and especially for our children. The South will awake from her long
sleep of dependence on the North: she will begin to think and act for herself.”

Jones then continued with some interesting
exegesis.  He said, “Be strong in faith,
faith in the Lord, for the battle is not yours, but God’s. The race is not to
the swift, nor the battle to the strong. Jeremiah 1st, 14th, 19th verses:
“Then the Lord said unto me, out of the North an evil shall break forth
upon the inhabitants of the land, and they shall fight against thee, but they
shall not prevail against thee; for I am with thee, saith the Lord, to deliver
thee.” Joel 2, 20: “I will remove far from thee the Northern
army.” 2 Chron. 20, 15th: “Thus saith the Lord, be not afraid, nor
dismayed by reason of this great multitude, for the battle is not yours, but

These promises we may appropriate, if ours is a
righteous cause. This we have endeavored to establish and this we honestly
believe. Let us therefore have faith in our Heavenly Father, because He is a
righteous Father, and a just Judge. The Judge of all the earth will do right. A
righteous God is consistent with Himself; His word and Providence will not
conflict. We have shown that we have the approbation of His word; and, without
presumption, we may hope for His sustaining Providence. Have faith in God, His
omniscience, that He may watch over you with His sleepless eye, and guide you
with His unerring wisdom. Have faith in His omnipotence, that He may shield
your head in the day of battle, and grant you victory. He can make one chase a
thousand, and two put ten thousand to flight.

Have faith in God, for without faith it is impossible
to please Him: and if He be not pleased with you, you shall be utterly overcome
in the conflict. The battle is the Lord’s, not yours. His favor is life, and
His loving-kindness better than life. Settle it now and forever, that God’s
favor is indispensable to your successful triumph over the enemy. Do not
forfeit His blessing, for He withdraws from His own people, when they sin
against Him.

Have faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, because faith
unites us to the Son, and the Son unites us to the Father, and we become
joint-heirs of the Father, through our elder Brother. Carry personal religion
into the camp and the battle. It hath been well said, that “no soldier is so
undaunted as the pious man, no army so formidable as those who are superior to
the fear of death.” “There can be no courage like that which springs
from religious conviction, and is sustained by a religious hope.”
“The Christian hero is doubly armed. His courage is not that of passion or
the drill, but of principle.” Men may school themselves to face the mere
article of death, with coolness. But it is not all of death to die; there is a
second death that kills beyond the grave: it is the judgment. And only faith in
the Lord Jesus Christ can remove the terrors of the judgment. The bravest man
therefore is the truly pious man, and an army of pious men would be

He closed his message with a final plea.  “Christian Soldiers! honor the Captain of
your salvation! Show your colors, and inscribe on them the words, “Jehovah
Nissi” the Lord our Ensign! Let your light shine in your tents, around
your campfires, and on the field of action! Never forget that you have named
the name of Christ! But some of you, my friends, are not soldiers of Christ:
you have no hope in Jesus! and you are marching to death! Oh! Prepare to meet
God! Begin to-day, “tis madness to defer!” Begin by prayer, and a
forsaking of your sins! In the day of battle who will cover your defenseless
head? In the hour of death, who will shelter your defenseless soul? Seek the
Lord whilst He may be found: let your ceaseless prayer be that of the Publican,
“God be merciful to me a sinner.”

Some of you are our sons, our first-born. We have most
painfully, yet dutifully, laid you on the altar of our country. We have
endeavored not to stagger at the call of God: Oh! may he accept our faith, and
spare the offering!! But you may never return! And should you fall in battle,
without a hope in Christ, then shall there be heard in our land, a voice of weeping,
and great mourning, mothers weeping for their sons, and refusing to be
comforted, because they are lost : and fathers will take up the lamentation of
David, “O! my son Absalom! my son, my son, Absalom! would God I had died
for thee, Absalom, my son, my son!”

O! soldiers, brothers, sons! spare us such untold
agonies, such life-long sorrow, by seeking first, now, the kingdom of God.

Farewell! God be your shield by day and night; and if
it be possible, grant to you all, a safe and honorable return, to loving hearts
and happy homes!! ”

Jones wrote of the delivery of the sermon, “Often did
I seek for heavenly wisdom and the Holy Spirit in the preparation of that
sermon, that it might be a faithful message to those who might be receiving-at
least from me-a final word of warning.
And when the closing words were uttered, and the intimation was thrown
out that some of us might soon be adopting the lamentations of David over
Absalom, and that mothers would be weeping like Rachel and refusing to be
comforted, there was a most painful manifestation of distress in the whole
audience, and tears fell like drops of morning dew.  I trust that some impressions were made by
the Holy Spirit upon the unconverted soldiers.”
(Myers, p. 690)

On that Spring
day in 1861 John Jones offered the congregation hope.  His words had steeled those brave men and
women for the trials that lay ahead.  No
doubt the message left a great impression on the two companies.  In fact the sermon was published at the
request of the soldiers who sent a letter three days later requesting its
publication.  Eight of them would be
killed during the first major engagement of the conflict at First Manassas in
two months.  The majority of them would
not survive the war.

As an aside, when one of the units, the Light Guards,
left for Virginia the following day, they marched through the town to depart by
train from north Rome.  At the head of
column was Captain Edward Magruder, a newlywed.
Mrs. Magruder marched beside her husband at the head of column with pistol
and dagger in her belt.  She accompanied
her husband to Orange County, Va., the place of his birth, and took up her
residence with his people at Frescati. This mansion was converted later in the
war into a hospital for sick and wounded Confederate soldiers

Before we look at Jones’ chaplaincy and war
experience, let me tell you how Rome fared later in the War.  Five months after the city fell into Yankee
hands, on October 28, 1864 Sherman himself entered the city.  Two weeks later, on November 10, 1864 he
issued the order for the army to evacuate and for the city to be burned.  2/3 of the city was burned to the
ground.  The pre-war population of 4000
soon dropped to 40.

The Session notes of First Presbyterian Rome records
the following:, “Sometime during the Summer of 1864 the church building was
seized by the Federal troops then in possession of Rome and was used for a
hospital and the pastor, Rev. Kaufman, compelled by military order to leave the
city.  At the close of the war it was
found that the building had been seriously damaged: the pews converted into
pontoon bridges were afterwards destroyed: the congregation scattered: and the
church utterly disorganized and prostrated.”
Other churches were used as storehouses or to stable horses.

The following strange story that occurred during the
Yankee occupation illustrates why Southerners were so bitter after the
war.  There is a forgotten tombstone in
Myrtle Hill cemetery in downtown Rome. Bayard E. Hand died young, having served
his country honorably in the United States Navy.  He was born in Darien, Georgia in Mar. 25,
1830 and would later move to Rome with his family.  His grandfather, Roswell King, was the
founder of Roswell, Georgia.  Hand was a
step-son of Colonel Nicholas J. Bayard, who along with Bayard’s mother, were
prominent citizens of Rome.

Following his graduation from the naval academy at
Annapolis, Maryland, he served with distinction in the US Navy receiving a
citation for his excellent service.
During this time, Hand fell in love with a young lady from Virginia. The
courtship ended in an early wedding and the honeymoon was spent in the Old
Dominion. Hand was on 30-day leave, and at the end of his leave he parted from
his new bride and rejoined his ship, which immediately sailed for South America
for an expedition in Paraguay.

While Lieutenant Hand was on sea, his wife visited
Colonel and Mrs. Bayard at Rome, to await her husband’s return. After
disembarking at Wilmington, North Carolina, Hand soon rejoined his young wife
at Rome. His second leave being up, he departed to join the steamer, Fulton, at
Norfolk, Virginia. During this time he had contracted pneumonia, and on July
16, 1859, he died unexpectedly during his journey at Wilmington. His body was
brought back to Rome for burial and he was buried in Myrtle Hill cemetery.
Colonel Bayard had his tombstone engraved with a naval insignia and one would
think that he would be at peace, but sadly, that was not to be the case.

In 1864 during their occupation of the city, a few of
Sherman’s men, reading that Lieutenant Hand had been in the service of the
United States, decided they would send him to what they felt was a “better
land.” They exhumed Hand’s coffin and sent his remains to the National
cemetery at Arlington, Virginia.  The
cemetery was located on property that rightfully belonged to the family of
Robert E. Lee and had been illegally confiscated by the Federal government.

The actions of the Yankee invaders did not suit the
fiery Colonel Bayard. He was justified in feeling that the self-righteous
Yankees had no right to desecrate the grave of his stepson.  Therefore, in 1866 following the war he went
north and rectified the acts of the ill-mannered Yankee soldiers.  He brought the body back to Rome and had
Lieutenant Hand reinterred in his proper grave.
The journey cost Colonel Bayard $300 (quite a sum in his day), but a
price could not be placed on righting the desecration of his step-son’s grave.

An appropriate line decorates the sailor’s tomb:
“The anchor of his soul was faith in Christ.”


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

Foster Pierce
(1811–1884) was a bishop
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South elected in 1854.  He was known as the Demosthenes of Southern

Pierce was born February 3, 1811 in Greene County,
Georgia. He was the son of the Rev. Lovick Pierce, a Pastor and a Chaplain in
the War of 1812.

He first studied law, but was converted to the
Christian faith at the age of sixteen in a revival at Franklin College in
Athens, Georgia (which would become the University of Georgia), from which he
later graduated.  He was a classmate and
close friend of Robert Toombs in college.
Many years later when their paths crossed again, Pierce was a noted
preacher and Toombs a celebrated Whig politician.  Toombs said at their meeting. “Well, George,
you are fighting the devil, and I am fighting the Democrats.”  Toombs regarded Bishop Pierce as the most
symmetrical man he ever knew: “the handsomest in person, the most gifted in intellect,
and the purest in life.”

He was ordained by Bishop James Osgood Andrew.  After eight years in the pastorate he was
elected President of the Georgia Female College in Macon (now Wesleyan
College), the first four-year college in the world chartered to offer undergraduate
education exclusively to women. In 1848 he became the President of Emory
College (later, University).  He was its
first President to have been educated in Georgia. Pierce served in this
capacity until his election as a Bishop in 1854.

Initially Pierce opposed Georgia’s secession, but like
other southerners, once the war came he was a staunch supporter of the Southern
cause.  He was an active participant in
the Bible Convention of the Confederate States of America

Pierce died on September 3, 1884 near Sparta, Georgia,
where he was buried.  On the left side of
his monument are the following words:  “As
an orator he never had a superior. As a citizen he was a model. As a patriot he
was loyal to his State. Georgia never gave birth to a nobler son.”  On the right side is the following:  “He was the first President of Wesleyan
Female College at Macon, Ga. For six years he was President of Emory College,
at Oxford, Ga. The peerless preacher, the devoted husband and father, the
humble and consistent Christian, he lived beloved and died lamented. ‘For me to
live is Christ and to die is gain.’ St. Paul.”

The following is a message delivered by Pierce during
the war to the Georgia General Assembly.

Sermon of Bishop George F. Pierce before
the General Assembly of Georgia, at Milledgeville, Ga., on fast day, March 27,

“Keep therefore and do them: for this is
your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the nations, which shall
hear all these statutes and say, Surely this great nation is a wise and
understanding people. For what nation is there so great, who hath God so nigh
unto them, as the Lord our God is in all things that we call upon him for? And
what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as
all this law which I set before you this day?”
— Deuteronomy iv. 6, 7, 8.

As a citizen of the Confederacy, interested in
common with others in its deliverance from our enemies — in the early and
permanent establishment of peace — as a Christian fully persuaded that there is
an overruling Providence in the affairs of nations as well as of men, I rejoice
that our Chief Magistrate, in all the great crises of the country, summons the
people, one and all, to fasting, humiliation, and prayer. I am especially glad
that he does this, not as a courteous concession to what he regards a popular
superstition, but from honest convictions of religious duty and official
responsibility. The tone, language, sentiments of all his proclamations on
these occasions demonstrate that he unfeignedly recognizes his, our, and the
dependence of the people on God, and believes that cordial, earnest, united
supplication will secure the divine blessing upon our arms and upon the
administration of the Government. This idea, I trust, is common among all the
people. Once dormant, it has been roused, vivified, made practical, and though
doubted and even denied by some, its truth has been enthroned by repeated,
signal, almost marvelous, interpositions in our behalf. The coincidence of
these interventions with the prayer of the people have left no room for doubt,
and have wrung from profane, even skeptical lips, the confession, God reigneth,
and God is for us and with us. Founding my opinion upon the historic records of
the Old Testament, I cannot doubt but that these official acts, piously
performed by the powers that be, and reverently acknowledged by the people,
bring our country with all its great interests into peculiar covenant relations
with God, and enlist in our defense the resources which God alone can command.
This conclusion is justified not only by many examples in the history of the
kings of Israel and Judah, and by the general promises of the Bible to
penitence and prayer, but by all the facts and circumstances which characterize
this revolution.

This war is
not of our seeking. We labored to avoid it. Our propositions for amicable
adjustment were rejected with subtlety and guile. We claimed only our own. We
asked nothing of our enemies. We do not seek their land, or houses, or
property. We are not fighting to extend our territory, to subdue a neighboring
people, to usurp dominion, to gratify ambition, or malice, or revenge. Faithful
to the letter and the spirit of the old Constitution — asserting only the
fundamental right of self-government, we are but defending ourselves against a
proud, rapacious, malignant foe, who, without right or reason, against law and
right and humanity, comes down full of hate and rage to enslave or exterminate
us. We are fighting for liberty and home and family; for firesides and fields
and altars; for all that is dear to the brave or precious to the good; for our
herds and our flocks, our men-servants and maid-servants; for the heritage of
our fathers and the rights of our children; for the honor of humanity and the
institutions of Providence. We are fighting against robbery and lust and
rapine; against ruthless invasion, a treacherous despotism, the blight of its
own land, and the scorn of the world; mongrel armies whose bond of union is
plunder, and whose watchwords are but delusion and falsehood; a fraud upon the
African, a lie to the North, and an insult to the South. There is therefore no
object proposed by our Government, no end aimed at on which we may not
consistently, piously, scripturally, invoke the Divine blessing. We may pray
‘according to the will of God.’ The triumph of our arms is the triumph of right
and truth and justice. The defeat of our enemies is the defeat of wrong and
malice and outrage. Our Confederacy has committed herself to no iniquitous policy,
no unholy alliances, no unwarrantable plans either for defense or retaliation,
and now, with numerous hostile hosts quartered on her soil, and a powerful navy
beleaguering her coast, amid provocations innumerable, under threatenings the
most diabolical, without fear of the future, ready for the conflict if our
deluded, infatuated enemies urge it on her, she is ready to make peace on just
and honorable terms. In praying for such a government I feel that the way to
the mercy-seat is open. My faith is unembarrassed. My hope is buoyant. I feel
that I have access to Him who rules in righteousness. The attitude of our
country is sublime. With her foot planted on right and her trust in God,
undismayed by numbers and armaments and navies, without the sympathy of the
world, shut in, cut off, alone, she has battled through two long, weary years,
gallantly, heroically, triumphantly, and to-day is stronger in men, resources,
faith, and hope, than when Fort Sumter’s proud flag was lowered to her maiden
arms. It is the Lord’s doings, and it is marvelous in our eyes. Standing, then,
upon the justice of our cause and the righteousness of our aim, and encouraged
by the experience of the past, let us lift up humble, thankful hearts to the
God of all our mercies, and with emboldened faith commit our destiny into his
hand, whom winds and seas obey, who ruleth in the armies of heaven and among
the inhabitants of earth.

Our religion
has never resolved itself into conventional fallacies — into a geographical
conscience, and erected the fancied rights of any people into ‘a higher law’
than divine revelation. With us, thank God, the Bible has been a mount that
burned with fire, which no man dared to touch. The voice issuing from its smoke
and tempest has been recognized as the voice of the great Jehovah, and the
handwriting of the Almighty on the granite edition of the law, the standard of
morals and the basis of right, and the authority from which there is no appeal.
These are facts of hopeful significancy, when we remember that God’s government
of the world all looks to the fortunes of Christianity. The dominion of Christ
is to be universal — from sea to sea. In the divine plan political changes,
commercial interests, forms of government are secondary considerations, mere
instruments to an end — that end the glory of God in the triumph of truth. If
men set themselves in array against the truth of God, either by subtle logic or
open violence, they will be broken in pieces, as a potter’s vessel with a rod
of iron. If a nation, in its conceit of wisdom and its impudence of pretension,
determines what God ought to will and say and do, and overrides his institutes
by their own speculations, and with unanointed hands touches the holy ark, the
doom of Uzzah will be their historic epitaph. If a people give themselves up to
infidelity, erect their reason into a counselor of the Almighty, and make a
majority vote higher authority in morals as well as politics than the
Constitution of the land and the Book of heaven, be sure that signal punishment
treads fast upon the heels of their blasphemous folly. All this our Northern
enemies have done. Wise above what is written, they have mistaken sedition for
liberty, cant for piety; loud-mouthed champions for the freedom of the black
man, they have trampled in the dust the most sacred rights of their own people;
with peace upon their tongues they have brought on and keep up a gigantic war.
Swollen with vanity, they despise the lessons of the past; confident in pride
and power of numbers they are tearing down their own government with the hope
of destroying us, and every step of their progress is marked with aggression,
perfidy, and blood. Resistance to such a people is obedience to God. Whether,
therefore, we pray for our country or against our enemies, we are praying in
harmony with the plans of Providence and the moral interests of mankind.

On the other
hand, the negro among us is an object of respect, affection, and kindness, in
every stage and condition of his being. His religious culture is generally (would
to God I could say universally) provided for; and find the negro where you
will, in the wilds of Africa, in the cities where he is nominally free, in all
that constitutes a rational, respectable manhood, the Southern slave is the
highest type of his race. Whatever abuses may have crept in, and whatever
neglect may be chargeable upon us, if we compare results, slavery has shown
itself to be a great missionary institution. The Southern churches count more
converts among these descendants of Ham than the united efforts of Christendom
have gathered upon all the mission fields of the heathen world. Even in Africa
itself, the most intelligent, civilized and prosperous community is composed of
those who were trained to knowledge, faith, and virtue under the humanizing,
elevating influence of slavery in these Southern States. The depositories of a
high and holy trust in the plans of Providence, it is a debt we owe to heaven
to resist unto death the mad schemes of our enemies — schemes which imply a
blasphemous impeachment of the divine administration, and are fraught with
unutterable woes to the beneficiaries of our guardianship.

The object of
all these remarks is not to promote pride, but to encourage faith — not to hide
our sins by magnifying the sins of our enemies, but to inspire hope in our
struggle, its progress, and its issues. Assembled as we are to make
supplication to God, it seemed to me appropriate to show, by the previous
running outline of facts, that we may approach the mercy-seat with Christian liberty,
and scripturally look for the divine blessing in victory to our arms and
deliverance to our country.

On this fast
day I give you notice, my countrymen, that if there be any upas-tree growing in
the circumference of our land, planted by authority, nurtured by public
admiration, we need not think to destroy its pestiferous virus by gathering its
foliage, or lopping its branches, albeit we leave nothing but its naked trunk,
for through ‘the scent of water, it will bud and bring forth boughs like a plant.’
If we would breathe wholesome air and live unpoisoned, we must cut down the
tree and dig up the roots and bind them all in bundles to be burned.

To bring our
country into the covert of God’s protecting power, it is not absolutely
necessary, however desirable, that every individual should adjust his moral
relations on the basis of the Gospel. Hence, while I mourn the sins which
abound on every side, I shall feel safe if our rulers fear God and honor his
Sabbaths; if our representative bodies legislate in harmony with the divine
law; if our judiciary administer justice, a terror to evil-doers, and a praise
to them that do well. In a word, plant the government on the Bible, talk less
of the rights of the people and more about the rights of God, extirpate the
political heresies which have demoralized society, abolish party tactics, and
let all the ends we aim at be God and country and truth; then ‘God will be nigh
unto us in all we call upon him for.’

By our
secession from the Union and the inauguration of a new government we have put
ourselves in position, if we are wise and have a heart for the work, to amend
what was faulty and to incorporate not only new safeguards against the abuse of
power, but principles conservative of law, order, and morals. Conceiving this
to be a good time, while the public mind is loosened from old ideas and broken
up by the ploughshare of war, for casting abroad the seeds of truth, I avail
myself of the occasion to make, as I believe, an important suggestion.

I do not
desire to see the Church, my own or any other, established by the State; I do
not desire that the State should adopt and publish a creed and command
everybody to believe it; I ask for no inquisitions into any man’s private
opinions or practices; I want no tests or oaths. But I do believe that, in the
organic law, God should be acknowledged in his being, perfections, providence,
and empire; not as the first great cause simply, that is philosophy; not as the
universal father of a world of dependent creatures, that is poetry,
sentimentalism, and may be nothing more — but as the God of the Bible, Maker,
Preserver, Governor, Redeemer, Judge, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The
theocracy of the Jews, though not prescribed as a model for the nations of the
earth, was intended to be the type, in substance if not in form, of all
righteous government. In the progress of civilization and religion, as the
world approaches the grand prophetic period when ‘truth shall spring out of the
earth and righteousness shall look down from heaven,’ the governments of earth
will all be assimilated to this pattern. In confirmation of this idea, it is
already true that the best portions of the civil codes of all the nations of
Asia and Europe, both ancient and modern, were borrowed from the Mosaic laws.
It is equally true of ourselves. The Constitution of the Confederate States of
America has taken one step in the right direction, but does not go far enough.
In its appeal to Almighty God, it uses the language of deism, or natural
religion, rather than of Christianity. It does not honor God as he reveals
himself in those relations which concern us most, and by which the divine glory
is most illustriously declared. Believing, as I do, that God has committed to
us the Christianization of the African race, it is especially harmonious with
this high and holy trust that we invoke and secure the divine favor by a solemn
acknowledgment of his Word, as well as his providence. God has identified his
name and credit among men with Christianity. It is his wisdom and his power.
Before a human breath had broken the solitude of eternal nothingness,
redemption revolved in the infinite mind. In this glorious conception of the
Godhead, the universe was cradled. Creation with its astronomic wonders, the
earth with its mountains piled in majesty, its vales spread out in beauty, its
seas rolling in grandeur, was intended as the theatre for its display. The
genealogic line of antediluvian patriarchs was recorded in sacred story, and
perpetuated in the family of Noah for this. For this, Abraham was called from
Ur of the Chaldees, made the depository of truth, and the father of a great
nation. Around this offspring of the divine mind inspiration has clustered the
marvelous annals of the Israelitish people, and maintained the royal seed of
David’s line in the house of Judah till Shiloh came. The advent of the Son of
God was the fulfillment of prophecy and promise, and when the chosen race
despised and rejected him, wrath came upon them to the uttermost. Through
provocations innumerable, the nation was preserved in fulfillment of the
Scriptures, for the introduction of Christianity. Their malicious unbelief,
their insulting scorn of Christ was the signal for their overthrow and
dispersion. Even now these tribes ‘of the wandering foot and weary breast,’
though scattered and peeled, are kept distinct, unmingled, a miraculous
demonstration of the truth of God and the fearful guilt of making light of
Jesus of Nazareth. Wherever you find a Jew, on the banks of the Ganges or the
Tiber, the Thames or the Rhine, the Jordan or the Mississippi, you behold a
living witness of God’s primitive justice in the defense of the Christian
religion. His isolation, loneliness, and perpetuity is at once a miracle and a
seal which find their explanation in the threatenings of the past and the
prophecies of the future. He has survived the faggot and the sword, Papal
persecution and Moslem barbarism — the reproach of nations and the waste of
ages — on purpose to be at last the crowning trophy of the all-conquering

The vast
extent and unity of the Roman Empire is an historic fact which has its solution
in the plans of God for the easy and rapid circulation of Christianity. But
when the truth had triumphed over the throne of the Caesars and the Church of
God had been corrupted by power and pride and numbers, by another touch of the
finger of Providence this colossal dominion fell to rise no more. Its
disruption by the Northern hordes was another step in the solemn march of
history toward the grand issue which regulates the dealings of God with men and
nations, even the honor of the cross and the diffusion of Christianity. If we
scan the shadows which flicker over the tablets of the past, or search amid the
cemeteries of fallen dynasties and buried empires, or if we trace the path of
revolution and commerce and gauge the comparative strength of Pagan and
Christian governments, everywhere — always, alike, in the epitaph of the dead
and in the annals of the living, we read the same great historic lesson —
”Them that honor me I will honor and they that despise me will be lightly
esteemed.” Oh! if we would be ‘a wise and understanding people’ — ‘a great
nation, having God nigh unto us in all that we call upon him for’ — let us avow
our faith in his revelation, identify our government with his honor, and commit
our interests to the power that is pledged to perpetuate the Church and to
insure her dominion. Then, amid the rise and fall of kingdoms and all the
mutations of time, our Republic shall embody one element — pure, true, eternal
— an element which shall ally us in friendship with heaven and stamp upon all
our prosperity the seal of the divine blessing.

I shall not
now attempt to show the pre-eminent importance of the Christian Sabbath, its
indispensable relations in the government of God, its value as a day of rest to
man and beast, nor its connection with parental duty and the worship of the
sanctuary. I rest the doctrine on the naked command, ‘Remember the Sabbath day
to keep it holy,’ when I say that every legislative enactment which requires or
sanctions its violation ought to be repealed. No man has a right to appropriate
it to a secular use; no corporation can do it without guilt, and all the people
together cannot delegate to their representatives the right to set it aside or
in any wise lower its claims. Say what you please — bring up your strong
reasons — exhaust the argument — when the debate is ended there stands — the
fourth commandment unrepealed — with the thunder of Sinai in its hand and the
penal sanctions of eternity at its back. There it stands, vindicated, in the
providence of God, in the curse of the nations who have profaned it and
re-enacted in the blessings which swarm around its sanctification. To collate
and comment upon the many passages of Holy Writ which set forth the claims of
this hallowed day and illustrate the divine administration in reference to it
would be inadmissible now. The continued persistent testimony of the Bible and
Providence in favor of the Sabbath shut us up to the duty of hallowing the day
and sweeping the statute-book of all opposing enactments or plunging with open
eyes and unshielded bosom upon ‘the thick bosses of Jehovah’s buckler.’

There is
another statute of Georgia adverse, as I believe, to the will of God and the
true interests of humanity. I mean the law which forbids us to teach our
negroes to read. This enactment invades the rights of the master and the
privileges of the slave. It is the master’s duty to teach his servants, as well
as his children, the doctrines and morals of our holy religion, and the slave
is entitled to the advantages in the use of which he may learn to offer to his
Maker a rational and acceptable worship. Our Heavenly Father certainly never
intended any human mind to be kept in darkness and ignorance. The negro is an
immortal being and it is his right, by the law of creation and the purchase of
redemption, to read for himself the epistles of his Redeemer’s love. If the
institution of slavery cannot be maintained except at the expense of the black
man’s immortal interests, in the name of heaven, I say — let it perish. I know
the circumstances out of which our unfortunate legislation sprang. It was
partly retaliatory, in rebuke of the incendiary publications of the North, and
partly precautionary, on prudential grounds. But the logic of the law is as bad
as the law itself. To make the negro suffer for the sins of the Yankee is the
grossest injustice, and yet this is the practical effect of our law. As a
prudential policy it is founded upon a false idea. Knowledge, so far from
gendering insubordination, will promote the loyalty of our colored population.
Let them learn from the Scripture that their relation is ordained of God — that
he prescribes their duties and makes fidelity to their earthly masters apart of
the service due to him — our hands will be strengthened, our mouths filled with
argument, and we shall put to silence the ignorance of foolish men. A Bible in
every cabin will be the best police of the country, and, despite the ravings of
a brainless fanaticism, subjection and order will reign throughout our land.
Thinking, as I do, that one of the moral ends of this war is to reform the
abuses of slavery, I ought to add that all laws and parts of laws which
authorize or allow arbitrary interference with the connubial relations of
slaves ought to be rescinded. It is due to humanity, to the great law of
reciprocal affection, to the will of God. ‘What God hath joined together let no
man put asunder.’ The truth is, that on this whole subject public opinion,
legislative enactment, and judicial administration are all too liberal and too
loose. The New Testament allows divorce only for one cause; our Code grants it,
on application, for almost any showing. A law providing for separation in
certain extreme cases, without the privilege of marrying again, would promote
the peace of many families and prevent ruptures in many more. But in relation
to slaves we have no law at all. The whole question is open. Husbands and wives
are subject to all the contingencies of time and circumstances— of gain and
avarice, of passion and caprice, of the law of inheritance whether regulated by
testament or appraisement. Verily, ‘these things ought not so to be.’ It is all
wrong— a stigma upon our civilization and an offence to our Christianity. Here,
then, upon our knees before High Heaven, let us vow to reform. Yes, my
countrymen, let us do right — fear God and keep his commandments. Let us put
slavery upon its scriptural basis — eliminate its long-tolerated abuses, defend
it not only by force of arms but by proving to the world that it is the great
conservator of republican government, and that it is really consistent with the
highest development and the greatest happiness of the negro race. I will not go
further into details. Let these suffice. ‘Keep therefore and do them, for this
is your wisdom and understanding in the sight of the nations.’

Having said
this much about setting the government right before God and his law, it will be
appropriate, in conclusion, to remind you that while we fast and pray, it will
be acceptable to God and of service to our beloved country to confess and
forsake our own sins. God’s blessing may rest upon a Christian government while
yet he chastises the guilty people for their transgressions. We are passing
through a terrible ordeal. Some sad and sickening developments have been made.
Heaven has blessed us generally with fruitful seasons and bounteous harvests,
but we are sacrificing them to our lusts. Restlessness and discontent prevail.
Because of swearing the land mourneth. The love of money, which is the root of
all evil, abounds, runs wild — grows reckless, almost ferocious. Extortion,
pitiless extortion, is making havoc in the land. We are devouring each other.
Avarice, with full barns, puts the bounties of Providence under bolts and bars,
waiting with eager longings for higher prices. The widow’s wail and childhood’s
cry fall upon his ear unheeded. The soldier’s wife shivers in her cabin and
moistens her crust with her tears, but the griping, grasping monster waits for
a darker hour to make sure he loses not a dime of her little all. The greed of
gain— the lowest, meanest infirmity of the human mind — stalks among us,
unabashed by the heroic sacrifices of our women or the gallant deeds of our
soldiers. Speculation in salt and bread and meat runs riot in defiance of the
thunders of the pulpit, executive interference, and the horrors of threatened
famine. Factories (though there are some noble exceptions), as if Providence
were a partner like-minded with them, and had brought on the calamities of the
country for their benefit, are making fortunes from the blood of the brave and
the sighs of the innocent and lovely. Scorning the currency of the country they
demand provision for their manufactures, and conscious of power over the
necessities of the people they fix the price of one lower than justice can
approve, and of the other, higher than patriotism would take. In these respects
we are going from bad to worse.

These are the
clouds upon our sky, big with the rain of grief and woe. God helping us we can
manage the enemies that come to us with arms in their hands, but how are we to
escape these frogs of Egypt — these all-devouring locusts that come up into our
houses, our beds, our kneading-troughs, is more than I can tell. In answer to
prayer this day, oh Lord God, abate the plague and save us from violence
without and selfishness within.

Men and
brethren, if we would help our imperiled country let us cultivate personal
piety, live nearer to God ourselves, and promote religion in our neighborhoods
by our labors, our example, and our prayers. Let us set our faces against all
injustice, oppression, and wrong. Remember the poor and needy. Let us stand by
our government, our army, our independence, by confidence, encouragement, and
every necessary sacrifice. With a Christian constitution, a faithful
administration, a moral and religious people, we may look for peace ere long,
an honorable nationality, a long bright career in which our prosperity shall be
durable as the stars of heaven and abundant as the waves of the sea.


 Book Review

Make Me a Map of the
Valley: The Civil War Journal of Stonewall Jackson’s Topographer

By Jedediah Hotchkiss;
Edited by Archie P. McDonald

Southern Methodist University Press, 352 pp.


by H. Rondel Rumburg

Hotchkiss had a Northern birth and a Southern heart. He adopted the South from
conviction as well as a love for her geography. He was an expert on the
topography of the Shenandoah Valley that he appreciated so highly. This man was
a cartographer par excellence. This
meticulous map maker was also scrupulous about keeping his Journal. Regularly
from March 10th, 1862 until April 18th, 1865 one can read
the personal record of events as they unfolded in relation to the life of its
journalist and in relation to Jackson’s Corps. Hotchkiss was thirty-four when
he began his journal of events in the 2nd Corps.

Hotchkiss was a
very talented and knowledgeable man who had earned his living as a schoolteacher.
He had also studied geology and botany. His Christian faith was not
hypocritical but it was a vital living faith. His church relationship was

This reviewer has used this volume with great
satisfaction. Those on “Stonewall” Jackson’s staff, besides Hotchkiss, pop into
view from time to time and especially those whom Hotchkiss personally
befriended. Hotchkiss’ love for Christ and the Christian faith are not deleted
from this volume as so many reprinted journals and diaries these days. There is
too often an overt campaign to achieve political correctness and sanitize the
literature of God and the Bible. Thankfully the editor is faithful to the
Jedediah Hotchkiss original.

From page 269 to
321 there are many very useful footnotes that help identify information or
expand on a matter to help the reader with the continuity even if he does not
have a thorough background in Confederate Literature. This edition is also
indexed which makes it even more useful.

mighty sword was manifest in the form of a sketchbook, pencils, pens, ink,
binoculars and simple surveying instruments. An old cliché would be true, “The
pen is mightier than the sword.” His maps were noted for their accuracy.

The Richmond News Leader said of this
edition that it was “… skillfully edited and highly revealing … undeniably is
the best personal narrative of the armies of Jackson and Lee.” And later the Leader noted that this Journal “… can be
called the most superior Confederate staff officer’s chronicle in existence.”
This is high praise but accurate from this reviewers point of view.

This is an
excellent firsthand account. Try it and you will like it! Bon appétit!


must remember who we are and what we must be about:

SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we will commit the vindication of the cause
for which we fought.  To your strength will be given the defense of the
Confederate soldier’s good name, the guardianship of his history, the emulation
of his virtues, the perpetuation of those principles which he loved and which
you love also, and those ideals which made him glorious and which you also
cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see that the true history of the South is
presented to future generations.


 Chaplain’s Handbook


Sons of
Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged
Sesquicentennial Edition of the Chaplain’s Handbook.   It
is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic,
SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen;
there has also been added a third
burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America;
a chapter on Praying
in Public
has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public
  All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the
handbook will find it even more useful than before.  There is the same
cloth cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to
a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication.
Contact SCV headquarters or for a copy.

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles|Anno Domini 2013|February|Issue No. 86

2013 February 10
Comments Off
Posted by John Wilkes Booth

Chaplains’ Corps Chronicles

of the

Sons of Confederate Veterans

Domini 2013


No. 86

“That in all
things Christ might have the preeminence.”

“I think it worth a lifetime of hardship to prepare, under God,
one of our dear defenders thus to die.” Chaplain J. Wm. Jones

Chaplain-in-Chief Mark Evans

20 Sharon

SC 29607



Past Chaplain-in-Chief H. Rondel Rumburg

PO Box 472

Spout Spring, Virginia 24593



from a Confederate Chaplain

you are struggling for the Book of Books. It is a war of principles as well as
a war of peoples. The Bible against falsehood, God against the infidel. The
present reign of terror at the North, reminds one of the French revolution of

John Jones

9th Georgia






Fellow Compatriots in the Chaplains’ Corps and Friends:


          Some of us in
the Confederacy are experiencing ice, snow and very cold temperatures this
winter. One is reminded of the brave men under inclement circumstances who were
standing watch, marching, nursing wounds, poorly clad, fighting and dying in
1863 (150 years ago now).

          The Daily Virginian for February 6, 1863 recorded:


The weather is conducting a very vigorous and very
rigorous campaign against the comfort of mortals at present. Its attack comes
in the shape of frigid temperatures, repeated snows and cutting winds….
Yesterday was a genuine winter day—no modern specimen of qualified and
apologetic winter weather—but unreserved, unconditional and uncompromising….
Business was at a low ebb, almost suspended…. A few adventurous persons, more
daring and fortunate than others, patronized that almost obsolete past-time of sleigh
riding…. But the chief significance of this rigid rule of the weather is in the
military aspect and bearing. It will entail untold suffering of our noble
troops in the field. But the enemy will suffer, too, probably more than they.
There is some consolation in that fact. And “fighting” Joe Hooker will have to
contain himself in peace. That terrible man, whose meat and drink are human
flesh and blood, and whose path is a ghastly Golgotha, even he must bow to the
imperious will of the weather, and be still….


What the reader becomes aware of in this news account is that there was
a remembrance of the men who were doing their duty to honor God by protecting
home and country in the frigid conditions. The men were usually ill-suited for
the situation. Why was that true? Their clothing was in tatters, shoes were
soleless (feet often wrapped in rags), tents in many instances were nonexistent
and blankets were scarce. “
Every action, every word, seemed to be measured by his
duty to his God and his country. Hardships were to be borne cheerfully, not
complained of. He lay in his single blanket in the snow and ate his simple
ration with the same cheerfulness as if he were enjoying the luxuries of home”
[Christ in the Camp, 439].

they would awake with many inches of snow lying upon them. Someone observed
that the encampment in that condition before the men arose looked like a great
cemetery. Oh, what men these were in the Confederate Army:


As illustrating how men would come out to preaching under difficulties, one of the chaplains reported that one Sunday in the early winter of 1863 there came a fall of snow, which he supposed would entirely break up his Sunday service, as they had no chapel; but, at the appointed hour, he heard singing at their usual place of worship, and looking out he saw that a large congregation had assembled. He, of course, went at once to the place and preached to deeply interested men, who stood in snow several inches deep, and among the number he counted fourteen barefooted men, besides scores whose shoes afforded very little protection from the snow. Many times have I seen barefooted men attending prayer-meeting or preaching in the snow or during the coldest weather of winter [248, 249].


A refrain the chaplains often heard regarding the elements from these
brave men was: “
We go on picket; we march and fight, and do all other
military duty in any weather that comes, and we cannot see why we should allow
the weather to interrupt our religious privileges” [249]. What an admonition!         

We need to remember that with those soldier’s in such
circumstances was the chaplain. Chaplains were to be an encouragement to their
men spiritually and physically in all circumstances. Consider what was expected
of the chaplain:


The great
business of the chaplain is to preach Christ publicly, and from tent to tent….
We want men physically able as well as willing to endure hardships and
privations. If a chaplain would live up to the full measure of his usefulness,
he must be with his regiment on the weary march (frequently resigning his horse
to some foot-sore soldier), lie-with them around the bivouac-fire after evening
prayers are over; be drenched on the outposts, or face the pelting snow-storm;
divide with some hungry soldier his last hard cracker, and, in a word, share
with his regiment whatever hardships they may be called on to endure. Now, if a
brother is physically unable to endure these hardships, he had best not enter
the work, but there is no question that many a delicate brother would have his
health permanently improved, if he would thus learn to “endure hardness as a
good soldier” [229-230].


Certainly in our time, which lacks
commitment, people often show indifference to eternal things, yea even their
eternal souls? Some foul weather is all that is needed for many to renounce
their faith for the weather to them cancels out their public duty of worship
but under the same conditions they go to work. What is wrong with this picture?
Materialism is really their god!






Please find in this issue our
Chaplain-in-Chief’s words dealing with Lee and Jackson whose birthdays are
commemorated this month. Then our Chaplain-in-Chief gives us an excellent
presentation on General Robert E. Lee, The Christian
Your editor has supplied a study on The Christian Origin of These United States. Past Chaplain in
Chief Alister C. Anderson give us a fine presentation on Marse Robert, Stonewall and the Pathfinder
of the Seas.
This issue includes A
Confederate Sermon, submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard.  This
sermon is by Rev.
James H. Thornwell
on The Death of John C. Calhoun.
This is Part II.
Our Book Review
is by Rex Miller, reviewing
“Stonewall” Jackson’s Chaplain: Beverly Tucker Lacy.

Soli Deo Gloria,

H. Rondel Rumburg

[Compatriots, if you know of any members of the Chaplains’
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Chaplain-in-Chief’s Message, Rev. Mark W. Evans

Robert E. Lee, The Christian Warrior, Rev. Mark W. Evans

*The Christian
Origin of These United States, Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg

*Marse Robert,
Stonewall and the Pathfinder of the Seas, Rev. Fr. Alister C. Anderson

*A Confederate
James H. Thornwell

*Book Review: “Stonewall”
Jackson’s Chaplain: Beverly Tucker Lacy






fellow Chaplains and Friends of the Corps:

country’s present deluge of immorality did not come as a chance event.  C. Gregg Singer, in his book, A Theological Interpretation of American History,
cited Benjamin Morgan Palmer, Presbyterian minister and defender of the
Confederacy.  Palmer said before the War
for Southern Independence, on November 29, 1860:  “To the South is assigned the high position
of defending before all nations the cause of all religion and of all
truth.  In this trust we are resisting
the power which wars against constitutions and laws and compacts, against
Sabbaths and sanctuaries, against the family, the state, and the church, which
blasphemously invades the prerogatives of God and rebukes the Most High for the
errors of His administration.” He almost sounds like he is living today.  By the act of SCV chaplains opening their
Bibles to address their camps, they testify to the authority of God’s Word and
thereby rebuke the anti-God, anti-Bible, anti-morality, anti-constitution,
anti-truth, and anti-South disturbers of our land.  These implacable belligerents against God’s
truth are many in number, gloating in their tyranny, but helpless and powerless
before the Judge of all the earth.  “If
God be for us, who can be against us?”
Our forefathers had courage, unmovable principles, and unshakable faith
in the God of the Bible.

SCV chaplains, let us lift up the blood stained banner of Christ and follow the
Confederate chaplains, proclaiming the old, old story of Jesus and His
love.  These soldiers of the cross were
used of God to bring tens of thousands to a saving knowledge of the Lord Jesus
Christ.  They were likely devoid of any
politically correct chaplains, missionaries, evangelists, colporteurs, or
Christian workers.  The Lord brought the
increase and the South benefits today. If we hold the line, it will be because
the Lord enables us.  One old preacher
said:  “Prayer is the first thing, the
second thing, the third thing necessary to a minister.  Pray, then, my dear brother; pray, pray,
pray.”  May our sovereign Lord strengthen
our hands, bless our camps and give us many who know the joyful sound.

in Christ’s service,

W. Evans






Mark W.

The Apostle Paul said:  “The weapons of our warfare are not carnal,
but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds” (II Corinthians
10:4).  Undergirding the chaplains,
missionaries and evangelists of the Confederate armies was a humble band of
Christian workers, called colporteurs.
They distributed Bibles, New Testaments, Christian books and
tracts.    Churches and societies sent
them into the armies, with small financial support, to sow the seed of the
Gospel.  Confederate Chaplain, W. W.
Bennett wrote:

record of their labors is the record of the army revival; they fanned its flame
and spread it on every side by their prayers, their conversations, their books,
and their preaching
[W. W. Bennett, The Great Revival in the Southern Armies, 71].

They used tracts printed in leaflet form,
small enough to fit into a pocket and short enough to hold attention.  One Confederate soldier called them “silent
but powerful preachers” [Bennett, 78].
Rev. A. E. Dickson, General Superintendent of the Baptist Colportage
Board, preserved the words of an officer who saw the title of a colporteur’s
tract, “A Mother’s Parting Words to her Soldier Boy.”

 “Oh, sir, I can never thank you enough for
this tract!  The title itself is a most
affecting sermon to me.  My mother spoke
words of tenderness and love to me as I was about to leave her for the army,
and everything that reminds me of those words affects my heart.

Dickson recorded:

rolled down his cheeks while he spoke, so that a bystander afterwards remarked
that he had never seen a man more perfectly subdued
[Jones, Christ
in the Camp,
178. 179].


The tract, “We Pray for You at Home,” by John A.
Broadus, serves as an example of the appeal of these “silent preachers.”  The opening words are:

pray for you at home] [w]hen we meet for worship in the Church where you used
to meet with us.  Sadly we miss you
there, as we look at the place in which you loved to sit, and which for all
these weary months has been vacant.  Ah!
Many a manly form is wanting to our number, and many a deep, full tone to the
harmony of the songs of praise we once delighted to sing together.  But we who remain, with all the tenderness of
true affection, blended with the sacredness of solemn worship, pray then for
you. And often, as the heartfelt petitions are uttered, tears are in every eye,
and subdued sobs are heard here and there, while we pour forth our whole souls
in supplication for our country and for you.


next paragraph tells of family prayers:
“We gather our now broken circle for family prayer.”  It speaks of the “throbbing heart,” likened
to the times in the past when someone was very ill, and “we cried to God that
He would not take the loved one away.”
Next, the writer speaks of prayer in solitude:  “And this is no general supplication, such as
others may share in, but the yearning spirit pleads for one alone – for one
whose dear image rises in a moment to view, whose voice, associated with the
fondest recollections of other days, can almost be heard now in the stillness
of the closet, whose present condition and wants are from the latest tidings
anxiously inferred and conjectured – with all the particularity of personal
affection, one prays for one; and that kind Father on high, who formed them for
mutual love, is beholding both at the same moment, and often, no doubt, though
they are widely severed, at the same moment turns the rising prayer of the one
into showers of blessing upon the other.”
The tract also speaks of prayers in the heart, uttered day and night,
“heard by Him who, amid the wide tumult of earth’s voices of business and
suffering, of folly and crime, misses no word of prayer, no sigh of

The tract explains the most needed prayer
of all – intercession for the eternal soul:

 What shall it comfort us, and what shall it
profit you, if you gain the noblest earthly triumphs, the most abiding earthly
fame, yea, every good that earth can give, and lose your soul!  If we continually beseech the Lord that your
mortal life may be preserved and made happy, with what absorbing, agonizing
earnestness must we pray for your immortal soul, that it may be delivered from
the eternal degradation and wretchedness which are the wages of sin, and be
brought to know the sweetness of God’s service here, the rapture of His
presence hereafter. * * *  We pray that
you may be inclined and enabled to commit your soul to the Divine Savior, who
died to redeem us, and ever lives to intercede for us, and who with yearning
love is ever saying, “Come unto me.”

such tracts and such pleading, it is no surprise that tens of thousands of
Confederate warriors repented of their sins and believed in Jesus Christ as
Lord and Savior.  These few titles among
many from the South Carolina Tract Society suggest some of the eternal topics
unfolded to the men in gray:  “Am I
Self-Deceived,” “What Is It to Believe on Christ,” “Dialogue between the Bible
and a Sinner,” “A Convenient Season,” “Grieving the Spirit of God,” “The Way of
Peace,” “Profane Swearing,” “Obstacles to Conversion,” “The Soldier’s Victory,”
“The Wrath to Come,” “True Conversion,” “Kind Words to a Wounded Soldier,”
“Drinking, Disobedience, and Death,” and “The Sinner’s Friend.”  Many societies, church agencies, and individuals
produced astounding numbers of tracts and other Christian literature.  Chaplain W. W. Bennett wrote, “But as all the
Churches were engaged in the work of printing and circulating, it is not an
over-estimate to say that hundreds of millions of pages were sent out by the
different societies” [Bennett, 71, 72].
The old, old story of Christ’s redeeming love never changes.  It is desperately needed in this dark hour of
our country.  Jesus Christ still promises
to not cast out any who come to Him” (John 6:37).  The hymn writer expressed it well, “Nothing
in my hand I bring, simply to Thy cross I cling.”



The Christian Origin of These United

Dr. H. Rondel Rumburg


The Psalmist wrote:

By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all
the host of them by the breath of his mouth. He gathereth the waters of the sea
together as an heap: he layeth up the depth in storehouses. Let all the earth
fear the LORD: let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him. For he
spake, and it was done; he
commanded, and it stood fast. The LORD bringeth the counsel of the heathen to
nought: he maketh the devices of the people of none effect. The counsel of the
LORD standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations. Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD; and the people whom
he hath chosen for his own inheritance
.  (Psalm 33:6-12).

“Blessed is the nation
whose God is the LORD,” these are God’s words from His inspired Word. The word “blessed” could be translated “happy.”
The nation is truly happy that has the self-existent and eternal Lord
for its God. In a sermon preached in 1784 Pastor Samuel McClintock asserted:

In a word, the history
of all nations and ages, shews that public virtue makes a people great and
happy…. This is the constitution of God—the immutable law of his kingdom,
founded in the infinite perfection of his nature, so that unless God should
change, that is, cease to be God, we cannot be happy, unless we are a virtuous
people…. But as virtue is the basis of republics, their existence depends upon
it, and the moment that the people in general lose their virtue, and become
venal and corrupt, they cease to be free. This shews of what importance it is
to preserve public virtue under such a constitution as ours, and how much it
becomes all who have any regard to the good of their country, and of posterity,
and who wish the scenes of future happiness and grandeur… [Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, 805].

Confederate Chaplain
Beverly Tucker Lacy said of the Confederate resistance, “This may be the last
struggle for constitutional liberty which will be made on this continent.”
These words seem to have been proved right by subsequent history to this point.

There were three periods which
should be considered in this study. They are: [1] the pre great awakening, [2]
the great awakening and [3] the post great awakening.

The period before the great awakening. That was a
period of spiritual decline with the attending issues of such a decline.
Spiritual decline endangers any people. This was a period of conflict and
contention in the spiritual life of the people which manifested itself in moral
decline. Many had grown up without their hearts having been renewed by the Holy
Spirit. Christians had dropped their guard and things like the half-way
covenant, the encroachment of heresy at Harvard, William and Mary and other
institutions, the loss of Biblical convictions, etc. these endangered the
spiritual insight. Samuel Miller in an early sermon reminded, “The truth is,
that political liberty does not rest, solely, on the form of government, under
which a nation may happen to live.” A bit later he said, “The prevalence of
real Christianity, tends to promote the principles of the love of political
freedom, by the doctrines which it teaches” [Political Sermons of the Founding Era, 1155, 1156]. Thus a time of
spiritual declension does the opposite. The loss of true godliness for worldly
gain had virtually brought the Puritan era to an end. Expansion into new lands
and new colonies with such rapid growth, lack of discipline, shortage of
ministers, warring Indians and the strife for survival produced a situation which
ignored or disregarded the spiritual needs of men.

The Great Awakening was the work of God. The central
doctrinal truths in the Great Awakening were the holiness of God, the
sinfulness of man and the grace of God offered through the Lord Jesus Christ.
The result of an awakening is the putting right of sinful men with the holy God
by grace through Jesus Christ. Repentance of sin and faith in the Lord Jesus is
the outcome of the work of the Holy Spirit in an awakening. The Great Awakening
focused attention on the nature of virtue, both public and private [Mark A.
Noll, Christians in the American
, 45].

The Lord God was pleased to send
an outpouring of the Holy Spirit among churches that believed in the Lord
rather than putting their trust in London (or Washington D.C. as today) as the
center of their being. One writer called the Great Awakening, America’s
“national conversion” [H. Richard Niebuhr, The
Kingdom of God in America
, 126]. This was a time of the return to and a
refreshing of the spiritual relationship with the Lord. The colonizing of the
country and the conception of the nation were Christian in purpose. The Great
Awakening was a return to the foundations previously laid by true Christianity.

There are two basic elements
which had profound influence on America. The two questions and answers reflect
this: “Who is God?” God is the absolute sovereign of the universe. “What is
man?” Man is a fallen being who was
created in the image of God and needs saving grace through God’s Son. A country
based on a Biblical understanding of these two presuppositions will reflect it
in her governing institutions. The depravity of man was guarded against in the
way the documents of the new Republic were worded. The need for the
superintending help of God was acknowledged.

The men whom God raised up during
the Awakening were quite notable. There was Jonathan Edwards, George
Whitefield, Samuel Davies, the Tennents, Theodore Frelinghuysen, James
Davenport, etc. This Awakening began in New England and spread. A fruit of this
Awakening was the Baptist pastor and historian Isaac Backus who was converted
in 1741. Backus asserted:

It is supposed
by multitudes that in submitting to government we give up some part of our
liberty because they imagine that there is something in their nature
incompatible with each other. But the word of truth plainly shows, that man
first lost his freedom by breaking over the rules of government…. A grand cause
of this evil is ignorance of what we are and where we are, for did we view
things in their true light, it would appear to be as absurd and dangerous for
us to aspire after anything beyond our capacity or out of the rule of our
duty…. Godliness with contentment is
great gain
. But they that will take
a contrary course fall into temptation
and a snare and into many foolish and hurtful lusts which drown men in
destruction and perdition
, 1 Tim. vi, 6, 9. [Isaac Backus on Church, State, and Calvinism, 309].

All strata of society were
impacted by the Awakening. “The Great Awakening created a sense of national
unity…. Without Christianity, in short, the War for Independence would not have
been fought” [Journal of Christian
, Vol. III, No. 1, 2]. The unity that Christians have is a
result of our glorious Redeemer. As a result of the Great Awakening there was
reformation as the believers renewed their purpose to live for the Lord in
accord with His Word, and there was an ingathering of souls as people called upon
the Lord for salvation from their sins through the blood of Christ. Local
churches were revived and strengthened.

The Great Awakening laid the
ground work for the political awakening that occurred. Public figures were
brought to taste and see that the Lord is good. Patrick Henry sat under the
ministry of Samuel Davies and at times George Whitefield who were so greatly
used of the Lord in Virginia and by grace his life was impacted in a way that
was translated into public service of Henry. The writings as well as the
preaching of Jonathan Edwards had an effect on such men as Samuel Adams. Even
Benjamin Franklin became enamored by George Whitefield’s preaching.

The post Great Awakening period. This was a
time of the working out of salvation with fear and trembling. “The period after
the Great Awakening was a time in which the principles of the revival were
being digested, rejected, developed, opposed, expanded, or trans-formed”
[Noll]. This period was a time of implementing the principles of the Bible into
all areas of life.

When the First War of
Independence came many ministers were recruiters with a price on their heads
and some were soldiers. The Baptists had been persecuted, but now became
firebrands for independence and religious liberty. Richard Furman the Baptist
minister offered his services as a soldier in the Continental Army and was told
to return to the pulpit because his messages were more effective against the
enemy than a musket. This South Carolinian preached powerfully on soul liberty.
He preached from stumps, barns and pulpits, and as he pleaded listeners began
to reverse their loyalties and join the fight for freedom. He had to eventually
flee his state because the British offered a reward for his capture and as
their army encroached on South Carolina there was fear he would be captured.

Peter Muhlenberg pastor of a
staid Lutheran congregation in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia on a Lord’s
Day morning in 1775 delivered a blistering sermon on Ecclesiastes 3:1, “For everything there is a season, and a
time for every matter under heaven.”
At the conclusion of the sermon and
benediction he said, “In the language of the Holy writ, there is a time for all
things. There is a time to preach and a time to fight.” There was a pause and
then he disrobed revealing his colonel uniform of the Continental Army. Then he
declared, “And now is the time to fight!” And declared, “Roll the drums for
recruits!” He marched to war that afternoon at the head of three hundred men.
He was to distinguish himself under Gen. George Washington.


Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) was
called “the complete revolutionary.” He wrote A Plan for the Establishment of Public Schools and the Diffusion of
Knowledge in Pennsylvania; to Which Are Added, Thoughts upon the Mode of Education,
Proper in a Republic
(Philadelphia, 1786). He noted in section [15]

… I beg leave to
remark that the only foundation for a useful education in a republic is to be
laid in RELIGION. Without this, there can be no virtue, and without virtue
there can be no liberty, and liberty is the object and life of all republican

Such is my
veneration for every religion that reveals the attributes of the Deity, or a
future state of rewards and punishments…. But the religion I mean to recommend
in this place is the religion of JESUS CHRIST.

It is foreign to
my purpose to hint at the arguments which establish the truth of the Christian
revelation. My only business is to declare that all its doctrines and precepts
are calculated to promote the happiness of society and the safety and wellbeing
of civil government…. I must beg leave upon this subject to go one step
further. In order more effectually to secure to our youth the advantages of a
religious education, it is necessary to impose upon them the doctrines and
discipline of a particular church. Man is naturally … ungovernable … and
observations on particular societies and countries will teach us [18] that when
we add the restraints of ecclesiastical to those of domestic and civil
government, we produce in him the highest degrees of order and virtue…. Far be
it from me to recommend the doctrines or modes of worship of any one
denomination of Christians….

Under this head,
I must be excused in not agreeing with those modern writers who have opposed
the use of the Bible as a schoolbook…. How great is the difference between
making young people acquainted with the interesting and entertaining truths
contained in the Bible, and the fables of Moore … or the doubtful histories of
antiquity! I maintain that there is no book of its size in the whole world that
contains half so much useful knowledge for the government of states or the
direction of the affairs of individuals as the Bible… [Hyneman and Lutz, American Political Writing During the
Founding Era
(1760-1805) Vol. I, 681 ff.].

is obvious in an impartial study of early American History is that the
Christian faith was the predominant force in the founding of the country and
its government. The words of Chaplain John Jones of the 9th Georgia
reminds us that the same purpose was true of the South in 1861; he stated: “Soldiers, you are struggling for the
Book of Books. It is a war of principles as well as a war of peoples. The Bible
against falsehood, God against the infidel. The present reign of terror at the
North, reminds one of the French revolution of 1789.”

President George Washington was
right, “… it is impossible to govern rightly without God and the Bible.” How
can we deny the principles of our forefathers and prosper? Only our great God
can change the mess we find ourselves in at this dark hour.

When we
remember the promise, “Blessed is the
nation whose God is the LORD; and the people whom he hath chosen for his own
(Ps. 33:12) our cry should be: Lord “Wilt thou not revive us again: that thy people may rejoice in thee”
(Ps. 85:6)? Yes, we need another Great Awakening!

Robert, Stonewall and the Pathfinder of the Seas

Chaplain-in-Chief Alister C. Anderson

   Three great Southern Confederate heroes were born in
Virginia in the month of January. The first one is regarded by many, many
generations as the greatest general that these United States have ever had and
he is among the greatest in the history of the world. The second hero is
considered by many to be the greatest American military tactician. His tragic
death after Chancellorsville was the primary factor in the military defeat of
the Confederate States of America. The third was the greatest scientist of
these United States. All three men had served the Federal Armed Forces
brilliantly before they resigned their U.S. of America commissions to serve
their native State of Virginia. They did this because their Christian
conscience and familial love demanded that they serve the people and the
communities in which they were born and with whom they had lived.

The first great hero is General Robert E. Lee. He was
born on the 19th of January 1807. What more of importance can one
say about him that has not been said already? Many, many people have written
and spoken brilliantly about him through the years. Today however, in our
country, millions of people have never heard of him. The same can be said of
the second hero, Lt. Gen. Thomas Jonathan Jackson. He was born on the 21st
of January 1824. What more can we say about him? He too has been the subject of
many superb biographies, books and impressive inspiring speeches. He too is not
known today by millions of people. The third great hero, Matthew Fontaine
Maury, was born on the 14th of January 1806. What can I say about
him? A great deal! Why? Because not nearly as many people have written or
spoken about him in these United States. Why is that? Because he exemplifies,
as a man, what Jesus Christ said of himself as recorded in the Gospel of St.
Matthew 13:57, “A prophet will always be held in honor, except in his own
country and in his own house.” And what do we mean to say about Maury by
quoting that verse from the Bible? We mean that this remarkable man, indeed we
can raise the stakes and say, this; Maury who is a Southern American Christian
gentleman, warrior and scientific genius was never really appreciated and
honored in these United States until after the War Between the States. Maury
was recognized by some of the American public, but his official American
political and military superiors and scientific peers gave him little
appreciation. He was roundly censured by Federal government officials even
after the War Between the States. His name was carefully omitted in the
official records of the departments he created before the War when he was a
U.S. Naval officer. He was, however, abundantly recognized, appreciated and
honored throughout Europe and in other parts of the world from the very first
publication of his many momentous maritime scientific discoveries when he was
just a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy at 29 years of age.

There are two quotations that express the central idea
and ideal of just who are Robert Edward Lee and Thomas Jonathan Jackson. The
first quotation is from the writings of the Rev. Robert Lewis Dabney who was
and is today regarded as one of the finest Southern American Christian
theologians. Here I will digress to write that Rev. Dabney will always be
thankfully remembered by true patriotic Christian Southerners for a speech he
gave to a Presbyterian Synod in 1873. In that address he responded to the
results of the Federal government’s pre-meditated, maliciously vindictive plans
for the Reconstruction of the South. Dabney had the heroic General Lee in mind
when he entitled his speech, “Duty of the Hour,” and said these words:

A brave
people may, for a time, be overpowered by brute force and be neither dishonored
nor destroyed. But if the spirit of independence and honor be lost among the
people, this is the death of the common weal; a death on which waits no
resurrection. Dread, then, this degradation of spirit worse than defeat, than
subjugation, than poverty, than hardship, than prison, than death.

Rev. Dabney had met the former
Governor of Texas, F. W. Stockdale, and took down some notes that the Governor
had made in 1870 at White Sulphur Springs, Virginia. Governor Stockdale and
General Lee became personal friends before The War Between the States when they
served together in a regiment of Dragoons guarding the Texas frontier against
the Comanches. There had been an informal meeting of a number of former union
and Confederate leaders including Governor Stockdale and General Robert E. Lee.
At the end of the meeting when Governor Stockdale, a staunch Confederate, was
about to leave the room, General Lee gently closed the door before him, keeping
the doorknob in his left hand and said to the Governor:

Stockdale, before you leave, I wish to give you my thanks for your brave, true
words. You know, Governor, what my position is. Those people (Lee’s uniform
term for the Yankees) they choose, for what reason I know not, to hold me as a
representative Southerner; hence, I know they watch my words, and if I should
speak unadvisedly, what I say would be caught up by their speakers and
newspapers, and magnified into a pretext for adding to the load of oppression
they have placed upon our poor people; and God knows, governor, that load is
heavy enough now; but you can speak, for you are not under that restraint, and
I want to thank you for your bold, candid words.

Again, said
Governor Stockdale, I thought he would dismiss me; but he still held the doors
closed, and after a time he resumed and uttered these words: “Governor, if I
had foreseen the use those people designed to make of their victory, there
would have been no surrender at Appomattox Courthouse; no, sir, not by me.”
Then, with rising color, throwing back his head like an old war-horse, he added
these words, “Had I foreseen these results of subjugation, I would have
preferred to die at Appomattox with my brave men, my sword in this right hand.”
He then dropped his head and, with a sad look, added: “This, of course, is for
your ear only. My friend, good-morning;” and with that he opened the door and I
took my leave.

These words portray the
General Robert E. Lee who finally understood the treachery of the radical, and
we can dare say, the Marxist radical Republican Party of that day. That is the
Lee, whose sterling Christian character finally realized that fighting and
conducting a legalized Christian concept of war against “those people” was not
possible. General Lee used the term “those people” when referring to the Union
Army troops, but for Lee it also meant the demonic war-mongering Federal
Government that had started a total war against the entire Southern people.
Lee’s statement to former Governor Stockdale is the complete Lee. It is the
General Lee who, had he accepted President Jefferson Davis’ desire that he take
command of all the Confederate armies, could have won the War for Southern
Independence. That is the idea and ideal of Lee who should warm our hearts and
harden our fists against the rapacious Yankees of those days.

There is a second quotation. It is primarily about
Stonewall Jackson. It expressed the central idea and ideal of just who is
General Jackson. In Wyman Park, adjacent to Johns Hopkins university in
Baltimore, Maryland, there stands a greater than life-size, double equestrian
statue of Generals Lee and Jackson. On the pedestal that supports these
magnificent figures are these words that will always link these two generals
together. These words cast in bronze epitomize the opinion that both Generals
Lee and Jackson had of each other. General Lee is presented as saying:
“Straight as the needle to the pole Jackson advanced to the execution of my
purpose.” To which Jackson is presented as saying, “So great is my confidence
in General Lee that I am willing to follow him blindfolded.” Loyalty to
virtuous leadership; fearlessness in battle; confidence in himself and humility
before God are the ideals and the idea of General Thomas Jonathan Jackson. Who
are we willing to follow blindfolded? Symbolically speaking many of General
Jackson’s troops followed him blindfolded. However, no one then or today could
say what Jackson said as he lay wounded after the Battle of Chancellorsville,
“Better that ten Jacksons should fall than one Lee.” The composer of those
words on the pedestal of that memorial statue was comparing Jackson’s
willingness to follow Lee blindfolded to Stonewall’s knowledge of the Gospels.
Remember Christ was blindfolded during his scourging and mock trial that led to
His victory over sin and death for our salvation on the cross (St. Luke 22:64).
Jackson’s life – symbolically speaking – followed the Lord Jesus Christ
blindfolded even before he demonstrated it in serving General Lee.

is a part of Three Great Confederate
Heroes of Virginia
by Rev. Fr. Alister C. Anderson and may be purchased
from him. Send inquiry to 10 East third Street, Frederick, MD 21701]


Submitted by Chaplain Kenneth Studdard

The following sermon was preached
by the great Presbyterian theologian, James
Henley Thornwell
, on the occasion of the
death of Senator John C. Calhoun
The sermon was delivered in the chapel of South Carolina College on
April 21, 1850.  Calhoun’s death was
sorely felt in the South as she was in a dire crisis over the future of the
nation.  The message is a powerful
reminder of the sovereignty of God over the nations as well as
individuals.  It is a reminder that the
Gospel is for all of life and must be obeyed.
How we need this message in our day.

Due to the length of this sermon it was separated into
two parts!

Be wise now, therefore, O kings; be instructed, ye judges of the Earth;
serve the Lord with fear and rejoice with trembling
.”— PSALM 11. 10, 11.


II. The lesson
which this event, considered as the death of a statesman, is suited to impart,
is addressed to the people at large, and comes with pointed emphasis, in the
present crisis of affairs, to the people of the South, and particularly to us
in South Carolina. It is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in
man—it is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in princes. In God
is my salvation and glory—the rock of my strength and my refuge is in God—trust
in Him, at all times, ye people, pour out your heart before—God is a refuge for
us—surely men of low degree are vanity and men of high degree are a lie—to be
laid in the balance they are altogether lighter than vanity. Thus saith the
Lord—cursed be the man that trusteth in man and maketh flesh his arm—whose
heart departeth from the Lord. For he shall be like the heath in the desert and
shall not see when good cometh. Woe to the rebellious children, saith the Lord,
that take counsel, but not of me—that cover with a covering, but not of my
spirit, that they may add sin to sin—that walk to go down into Egypt, and have
not asked at my mouth, to strengthen themselves in the strength of Pharaoh and
to trust in the shadow of Egypt.

The lesson which
the Providence of God was continually inculcating upon the heathen nations,
whose affairs are incidentally mentioned in the Scriptures, is that the Most
High ruleth in the kingdoms of men—and accomplishes His pleasure among the
armies of heaven and the inhabitants of earth. The dominion of Jesus Christ as
Mediator extends to nations as well as individuals—States and governments are
the instruments of God, ordained in their respective departments, to execute
His schemes and the Divine Redeemer bears written upon his vesture and thigh a
name which indicates universal sovereignty—Lord of Lords and King of Kings.
They are a part of that series of Providential arrangements, by which the moral
purposes of God, in reference to the race, are conducted to their issue—and as
much the appointments of His will as the family, or the Church. There is not
the same direct interposition in the organization of civil and political
communities as in the constitution of the Church—but the necessity of the State
is founded in the nature of man —springs from the moral relations of
individuals—grows with the growth and strengthens with the strength of human
society. It is the spontaneous offspring of a social state—and in the same
sense the creature of God, that the society from which it springs and from
which it cannot be severed is the Divine ordination. There never was an
absurder, and I may add, a more mischievous fiction, than that political
communities are conventional arrangements, suggested by the inconveniences of a
natural state of personal independence, and deriving their authority from the
free consent of those who are embraced in them. Political societies are not
artificial combinations to which men have been impelled by chance or choice,
but the ordinance of God, through the growth and propagation of the species,
for the perfection and education of the race. The first State, according to the
Scriptures, was not distinct from the family. But, as households were
multiplied, though the tie of consanguinity was still the ground upon which
authority was recognized, and natural affection and habitual association
combined to invest the patriarch with the highest jurisdiction, a class of
ideas began to expand themselves which rested upon other principles than those
of blood. Moral relations—more extensive and commanding than that of father,
husband, wife or child, the relations of man to man—of reciprocal rights and
reciprocal obligations, were brought into view and the patriarch became a
magistrate—the representative of justice, as well as a father—the
representative of family affection.  That
the distinctive boundaries of these distinct relations were at once
understood—that they are even now adequately apprehended where the nearest
approximations to primitive society obtain, is by no means affirmed.  It was only in the progress of a long, slow,
providential education that the real nature of the commonwealth, as
contradistinguished from other communities, began to be unfolded. The State was
developed with the progress of society and as the necessity of its existence is
laid in man’s nature—as the supremacy of its claims—its high and awful
sovereignty, is nothing but the supremacy of justice and of right, among moral
and responsible agents, the State, through whatever organic arrangements its
power may be expressed, is the creature of God, the sacred ordinance of heaven.
It is not a thing which can be made or unmade; it is part and parcel of the
constitution of our nature as at once social and responsible.

This view of the
State connects it at once with the moral purposes of the Deity—and the whole
history of the world shows that its development, which is the progress of
liberty, depends upon the providential disposition of events over which the
agency of man has no direct control. All solid governments and all permanent liberty
have grown much more out of circumstances than out of fixed and definite
purposes of man. A nation of slaves cannot establish a free government—it is a
thing for which God must have prepared the way, and all efforts to rise
suddenly from a condition of despotism into that of freedom have been attended
with licentiousness, anarchy and crime. True liberty is a thing of growth—there
is first a stock of acknowledged rights which are transmitted in the way of
inheritance—the progress of society enlarges it with fresh and fresh additions
—there is a conglomeration of the new and the old—a connecting link betwixt the
past and the present—and the consolidation of inheritance and acquisition is
the security of liberty. Hence from the very nature of man and the very nature
of the State, and the very nature of liberty, political communities must
receive their shape and direction from the circumstances in which the great
Disposer of events has placed any people. The doctrine of dependence upon God
is, accordingly, intertwined in the very fibers of the commonwealth. The State
is a school in which the Deity is conducting a great process of education, and
providential circumstances determine alike the lessons to be taught and the
capacity of the scholars to learn them. The dangers, as in all schools, are
those which spring from indocility of temper—or from rashness and impetuosity,
which would outstrip the leadings of Providence. Each indicates a spirit of
independence of God—and each is apt to be rebuked with expressions of His
displeasure. The difficulty with communities that have been long accustomed to
the reign of despotism is, that they are too dull to learn—they are backward to
follow the intimations of circumstances—they stagnate in their corruptions; and
the outbreaks of revolutions are sometimes necessary .to rouse the people and
put them in the attitude of progress. They distrust the Almighty and refuse to
move until they are driven.

difficulty with free and growing communities is, that, in the consciousness of
imaginary wisdom and strength, they anticipate the slow progress of events, and
casting off their dependence upon God, undertake to accomplish their destiny by
their own skill and resources. They rely partly upon principles—partly upon
men—partly upon both. Overlooking the concurrence of Providence which is
essential to the success of political combinations and arrangements, they
vainly imagine that they can create the circumstances upon which they are
dependent. There is a magic in their doctrines, or a charm in their schemes, or
a power in their champions, which can subdue the elements and accomplish the
work of Him whose prerogative alone it is to speak and it is done—to command
and it stands fast. But the lesson of the Bible and of experience is that “in
the midst of all our preparations, we shall, if we are wise, repose our chief
confidence in Him who has every element at His disposal—who can easily
disconcert the wisest counsels, confound the mightiest projects, and save, when
He pleases, by many or by few. While the vanity of such a pretended reliance on
Providence as supersedes the use of means is readily confessed, it is to be
feared we are not sufficiently careful to guard against a contrary extreme, in
its ultimate effects not less dangerous. If to depend on the interposition of
Providence without human exertion be to tempt God; to confide in an arm of
flesh when seeking His aid is to deny Him; the former is to be pitied for its
weakness—the latter to be censured for its impiety, nor is it easy to say which
affords the worst omen of success.”

That this lesson
is eminently seasonable in the present crisis of the nation, none can be
tempted to doubt. It is possible that our confidence in the great statesman,
whose death a nation has lamented, may have been such as to provoke the
jealousy of that God, who will not give His glory to another. We may have
relied more upon his power of argument—his energy of persuasion—his integrity
of character—his public and private influence, than upon the secret operations
of that Spirit, who controls the movements of kings and turns the hearts of the
children of men as the rivers of water are turned. It is evident that what is
needed at the present crisis is a spirit of patriotism—of justice and of
loyalty to God. It is the temper of the people and of the rulers upon which,
under God, the salvation of the country depends. If the whole nation could be
animated with a single purpose to do what is right—if factions and parties and
local and temporary interests could be forgotten—if the presiding genius in our
halls of legislation were the sublime and heroic principle of justice—if every
member there could be brought to feel that he was the representative of the
whole nation, bound to promote, cherish and defend the interests of all, in
conformity with the spirit and provisions of the Constitution—if fanaticism
could be rebuked and selfishness suppressed, and power awed into a sense of
responsibility—who doubts but that all our difficulties would be speedily
adjusted—that the clouds which threaten us would be rolled away, and the sun of
union and liberty burst out again in meridian refulgence. The production of
this temper is not within the compass of man. To change the current of
established associations—to dissolve the charms of prejudice—to break the
fetters of interest—to enlighten the blindness of fanaticism and make power
obedient to right—these are not the feats of argument or skill—they require the
finger of God.  It is He alone who can
give the spirit of a sound mind. He alone has direct access to the souls of
men—and in the removal of him, whom we were tempted to make our stay and our
prop—He is exhorting us to trust only in Himself.  Well will it be for us if we can learn the

becomes us, however, to remember that a people can trust in God only when they
are seeking the ends of righteousness and truth.  Our dependence upon Him should teach us the
lesson that righteousness exalteth a nation and sin is a reproach to any
people. We cannot expect the patronage of heaven to schemes of injustice and of
wrong. . The State is an element of God’s moral administration—and to secure
His favor it must sedulously endeavor to maintain the supremacy of right. He
may overrule the wickedness of the people for good—He may even permit
unrighteous kingdoms to flourish notwithstanding their iniquity—but as the
habitation of His throne is justice and truth, it will be found, in regard to
communities, as well as individuals, that Godliness is profitable for all
things, having the promise of the life that now is and of that which is to
come. “There is in the bosom of all human societies a desire and a power of
ceaseless progress. It is struggling now—it will struggle to the end. Many
failures have passed—many are still to come. Not until men clearly see the real
and the only security for their great development, will these failures cease.
If they will put their hands in the great hand of God, He will lead them firmly
in the way. What is just, what is right, what is good, let them do these and
they will fail no more what is wrong, what is unjust, what is evil, let them do
these, under whatever pretext of political necessity and they cannot but suffer
and fail—renew the struggle, and suffer and fail again—it is this great lesson
which an open Bible and free institutions are teaching the human race.”  Freedom must degenerate into licentiousness
unless the supremacy of right is maintained. We must co-operate in our spirit
and temper and aims with the great moral ends for which the State was
instituted, if we would reach the highest point of national excellence and
prosperity.  The ultimate purpose of God
is that the dominion of Jesus should be universally acknowledged—and that
nation only will finally and permanently prosper, whose people have caught the
spirit and habitually obey the precepts of the Gospel. Every weapon that is
formed against Him must be broken; and the people that will not submit to His
authority must be crushed by His power. Why do the heathen rage and the people
imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth set themselves and the rulers take
counsel together against the Lord and against His anointed, saying—let us break
their bands asunder and cast H away their cords from us. He that sitteth in the
heavens shall laugh—the Lord shall have them in derision. Then shall He speak
unto them in His wrath and vex them in His sore displeasure. Yet have I set my
king upon my holy hill of Zion—I will declare the decree. The Lord hath said
unto me—thou art my Son—this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me and I shall
give the heathen for thine inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth for
thy possession. Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron—thou shalt dash them
in pieces like a potter’s vessel.. Be wise now therefore O ye kings, be
instructed ye judges of the earth—serve the Lord with fear and rejoice with
trembling—kiss the Son lest He be angry and ye perish from the way when His
wrath is kindled but a little.

the accounts, which the Scriptures give, of the exaltation and universal
dominion of Jesus, are to be relied on, there can be no doubt but that
Christianity lies at the foundation of national prosperity.  People and rulers must be imbued with the
spirit and observe the institutions of the Gospel. We insist upon no national
establishment of religion—upon no human encroachments on the rights of
conscience, but we do insist upon the individual and personal obligations of
every man, throughout the broad extent of the country, to be a Christian, and
the corresponding obligation to act as a Christian in all the departments of
life, whether public or private.  As
Christianity is the presiding spirit of all modern civilization, it is the only
defense of nations against barbarism, rudeness, anarchy and crime. Let Jesus be
enthroned in every heart—and the nation that is made up of Christian men will
soon be a praise and a joy in every land.

But where the
people and rulers know not the mediatorial King, whom God has set upon the Holy
hill of Zion—where His Sabbaths are profaned, His temples deserted, His grace
despised—His favor must be withdrawn—the fountains of national virtue must dry
up— and that land must ultimately be given to wasting and desolation. The
strongest security within which the institutions of this country can be entrenched,
is the prevalence of the Christian religion. The State is an ordinance of God
as God is in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself; and to those who have
considered the bearings of the mediatorial government upon the prosperity of
States, there is nothing surprising in the present darkness which overshadows
the land. It is the rebuke of ungodliness and infidelity, from the highest to
the lowest gradations in Society—from the chair of State, the halls of
legislation, the courts of justice, the popular assemblies of the land, the cry
of blasphemy, profaneness and atheism, has gone to heaven. God’s Sabbaths are
polluted for the purposes of gain—licentious and unprincipled demagogues make
it a business to cheat the people with flatteries and adulations which are
alike dangerous and blasphemous—offices are sought by open chicanery and
corruption; and amid scenes of revelry and riot—more befitting the orgies of
Bacchus than the deliberations of a free people, the greatest questions of the
nation are discussed.  The debauchery of
the people, and the triumph of demagogues, has always been attended with the
worst form of slavery—that bondage of the soul in which every man is afraid to
entertain an opinion of his own—in which the individual is merged in the mass;
and when this result is reached, the moral economy of the State being defeated,
we can look for nothing but the righteous judgments of God.  The reign of licentiousness is the prelude of
national dissolution. The people that will not have Jesus to reign over them
must be slain before Him. He is exalted at God’s right hand, above all
principality and power and dominion, and we must submit to his scepter, or
perish from the way when his wrath is kindled but a little.

III. But this
event may be finally considered as the death simply of a man, and in this
aspect of the case, the pulpit, it seems to me, would but inadequately
discharge its duty, if it failed to inculcate the distinctive provisions of the
Gospel, as the only means of securing a triumph over this last enemy. There are
many who admire the morality and praise the spirit of Christianity, but who are
content to form no higher conception of its power than that of a moral
institute, distinguished from the philosophical systems of men, by the larger
compass of its views, and the more commanding influence of its sanctions. This
is particularly the case with the educated men of the country. It is painful to
witness the fact that so many of this class—to which it will be your
distinction to belong—while professing, from the superficial attention they
have given to the subject, to believe that there is something in the Gospel;
yet either from a lurking skepticism, or the absorbing influence of other cares
and pursuits, are, for the most part; profoundly ignorant of what constitutes
its essence and its glory. They view it from a distance—or detect nothing in it
but an authoritative statement of the principles and tenets of natural
religion. But ask them the question—what a sinner must do to be saved? and the
nakedness of their answers will evince too clearly that the great problem of
redemption has never been earnestly considered. The difficulty is that they
have never felt the malignity of sin. They have never experienced the sentence
of condemnation in their own souls; and the consequence is that, however they
may respect the voice of Jesus as a teacher, they cannot be brought to submit
to Him as a Savior.  The characteristic
distinction of the Gospel is that it is the religion of a sinner. It is a grand
dispensation of Providence and grace to rescue man from the condemnation and
ruin, into which the whole race has been plunged by rebellion against God. The
necessity of its arrangements is laid in the very nature of moral
distinctions—from which it results that sin cannot be pardoned by an act of
authoritative mercy. Without the shedding of blood there is no remission, and
he alone can be properly denominated a Christian, he alone is entitled to the
rewards and blessings of Christianity—who, from a deep consciousness of guilt
and ruin has fled for refuge to the hope set before him in the Gospel. The
calumniated doctrines of grace are the life and soul of our religion. Personal
union with Jesus by the indwelling of the Holy Spirit is indispensable to a
real participation in the benefits of redemption. Through faith in the Divine
Redeemer death the last enemy is conquered, subdued, destroyed. It becomes a
glorious thing to die—it is only a birth into a new and everlasting state of
blessedness and glory. It is the prerogative of the faithful, and of them
alone, to depart from the world in triumph.
There is no case on record—it has never happened in the experience of
man—that death was welcomed—hailed with rapture and delight—by any but those
for whom its sting had been extracted by the blood of the great Mediator. Still
we must guard against the delusion that the condition, of peace or
consternation, in which a man expires, is any certain indication of his future
state. The righteous, through the temporary darkness of unbelief, through
ignorance, or doubt of their acceptance in the beloved, or as a just visitation
for past neglect, may be permitted to pass from the world in apprehension and
alarm; while the impenitent and wicked may be bolstered, in their last hours,
with the same fatal props which have deceived them through life. The errors
which have shaped their conduct may cling to them until the veil is withdrawn
and eternity has become a matter of experience. It is no uncommon thing, it is
true, for conscience, in the final struggle, to assert her supremacy—especially
in the case of those, whose unbelief and disobedience have been a conflict with
reason and judgment. They are permitted, yet further, to look into futurity,
and to read something of the fearful scroll which will be produced against them
at the bar of God; and they shrink back, with shudder and dismay, from the
awful catastrophe that awaits them. Stung by remorse and enlightened by the
Scriptures, they feel that it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the
living God. Death is, indeed, a terrible object—the very king of terrors—they
writhe and agonize and struggle against his encroachments. Clinging to life
with the tenacity of despair, compelled and yet afraid to die—they curse the
day and the hour in which it was said that a man child was born into the world.

“ In that dread moment, how the frantic soul

Raves round the walls of her clay tenement;

Runs to each avenue and shrieks for help,

But shrieks in vain! How wishfully she looks

On all she’s leaving, now no longer her’s

A little” longer, yet a little longer,

Oh! might she stay to wash away her stains,

And fit her for her passage. Mournful sight!

Her very eyes weep blood; and every groan

She heaves is big with horrors. But the foe

Like a staunch murderer, steady to his purpose,

Pursues her close through every lane of life,

Nor misses once the track, but presses on;

Till forced at last to the tremendous verge,

At once she sinks to everlasting ruin.”

Such is the end of an awakened

are others who depart from life with as much insensibility as they eat or drink
or sleep. Such men are preeminently sensual. They have never risen to any just
conceptions of themselves—of moral responsibility— of final retribution—of an
immortal being. They have never felt that life was an earnest or serious
reality—it has been to them merely a routine of mechanical observances, and as
they have lived like beasts, they die like dogs.

are others, of a nobler mould, who reconcile themselves to dissolution by the
considerations of a stoical philosophy. They look upon death as an appointment
of nature—an inevitable event, and they endeavor to prepare themselves to
submit to it with dignity and grace, since resistance is vain and escape
impossible. They meet it, therefore, with the fortitude and courage with which
they would encounter any other calamity. But still it is a calamity—it is not a
messenger to be greeted—not an object of congratulation, of triumph and of joy.
To this attainment paganism was competent before life and immortality were
brought to light in the Gospel. The philosophers of the ancient world, by their
dim and misty speculations, were nerved to die like heroes, though none could
die like conquerors. But to be content with submission when victory is within
our reach is heroism no longer. To endure when we might subdue is a low
ambition. How different is the death of a Christian! I am now ready to be
offered, says the apostle, and the time of my departure is at hand—I have
fought a good fight—I have finished my course—I have kept the faith. Henceforth
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous
Judge, shall give me at that day, and not to me only, but unto all them also
that love his appearing. We are conquerors and more than conquerors through him
that loved us. Through death He has destroyed him that had the power of death,
that is the devil, and delivered them who through fear of death were all their
life-time subject to bondage. It is the glory of Christianity to erect its
trophies upon the tomb. Death and hell were alike led in triumph at the chariot
wheels of Christ, and those who are in Him can sing the song of exaltation and
of victory amid the agonies of their dissolving clay.

Let me beg you,
my young friends, however you may be tempted by the examples of the great, not
to be contented with distant, partial, defective views of the economy of God’s
grace. It is not the greatness of their intellects which keeps them at a
distance from Christ—it is not that they have discovered religion to be a
cheat— not that they have weighed its evidences in the balances and found them
wanting—it is simply because they have never examined the subject. From the
natural alienation of the heart from God, the influence of early prejudice, the
distractions of business—the turmoil of ambition—the absorbing power of their
pursuits—they have kept aloof from this inquiry—and though they have won for
themselves a name which posterity will not willingly let die—the very qualities
of mind by which they have been enabled to do so, would lead them, if properly
directed, to condemn their inattention to religion as an act of folly, of
distraction and of madness. Deceive not yourselves with vain hopes—Jesus is the
only Savior—in the day of final retribution there will be no respect of
persons. On that great day shall be seen “no badge of State, no mark of age, or
rank, or national attire—or robe professional or air of trade.” As in the grave
whither we are all hastening, the rich and the poor are promiscuously mingled
together, the distinctions of honor and of wealth vanish away as colors
disappear in the dark, so in the last day none can be found to claim the titles
which were only current upon earth. It will then be only “a congregation vast
of men—of unappendaged and unvarnished men—of all but moral character
bereaved.” The virtues or the crimes which appertain to each are all that he
can carry to the bar of the Judge. All else will be left in the tomb—as the
worthless badges of mortal and not immortal men.

There is a
distinction, however, that shall never fade away—the distinction created among
men by the possession of the Spirit and a personal union with Christ. In the
great day to which we have referred, when God shall arise to shake terribly the
earth, and the destinies of all the race shall be irrevocably fixed—our right
to life will depend entirely on the witness of the Holy Ghost. None can sustain
their title as sons, but those whom He has sealed unto the day of redemption.
To appear without His signet on our foreheads and His impress upon our hearts
is to awake to shame and everlasting contempt. It will not be a question
whether we have been great or mean, honored or despised— rich or poor—it will
avail nothing that Senates hung in rapture on our lips and nations bowed
obedient to our nod—but it will be a question—the question—the turning-point of
destiny—whether we have the Spirit of God’s Son. If we have been among the
miserable skeptics—who have not so much as heard whether there be a Holy
Ghost—if our Christianity has been nothing more than a baptized paganism—if we
have despised evangelical religion under the name of fanaticism—and laughed at
pretensions to grace as the effervescence of enthusiasm—if, from any cause, we
have failed to be born again and to become new creatures, in Christ Jesus,
however admiring multitudes may have chanted our requiem and shook the very
arches of heavens with their plaudits—unlimited duration will be the period
assigned us to lament our folly and bewail the consequences of our terrible
delusion. My young friends be not deceived—an endless duration is your
destiny—feel its greatness—look above the earth—look to your home in the
skies.—seek for glory, honor, immortality—but seek them only in the Gospel of
God’s grace. Resolve first to lay hold upon eternal life—and then you shall
never need any good thing on earth. What stronger proof could you demand of the
undying nature of the soul than that which is furnished in the last moments of
our departed Senator? What stronger proof that our real existence begins only at the point of death?  Prepare for that existence—and your life here
will be glorious—your death triumphant—and your end everlasting peace.


 Book Review

“Stonewall” Jackson’s Chaplain:
Beverly Tucker Lacy

by H. Rondel Rumburg

SBSS, 371 pp., hardback & indexed


by Rex Miller, Timberville, Virginia

What a
wonderful informative blessing Dr. Rumburg has rendered to Southern and
Christian history. His book, “Stonewall”
Jackson’s Chaplain: Beverly Tucker Lacy
is a fine example of academic
excellence that gives life and perspective to our Southern Christian heroes.

It is
indexed, footnoted and has an excellent bibliography. As is his custom it reads
easily while it informs and carries you to a time when men in America were men
and Christianity was recognized as vital to a civilization’s survival.

Most people
today, including Christians, have no concept of the mind-set of our ancestors
during those horrible years, particularly when Reverend Lacy states on page 179
and again in the Appendix 3 on page 318, “This may be the last struggle for
constitutional liberty which will be made on this continent.”

Chapter 17 is
perhaps the finest and most powerful account of the last days of our beloved
General “Stonewall” Jackson that has ever been penned by an author, making it a
memorable addition to our history.

If you are a
Christian you should read this book. If your interest is history you should
read this book. If you would like to know how far the civilization has fallen
you definitely need to read this book.

Tucker Lacy was an extraordinary man and greatly used of God. Would that there
were men of his quality filling America’s pulpits today.

Thank you Dr.
Rumburg. In my estimation your efforts have produced a superior work.



must remember who we are and what we must be about:

SCV Challenge by Lt. Gen. S. D. Lee

To you, Sons of Confederate Veterans, we
will commit the vindication of the cause for which we fought.  To your
strength will be given the defense of the Confederate soldier’s good name, the
guardianship of his history, the emulation of his virtues, the perpetuation of
those principles which he loved and which you love also, and those ideals which
made him glorious and which you also cherish. Remember, it is your duty to see
that the true history of the South is presented to future generations.




Sons of
Confederate Veterans

This is an enlarged
Sesquicentennial Edition of the Chaplain’s Handbook.   It
is enlarged from 131 pages to 165 pages. A chapter has been added on the topic,
SCV Chaplains Should be Gentlemen;
there has also been added a third
burial service, The Order for the Burial of the Dead of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America;
a chapter on Praying
in Public
has been added; and a chapter on Prayer Suggestions for Public
  All the other chapters remain the same.

Hopefully, those using the
handbook will find it even more useful than before.  There is the same cloth
cover, acid free paper for longevity, sewn signatures, etc.

The retail price is being kept to
a minimum of $12, which is very low for a hardback quality publication.
Contact headquarters or for a copy.